Ire-iren buga 3D: duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da wannan fasaha

3D printer

da 3D marubuta suna samun rahusa kuma sun fi shahara, tare da su nau'ikan buga 3D daban-daban, kuma ana amfani dasu don ƙarin aikace-aikace. Ba wai kawai suna aiki ne don buga abubuwa masu girma uku ba ga masu kerawa, injiniyoyi, gine-gine, da sauransu, yanzu haka kuma suna iya buga yadudduka masu rai don aikace-aikacen likita, gidajen da aka buga, samar da masana'antu, a cikin motar motsa jiki don ƙirƙirar sassa, don abinci da sauransu.

Idan kuna la'akari sayi na'urar buga takardu ta 3D don gida ko don kasuwancin ku, ya kamata ku san nau'ikan buga 3D, bambance-bambance, da dai sauransu. Kari akan haka, zaku kuma san wasu mabuɗan don zaɓar sabon kayan aikin buga ku ...

Yadda za a zabi firintar 3D da nau'ikan buga 3D?

3D bugu

Ba wai kawai nau'ikan kayan bugawa na 3D ba yayin zaɓar ɗab'in buga takardu na 3D, sauran sigogi da yawa suma suna da rawa. Don yin kyakkyawan zaɓi, ya kamata ku mai da hankali kan tambayoyi masu muhimmanci guda uku:

  • Nawa zan iya kashewa? Za ku sami masu buga takardu masu arha sosai, daga fewan Euro ɗari, zuwa wasu waɗanda suka kashe dubban euro. Duk abin zai dogara ne ko kuna son su don amfanin gida ko don ƙarin ƙwarewar sana'a.
  • Me? Wata tambaya mai mahimmanci. Ba wai don farashin kawai ba, har ma don aikin bugawar 3D. Misali, don yin ƙananan gida, baza ku damu da yawa ba cewa ƙarami ne kuma tare da ƙananan saurin. Amma don yin samfuran da suka fi girma, dole ne ku nemi firintocin da suka wuce 6 ko 8 ″.
  • Waɗanne kayan aiki nake bukata? Don kayan gida, tare da filastik roba kamar PLA, ABS, PETG, da sauransu, zai isa. Madadin haka, wasu aikace-aikacen sana'a / masana'antu na iya haɗawa da amfani da yadudduka, karafa, nailan, da sauransu.

Iri kayan:

Reel na PLA 3d firintar

Dogaro da bukatun sassan, kuna buƙatar ɗaya ko wani nau'in kayan ƙira. A bayyane yake, firintocin gida, wanda zan mai da hankali a kansu, ba sa karɓar nau'ikan kayan aiki. Yana daya daga cikin bayanan da aka nuna, da filaments wanda yawanci ke tallafawa Su ne:

Filament rolls yawanci bashi da arha, kuma ana siyar dasu cikin tsayi da kauri daban daban. Misali, zasu iya kaiwa daga 1.75mm zuwa 3mm. Dole ne kaurin ya yi daidai da wanda aka ba da goyan bayan kayan ɗab'i na 3D ɗinka.
  • ABS: Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene sanannen thermoplastic ne gama gari (misali: LEGO guda ana yinsu daga wannan abun). Ba abu ne mai lalacewa ba, amma yana da wuya kuma yana da taurin kai don gina ƙaƙƙarfan tsari. Hakanan yana da babban juriya na sinadarai, kawai yana narkewa tare da acetone. Yana yin tsayayya da kyau ga abrasion, da kuma yanayin zafin jiki, amma zai iya lalacewa idan aka barshi a waje saboda ɗaukar UV.
  • PLAN- Polylactic acid na rayuwa ne mai lalacewa (wanda aka samu daga iri, kamar su masarar masara), saboda haka ya fi dacewa da muhalli kuma ana iya amfani dashi don ayyukan lambu. Yana aiki don amfani azaman kayan kicin, kamar tabarau, robobi, kayan yanka, da dai sauransu. Kodayake ƙarshen bai zama mai santsi kamar ABS ba, yana da ɗaukaka mai girma.
  • HIPSBabban tasirin polystyrene yayi kamanceceniya da ABS, kodayake bai zama gama gari ba kamar waɗanda suka gabata.
  • PET: Polyethylene terephthalate gama gari ne a cikin kwalaben ruwan ma'adinai ko abubuwan sha mai laushi, kuma a cikin sauran kayan abinci. Yana bayyane kuma yana da tsayayya ga tasirin sosai.
  • Launi-d3: Yana iya canza launi (haske / duhu) tare da zafin jiki, wanda ke ba shi tarin abubuwan amfani don amfani a wasu aikace-aikacen da suka haɗa da sarrafa zafin jiki. Abubuwan da yake dasu suna kama da PLA, yana da ƙarfi, kuma yanayinsa yana kama da itace, tare da jijiyoyi.
  • Ninjaflex: elastomer na thermoplastic (TPE) sabon abu ne mai sauƙin gaske, tare da sassauƙa mai girma. Idan kuna neman yin gutsuri-tsintsi, wannan shine abin da kuke nema.
  • Nylon: Shahararren abu ne (wanda ba polymer ba), nau'ikan zaren yadin da ake amfani da shi a sutura, laces, da sauran abubuwa da yawa. Ba abu mai sauƙi ba sarrafawa, don haka bayanan ɓangarorin ba zasu yi kyau ba, hakanan yana ɗaukar danshi. A cikin ni'imarta tana da babban juriya ga zafin jiki da damuwa.
Akwai reels da yawa na waɗannan kayan da launuka daban daban don haka zaka iya zaɓar wanda ka fi so. Bugu da kari, akwai masu launuka iri-iri. Idan kuna gama sashin tare da gama zanen, launi ba zai zama da mahimmanci ba. Hakanan akwai, kamar yadda nayi tsokaci, wannan yana canzawa da zafin jiki, kuma akwai ma wadanda suke da phosphorescent don su haskaka cikin duhu ko kuma lokacin da suka kamu da hasken UV. Akwai ma wasu kayan aikin wutar lantarki, don iya buga waƙoƙin da za a iya amfani da su a cikin da'irori ...

Iri buga 3D

nau'ikan buga 3D

Baya ga kayan, suma suna da mahimmanci nau'ikan buga 3D. Kamar lokacin da ka zabi firintar takarda, kana tunanin idan kana son na'urar buga takardu, ko leza, leda, da sauransu, lokacin da ka zabi na'urar buga takardu ta 3D ya kamata kuma ka kula da fasahar da take amfani da ita, tunda zata dogara da ita. . aiki da sakamako:

  • FDM (Samfurin Samfuran Fused) ko FFF (Usedirƙirar Filament): Yana da nau'ikan narkakken samfurin samfurin polymer. Filament ɗin yana da zafi kuma an narke don extrusion. Shugaban zai motsa tare da haɗin X, Y bisa ga bayanin da ke cikin fayil ɗin da aka buga don sake ƙirƙirar abin. Tsarin dandalin da aka gina shi ma yana da hannu a cikin wannan yanayin, kuma zai motsa a cikin hanyar Z don ƙirƙirar Layer ta hanyar Layer. Fa'idojin wannan ƙirar shi ne cewa yana da inganci da sauri, kodayake bai dace da samfuran da sassan da ke fitowa da yawa ba, tunda an yi shi daga ƙasa zuwa sama.
  • SLA (StereoLithography): stereolithography tsohon tsari ne wanda a cikinsa ake amfani da fes mai amfani da ruwa wanda laser zai taurare shi. Wannan shine yadda ake ƙirƙirar yadudduka har sai an sami ƙarshen ƙarshen. Yana da iyakance iri ɗaya kamar FDM, amma yana cin nasara abubuwa tare da wurare masu kyau kuma tare da cikakkun bayanai.
  • DLP (Tsarin Haske na Dijital)- Tsarin sarrafa haske na dijital ɗayan nau'ikan buga 3D ne mai kama da SLA, amma yana amfani da photopolymers masu ruwa mai ƙanƙanci. Sakamakon shine abubuwa tare da kyakkyawan ƙuduri kuma masu ƙarfi sosai.
  • SLS (Zabin Laser Sintering): Zabin zaban Laser yana kama da DLP da SLA, amma maimakon ruwa suna amfani da hoda. Ana amfani da shi don bugawa tare da nailan, aluminum, da sauran kayan wannan nau'in. Laser ɗin zai bi ƙurar ƙura don ƙirƙirar abubuwa. Zaka iya ƙirƙirar wahala don ƙirƙirar sassa ta amfani da kayan kwalliya ko extrusion.
  • SLM (Zaɓen eran Laser): yana da ingantaccen fasaha kuma mai tsada, kwatankwacin SLS. Ana amfani da narkewar laser mai zaɓaɓɓe, kuma ana amfani dashi da farko a masana'antu don narke ƙurar ƙarfe da ƙirƙirar sassa.
  • EBM (Gwanin amarfin Electron): Wannan fasahar kuma tana da matukar tsada da tsada, an tsara ta ne zuwa bangaren masana'antu. Yana amfani da haɗakar kayan ta amfani da katon lantarki. Hakanan yana iya narke foda na ƙarfe kuma ya kai zafin jiki har zuwa 1000ºC. Za'a iya samar da cikakkun cikakkun siffofi masu inganci.
  • Lom (Laminated Object Manufacturing): shine ɗayan nau'ikan buga 3D wanda ke amfani da masana'antar laminate. Ana amfani da takaddun takarda, zane, ƙarfe ko filastik don samar da tsari. Wadannan yadudduka suna haɗuwa da mannewa kuma an yanka ta laser. Don amfanin masana'antu ne.
  • BJ (daJirgin Jirgin sama): allurar binding ana amfani dashi da masana'antu. Yi amfani da foda, kamar wasu fasahohi. Theurar yawanci filastar ne, ciminti ko wasu agglutinating waɗanda zasu haɗu da yadudduka. Hakanan za'a iya amfani da ƙarafa, yashi ko filastik.
  • MJ (Kayan Jirgin Sama): allurar abu shine ɗayan fasahohin buga 3D da aka yi amfani da shi a masana'antar kayan ado. An yi amfani da shi tsawon shekaru, kuma yana samun babban inganci. An gina yadudduka da yawa a kan juna don ƙirƙirar yanki mai ƙarfi. Kai yana yiwa yara daruruwan kananan kwayoyi na photopolymer sannan ya warke (karfafa su) da hasken ultraviolet (UV).
  •  MSLA (SLA mai rufe fuska): Nau'in SLA ne da aka rufe mashi, ma'ana, yana amfani da matrix ta LED azaman tushen haske, yana fitar da hasken ultraviolet ta fuskar LCD wanda ke nuna mayafin takarda daya a matsayin abin rufe fuska, saboda haka sunan. Kuna iya cimma lokutan bugawa masu tsayi yayin da kowane Layer ya fallasa gaba ɗaya lokaci ɗaya ta LCD, maimakon yin binciken wurare tare da ƙarshen laser.
  • DMLS (Sinadarin Laser Kai Tsaye)- Yana samarda abubuwa ta irin wannan hanyar zuwa SLS, amma banbancin shine cewa foda baya narkewa, amma ana zaftare shi da laser har zuwa inda zai iya haduwa a matakin kwayoyin. Dangane da damuwa, yankuna yawanci suna da ɗan raunin jiki, kodayake ana iya sanya su cikin wani tsari na yanayi mai zuwa wanda zai sa su zama masu ƙarfi.
  • DOD (Sauke Kan Buƙata)Bugun-buƙata buƙata wani nau'in buga 3D ne. Yana amfani da jiragen tawada guda biyu, daya yana sanya kayan gini wasu kuma kayan narkewa ne don tallafawa. Hakanan yana haifar da Layer ta hanyar Layer kamar sauran fasahohi, amma kuma suna amfani da abun yanka wanda yake goge wurin ginin don samarda kowane Layer. Don haka ana samun madaidaiciyar ƙasa. Ana amfani da su sosai a cikin masana'antar don daidaito mafi girma ko yin ƙira.

Ba duk waɗannan don amfanin gida ba ne, wasu ana nufin su ne don kasuwanci ko masana'antu. Bugu da kari, akwai wasu sabbin hanyoyin da suke kunno kai, kodayake ba su da yawa.

Fasalin bugawa

3d firintar

3D firintocinku, ba tare da la'akari da nau'ikan buga 3D ba, suma suna da adadi na halaye na fasaha waɗanda zasu ƙayyade aiki. Mafi mahimmanci wanda ya kamata ku sani shine:

  • Saurin bugawa: yana wakiltar saurin da firinta zai gama buga ɓangaren. Ana auna shi cikin milimita ta biyu. Kuma zasu iya zama 40mm / s, 150mm / s, da dai sauransu. Mafi girman shi, ƙaramin lokacin zai ɗauka don gamawa. Ka tuna cewa wasu abubuwa, idan sunada girma kuma sunada rikitarwa, zasu iya wuce awowi ...
  • Injector: Mabuɗin maɓalli ne, tunda zai kasance mai kula da ajiyar kayan don ƙirƙirar kayan, kodayake ba kowane nau'in bugun 3D yake buƙatar ɗaya ba, tunda wasu suna aiki tare da ruwa da haske. Amma yawancin na gida suna da shi, kuma sun kasance daga sassa masu zuwa:
    • Hot tip: shine mafi mahimmancin bangare. Yana da alhakin narkar da filamentin ta zafin jiki. Zafin zafin da aka kai zai dogara ne da nau'ikan kayan da aka karba. Yana da mahimmanci a zaɓi tsarin tare da mai sanyaya mai aiki.
    • Bututun ƙarfe: shine buɗe kai, ma'ana, inda filo ɗin da aka haɗa ya fito. Akwai manya wadanda suke da mafi kyau adhesions da gudu, amma tare da ƙaramin ƙuduri (ƙananan bayanai). Theananan ƙananan suna da hankali, amma yafi dacewa don ƙirƙirar sifofi masu rikitarwa tare da manyan bayanai.
    • Extruder: na'urar a wani gefen gefen zafi mai zafi. Kuma shine wanda ke da alhakin fitar da narkakken kayan. Zaka iya samun nau'ikan da yawa:
      • Direct: suna da kyakkyawan iko da sauƙin aiki. Ana kiran su da suna saboda ana ciyar dasu kai tsaye ta hanyar zafin nama.
      • Bowden: A wannan yanayin, narkakken zaren zai yi tazara mai nisa tsakanin zafin mai zafi da mai fitarwa. Wannan yana haskaka injin injector, yana rage vibrations kuma yana bashi damar motsawa da sauri.
  • Dumi gado: Babu shi a cikin dukkan masu buga takardu, amma yana da goyan baya ko tushe wanda aka buga ɓangaren. Wannan bangare zai iya zama mai dumi don tabbatar da cewa ɓangaren baya rasa zafin sa yayin aikin ɗab'i, samun sakamako mafi kyau. Wannan ya zama dole ga kayan aiki kamar su nailan, HIPS, ko ABS. In ba haka ba, kowane Layer ba zai yi kyau zuwa na gaba ba. Masu bugawa don PET, PLA, PTU, da sauransu, ba sa buƙatar gado mai zafi, kuma suna amfani da tushe mai sanyi.
  • Fan- Saboda tsananin zafin jiki, firintoci galibi suna da masoya don kiyaye tsarin a sanyaye. Wannan yana da mahimmanci don kiyaye amincin firintar.
  • STL: kamar yadda zaku iya gani akan batun bugu software, yawancin masu buga takardu sun yarda da daidaitaccen tsarin STL. Tabbatar cewa firintar ka ta karɓi waɗannan fayilolin fayil ɗin.
  • JagoraKodayake shahararrun firintocin sun dace da Windows, macOS da GNU / Linux, ya kamata ku ba da kulawa ta musamman kan ko akwai direbobi don tsarinku.
  • extrasWasu firintocinku sun haɗa da wasu siffofin waɗanda zasu iya zama mai ban sha'awa, kamar su LCD allo tare da bayani game da aikin, haɗin WiFi don haɗa su a cikin hanyar sadarwa, ginannun kyamarori don iya yin fim ɗin aikin bugawa, da sauransu.
  • Haɗa vs rarraba: Firintoci da yawa suna shirye don kwance kaya da amfani (don ƙarin ƙwarewa), amma idan kuna son DIY, zaku iya samun waɗansu kayayyaki masu rahusa waɗanda zaku iya haɗawa yanki da yanki ta amfani da kayan aiki.

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