How to make a Geiger counter

 

homemade geiger counter

Three Milles Island, Chernobyl, Fukushima, and even some in national territory such as the Coral-I reactor in Madrid or the Vandellós-I reactor in Catalonia. There are many nuclear accidents that have occurred throughout history, and despite the terrible consequences, it seems that this theme of radiation it continues to raise a certain attraction. But what few know is that, every day, we are all exposed to natural radiation, both that which comes from outer space and that which comes from the minerals of the earth ...

Well, if you want to measure the radiation around you, in this new guide we show you step by step the procedure of how can you build a geiger counter, that is, a device capable of measuring radioactivity. Basically it is a device that can measure particles that impact with the sensor, such as ionizing radiation, hence it is called a counter, since it can count the number of impacts and therefore the radiation level of an object or place.

What should I know before?

non-ionizing and ionizing radiation symbols

Before starting the DIY project, I would like to comment something about radiation, for those who do not know about it. Those of you who already have previous knowledge, you can skip this section and go directly to see the following ...

What is radiation?

It is a phenomenon of energy programming in the form of electromagnetic waves or subatomic particles through a medium. Therefore, we can have different types of radiation.

What types of radiation are there?

electromagnetic spectrum

There are many types of radiation, such as thermal, electromagnetic, etc., but those that interest us here are two large groups:

  • Non ionizing: it is a wave or particle that cannot remove electrons from matter, that is, it cannot ionize. Examples of it can be the electromagnetic waves of microwaves, radio, light, etc.
  • Ionizing: it is a wave or particle that can tear electrons from matter, that is, it can ionize due to its high energy. Therefore, it is the most dangerous of all. Within this group we have lasers, X-rays, alpha, beta, gamma, braking radiation or bremsstrahlung), etc.

If we look in the electromagnetic spectrum, the waves with the longest wavelength, such as radio or microwave, are the least penetrating, the ones that have the least energy (lower frequency). While, as we move to the right, we see that each time the wavelength is shorter and the frequency of vibration greater, therefore they have more energy and are more penetrating and damaging.

Types of ionizing radiation:

Alpha, Beta and Gamma

If we focus on ionizing radiation, which is capable of measuring the Geiger counter, we have to filter again and focus on three fundamentals due to nuclear phenomena:

  • Alfa: they have a positive charge and are composed of two protons and two neutrons, that is, they are a helium atom. They are the least dangerous and penetrating, since they can be stopped using a simple paper. The effect on health depends on some issues, since they cannot even penetrate the outer layer of the skin, but if they enter the body they can be harmful. Inhalation, ingestion, or injection into the body of sources that produce this radiation could damage living tissue.
  • Beta: they are particles of negative electric charge, electrons. They are more penetrating and energetic than the previous ones, and to stop them we could do it with a kitchen aluminum foil. Despite being more penetrating, they are not as harmful to living tissue and DNA as the previous ones, since the ionizations they cause occur more widely. It could cause skin burns, and if they enter the body it could be but ...
  • Gamma: gamma rays are the ones with the most penetrating power and energy, therefore the most dangerous of all. These are photons, pure energy that cannot be easily stopped, only with lead sheets, concrete, etc. They easily pass through our body and cause serious tissue damage, DNA mutations, etc., with what that entails, such as cancer and even sudden death if the dose is high.

Therefore, it is not a game, and from hwlibre we encourage you to take all the precautions and know well what you are doing. We do not take care of possible problems ...

Geiger-Müller tubes:

geiger tube

They are the lifeblood of every Geiger counter, as it is the device o sensor which is responsible for receiving radiation and transforming that number of shocks into an electrical impulse capable of being interpreted by the rest of the circuitry. It is known as a Geiger-Müller tube or simply a Geiger tube, and you can buy it in various online stores, such as Amazon, Aliexpress, etc. Another option is to remove it from a Geiger counter that we have old or in disuse.

There are many of them, different models (SBT-9, LND-712, J408y,…) and different manufacturers (GSTube, LND, North Optic,…). The most popular are americans and russians, although there are also Chinese. Some of Soviet origin tend to have cheap prices, the most expensive being the NLD. What we must be clear about is the voltage values ​​between which it moves, since the analog signal it emits will be more or less intense depending on the radiation captured.

Geiger tube operation with a particle impact

Country Seller Model Particles it captures Voltage Material Price
Russia GSTube SBM-20 Beta / Gamma 400V Aluminum Bass
Russia GSTube SBM-21 Beta / Gamma 650V Aluminum Bass
Russia GSTube Yes-1g Gamma 440V Aluminum Bass
Russia GSTube SBT-9 Beta / Gamma 389V Aluminum Bass
Russia GSTube Yes-3bg Beta / Gamma 400V Aluminum Bass
U.S. LND LND-712 Alpha / Beta / Gamma 500V Mica Middle
U.S. LND LND-7124 Alpha / Beta / Gamma 500V Mica Alto
U.S. LND LND-7224 Alpha / Beta / Gamma 500V Mica Alto
China North Optic J408y Gamma 420V Glass Bass
China North Optic J305B Beta / Gamma 350V Glass Bass
China North Optic J306B Beta / Gamma 420V Glass Bass

Por eso we will have to calibrate our circuit to convert these signals into the units in which radiation is usually measured, such as Sievert (Sv), roentgen, or Rem, among others ... As we would do with a temperature sensor, we must transform those output voltages into degrees Celcius or on the scale we are measuring.

SI unit for measuring radiation:

The International System (SI) has as its unit the Sievert (Sv), remember that there are tables that indicate the danger or effects of the radiation that we are capturing for health:

mSv Health effects
50 100 Changes in blood chemistry
500 Nausea in a matter of hours
700 Vomiting
750 Hair loss in 2-3 weeks
900 Diarrhea
1000 Hemorrhages
4000 Possible death in two months

You already know that it not only depends on the dose, but also on the exposure. That is, we can receive a dose of 100 mSv once and nothing happens, but if we are receiving 50 mSv for months, then the long-term effects could be very negative ...

Radiation sources for tests:

Uranium crystals and smoke detector

To radiation tests, you should know that there are several options. There are uranium crystals like the ones you see in this image (left) with which Geiger counters are tested in laboratories. But there are other sources closer to which we can get radiation or radioactive material, such as smoke sensors in fire detectors.

Inside those detectors there are a source of ionizing radiation of americium and produce alpha radiation. You should even know that many foods rich in potassium have an isotope called Potassium-40 that emits radiation, although it is not a problem for our body at all, it is very low doses, just like the radiation we receive from nature itself (certain granite rocks) or the cosmos.

We ourselves are radioactive, we are made of carbon, and carbon-14 is. But will surprise Knowing that we handle many radioactive things every day without knowing it: some buttons, ceramics, marble, certain camping lamps, cigarettes, coated paper, some wicks, etc. All that I could use to test your Geiger counter and see if it works or not ...

But I repeat, you must be careful when handling certain fonts.

Necessary materials:

Once all this is known, we go directly to list all the components that we need to build our homemade Geiger counter:

  1. DC-DC converter / regulator module high voltage (eg: SODIAL). It will help us to adjust the high voltages handled by the Geiger-Müller and to transform that voltage into a small voltage comparable to Arduino boards and other components. Remember that it has to withstand the input voltage of the tube you have chosen.
  2. Charging module. For example is.
  3. Bust module Converter DC-DC 3-5v.
  4. Arduino Nano, although any other is also useful, but in order not to increase the size too much, the Nano is preferable.
  5. OLED display 128 × 64 or 128 × 32 that we will use as a screen to show the measurement results.
  6. 2n3904 transistor for our tube.
  7. ECT and Müllen. 10M ohms and another 10K.
  8. Condenser of 470pf.
  9. Switch for off and on.
  10. Buzzer or small speaker.
  11. AAA battery.

This in terms of components, although you will also need tools such as soldering irons, wiring for some joints, Arduino IDE to program the board, battery or batteries, and also a custom box if you want to protect your meter. If you have a 3D printer, you can build the custom plastic box.

Geiger counter construction step by step:

Geiger counter circuit diagram

The next thing, once you have all the components, is to assemble all the components of the puzzle according to this diagram that we present to you. The mounting it is relatively simple and does not need further explanation. It's just connecting all the elements like this. You can do it in one protoboard before to test that everything works correctly and then proceed to solder all the components to make it permanent.

Steps:

Each filtering bag steps to follow are the following:

  1. With a multimeter you can calibrate the voltage (image 1). For example, if you have chosen a 410V Geiger-Müller tube, you have to adjust the potentiometer of the DC-DC module so that it works at that voltage.
  2. Then limit yourself to solder or join all components as they appear in the previous diagram as in Image 2.
  3. You can use a box to protect all components or not.
  4. Connect the Arduino board to your PC using a USB cable and with Arduino IDE write the following program (you can download it here) for schedule it and that it can convert the voltages with which we work in measurements in the unit that you have chosen. You can use other units if you prefer or make adjustments by modifying the source code of the sketch ...
/*
*
* SCL - A5
* SDA - A4
*
*
* Voltmeter - A3
*
* PWM - D9
* Input - D2
*
* buzzer - D7
*
*/

#include <Bounce2.h>

#include <SPI.h>
#include <Wire.h>
#include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
#include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h>

#define OLED_RESET 4
Adafruit_SSD1306 display(OLED_RESET);

#define NUMFLAKES 10
#define XPOS 0
#define YPOS 1
#define DELTAY 2

//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

unsigned long previousMillis = 0;
unsigned long previousMillis1 = 0;
const long interval = 40000;
const long interval1 = 500;

static const unsigned char PROGMEM lcd_bmp[] =
{ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7F, 0xE0, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x80, 0x1C, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0x00, 0x0E, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0F, 0x80, 0x1F, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1F, 0x80, 0x1F, 0x80,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3F, 0x80, 0x1F, 0xC0,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7F, 0xC0, 0x3F, 0xE0,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xFF, 0xC0, 0x3F, 0xF0,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xFF, 0xC0, 0x3F, 0xF0,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xFF, 0xE0, 0x7F, 0xF8,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0xFF, 0xE0, 0x7F, 0xF8,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xF8,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0xFF, 0xF0, 0x7F, 0xF8,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0xFF, 0xE0, 0x7F, 0xF8,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0xFF, 0xC0, 0x3F, 0xF8,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0xF8, 0x00, 0x03, 0xF8,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x20, 0x40, 0x38,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x10, 0x80, 0x08,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x09, 0x00, 0x08,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x0F, 0x00, 0x08,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x80, 0x1F, 0x80, 0x18,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x80, 0x3F, 0xC0, 0x10,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xC0, 0x7F, 0xC0, 0x30,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40, 0xFF, 0xE0, 0x20,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x20, 0xFF, 0xF0, 0x40,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x11, 0xFF, 0xF8, 0xC0,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0F, 0xFF, 0xF9, 0x80,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xFF, 0xFE, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xFF, 0xFC, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7F, 0xE0, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00};

static const unsigned char PROGMEM logo[] =
{ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7F, 0xE0, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x80, 0x1C, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0x00, 0x0E, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0F, 0x80, 0x1F, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1F, 0x80, 0x1F, 0x80,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3F, 0x80, 0x1F, 0xC0,
0x07, 0x9E, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xFF, 0x00, 0x3F, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7F, 0xC0, 0x3F, 0xE0,
0x07, 0x9E, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xFF, 0x00, 0x3F, 0xC0, 0x00, 0x00, 0xFF, 0xC0, 0x3F, 0xF0,
0x07, 0x9E, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xFF, 0x00, 0x3F, 0xE0, 0x00, 0x00, 0xFF, 0xC0, 0x3F, 0xF0,
0x07, 0x9E, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xFF, 0x00, 0x3F, 0xF0, 0x00, 0x00, 0xFF, 0xE0, 0x7F, 0xF8,
0x07, 0x9E, 0x3E, 0x73, 0x9C, 0x00, 0x78, 0x3E, 0x3E, 0xF0, 0xF0, 0x01, 0xFF, 0xE0, 0x7F, 0xF8,
0x07, 0x9E, 0x7F, 0x33, 0x98, 0x00, 0x78, 0x7F, 0x3E, 0xF1, 0xF8, 0x01, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xF8,
0x07, 0x9E, 0x7F, 0x33, 0xB8, 0x00, 0x78, 0x7F, 0x3E, 0xF3, 0xFC, 0x01, 0xFF, 0xF0, 0x7F, 0xF8,
0x07, 0xFE, 0xE7, 0x33, 0xB8, 0x00, 0x78, 0x73, 0xBE, 0xF3, 0x9C, 0x01, 0xFF, 0xE0, 0x7F, 0xF8,
0x07, 0xFE, 0xE7, 0x3F, 0xF9, 0xF0, 0x78, 0x73, 0xBE, 0xF3, 0x9C, 0x01, 0xFF, 0xC0, 0x3F, 0xF8,
0x07, 0xFE, 0xE7, 0x3F, 0xF9, 0xF0, 0x78, 0x73, 0xBE, 0xF3, 0x9C, 0x01, 0xF8, 0x00, 0x03, 0xF8,
0x07, 0xFE, 0xE7, 0x3F, 0xF8, 0x00, 0x78, 0x73, 0xBE, 0xF3, 0x9C, 0x01, 0x00, 0x20, 0x40, 0x38,
0x07, 0x9E, 0xE7, 0x3F, 0xF0, 0x00, 0x78, 0x73, 0xBE, 0xF3, 0x9C, 0x01, 0x00, 0x10, 0x80, 0x08,
0x07, 0x9E, 0xE7, 0x1F, 0xF0, 0x00, 0x78, 0x73, 0xBE, 0xF3, 0x9C, 0x01, 0x00, 0x09, 0x00, 0x08,
0x07, 0x9E, 0xE7, 0x1E, 0xF0, 0x00, 0x78, 0x73, 0xBF, 0xF3, 0x9C, 0x01, 0x00, 0x0F, 0x00, 0x08,
0x07, 0x9E, 0xE7, 0x1E, 0xF0, 0x00, 0x78, 0x73, 0xBF, 0xF3, 0x9C, 0x00, 0x80, 0x1F, 0x80, 0x18,
0x07, 0x9E, 0x7F, 0x1E, 0xF0, 0x00, 0x78, 0x7F, 0x3F, 0xE3, 0xFC, 0x00, 0x80, 0x3F, 0xC0, 0x10,
0x07, 0x9E, 0x7E, 0x1E, 0xF0, 0x00, 0x78, 0x3F, 0x3F, 0xC1, 0xF8, 0x00, 0xC0, 0x7F, 0xC0, 0x30,
0x07, 0x9E, 0x1C, 0x1C, 0xE0, 0x00, 0x78, 0x1C, 0x3F, 0x00, 0xF0, 0x00, 0x40, 0xFF, 0xE0, 0x20,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x20, 0xFF, 0xF0, 0x40,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x11, 0xFF, 0xF8, 0xC0,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0F, 0xFF, 0xF9, 0x80,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xFF, 0xFE, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xFF, 0xFC, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7F, 0xE0, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00};

static const unsigned char PROGMEM fl[] =
{ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1E,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1E,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3F,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3F,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00 };

static const unsigned char PROGMEM bt1[] =
{ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0C,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0C,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0C,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0C,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00 };

#if (SSD1306_LCDHEIGHT != 32)
#error("Height incorrect, please fix Adafruit_SSD1306.h!");
#endif

const int buttonPin = 2;
const int ledPin = 13;

int buttonState = 0;
int bt = 0;
int pbt = 0;
int s1 = 0;
unsigned long j;
unsigned long CR = 0;

unsigned long cs;
int sec;
/////////////////////////////////

float input_voltage = 0.0;
float temp=0.0;

///////////////////////////////////

Bounce bouncer = Bounce();

void setup() {

Serial.begin(9600);
display.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C); // initialize with the I2C addr 0x3C (for the 128x32)

display.display();

display.clearDisplay();

display.drawBitmap(0, 0, logo, 128, 32, WHITE);
display.display();
delay(2000);
display.clearDisplay();

TCCR1A = TCCR1A & 0xe0 | 2;
TCCR1B = TCCR1B & 0xe0 | 0x09;
analogWrite(9,22 ); // на выводе 9 ШИМ=10%

pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT); //

pinMode (7, OUTPUT); // buzzer

pinMode(2 ,INPUT); // кнопка на пине 2
digitalWrite(2 ,HIGH); // подключаем встроенный подтягивающий резистор
bouncer .attach(2); // устанавливаем кнопку
bouncer .interval(5); // устанавливаем параметр stable interval = 5 мс

}

void loop() {

///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

unsigned long currentMillis = millis();
unsigned long currentMillis1 = millis();

if (bouncer.update())
{ //если произошло событие
if (bouncer.read()==0)
{ bt++;
}
}

if (currentMillis - previousMillis >= interval) {
previousMillis = currentMillis;
CR = bt;
bt = 0;
}

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
if (bt != pbt) {
pbt = bt;
s1 = 1;
}
////////////////////////////////////////////VOLTMETER PIN A3////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

int analog_value = analogRead(A3);
input_voltage = (analog_value * 5.0) / 1024.0;

if (input_voltage < 0.1)
{
input_voltage=0.0;
}

///////////////////////////////////////////////TEXT ON DISPLAY//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
display.clearDisplay();
display.setTextSize(2);
display.setTextColor(WHITE);
display.setCursor(10,0);
display.clearDisplay();
display.println(CR);
display.setCursor(10,18);
display.println(bt);
display.setCursor(40,18);
display.println();
display.setTextSize(1);
display.setCursor(40,0);
display.println("mR/hr");

/////////////////////////////////////////////////BATTERY INDICATION////////////////////////////////////////////
display.drawBitmap(0, 0, fl, 128, 32, WHITE);

if (input_voltage > 3.3) {
display.drawBitmap(0, 0, bt1, 128, 32, WHITE);
if (input_voltage > 3.4) {
display.drawBitmap(0, -5, bt1, 128, 32, WHITE);
if (input_voltage > 3.5) {
display.drawBitmap(0, -10, bt1, 128, 32, WHITE);
if (input_voltage > 3.6) {
display.drawBitmap(0, -15, bt1, 128, 32, WHITE);
if (input_voltage > 3.8) {
display.drawBitmap(0, -20, bt1, 128, 32, WHITE);
}
}
}
}
}

////////////////////////////////////////////////////RADIATION ICON AND BUZZER/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
if (s1 == 1){
display.drawBitmap(-10, 0, lcd_bmp, 128, 32, WHITE);
digitalWrite (7, HIGH); // buzzer ON
}
else
{
digitalWrite (7, LOW); // buzzer OFF
}
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
if (currentMillis1 - previousMillis1 >= interval1) {
previousMillis1 = currentMillis1;
if (s1 == 1){
s1=0;
}
}
display.display();
}
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

How can you check is Very simple (Although it seems long because of those settings for the display), you just have to make that conversion from the voltage that the Arduino board receives to a series of data that can be captured on the screen or display.

If everything went well, you should see the information on the screen and noise on the buzzer when confronting your Geiger counter with some radioactive source.

Sources:

Instructables - DIY Arduino Geiger Counter

Cooking-Hacks - Geiger Counter: Radiation Sensor Board for Arduino and Raspberry Pi


The content of the article adheres to our principles of editorial ethics. To report an error click here!.

2 comments, leave yours

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked with *

*

*

  1. Responsible for the data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Purpose of the data: Control SPAM, comment management.
  3. Legitimation: Your consent
  4. Communication of the data: The data will not be communicated to third parties except by legal obligation.
  5. Data storage: Database hosted by Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Rights: At any time you can limit, recover and delete your information.

  1.   Paola said

    Hello, I would like to do it with arduino uno and I was wondering what would be the schematic to mount it and if something else would change

    1.    Isaac said

      Hello paola,
      The connection is the same in ONE. And you can even change some connections on other pins if you prefer, the only thing that you should also alter the code of the sketch to correspond to the ones you put. But it is the same. Respect the GND and Vcc connections, and the rest as I said, you can put it in a different number or in the same number on your board ... (yes, respect the digital and analog I / O as they are on the Nano board)
      A greeting!