Arduino UNO- Tsarin binciken kayan aikin kyauta kyauta

Motar Arduino I2C

Tunda aka qaddamar dashi a kasuwa farantin Arduino UNO, da yawa sun canza wannan kwamiti tare da fitowar sabbin kwaskwarima. Kari akan haka, masu kirkirarta iri daya sun hanzarta kirkirar wasu kwatankwacin faranti daban-daban a cikin tsare-tsare daban-daban don rufe bukatu fiye da wadanda UNO ta fara rufe su. Ko da wasu da yawa sun yi ƙarfin halin ƙirƙirar nasu na almara ko allon dacewa, kodayake ba tare da irin nasarar ba.

Kafin bayyanar Arduino tuni akwai wasu ayyukan makamantan haka, kamar sanannun allon Parallax tare da Microchip PIC microcontrollers waɗanda za a iya tsara su cikin sauƙin amfani da harsuna kamar PBASIC da sauransu. Misali na wannan shine Parallax Basic Stamp 2. Amma gaskiyar cewa ba kayan aikin kyauta bane yana nufin basu da asali a kasuwa kamar yadda aikin Arduino yake da shi. Farantin Italiyanci ya zama juyin juya halin gaske ta wannan ma'anar.

Menene Arduino UNO Rev3?

Alamar Arduino

Arduino UNO Rev3 shine sabon bita wanzu a lokacin wannan farantin. Boardaramar hukumar lantarki ce tare da mai sarrafa microcomroller akan PCB. Baya ga guntu, ya kuma haɗa da jerin fil kamar kayan aiki da ƙididdiga waɗanda za a iya amfani da su ta hanyar shirya guntu don yin abubuwa daban-daban. Ta wannan hanyar, ana iya ƙirƙirar ayyukan lantarki cikin sauƙi.

Wannan farantin ya taso daga aikin arduino, wani aikin Italiyanci wanda aka fara a 2005 wanda ya maida hankali kan haɓaka kayan buɗewa da software don ɗalibai galibi. An tsara zane-zanen farko don wata makarantar a Ivrea, a cikin Italiya. A wancan lokacin daliban wannan cibiya ta ilimi sun yi amfani da shahararrun tambarin da na taba ambata a sama. Wadannan suna da tsada mai yawa, kuma ba a buɗe suke ba.

Kafin wannan duka, Hernando Barragán ya kirkiro wani dandamali na ci gaba da ake kira Wiring, aikin da shahararren ya yi Sarrafa harshen shirye-shirye. Tare da wannan a matsayin tushe, sun tafi aiki don haɓaka ƙananan farashi da ƙananan kayan aiki ga ɗalibai. Don haka suka shirya ƙirƙirar allon kayan aiki tare da PCB da ƙananan mai sarrafawa, kazalika da ƙirƙirar IDE (Haɓakar Haɓakar Haɓakawa).

Kamar yadda Waya ya riga yayi amfani da allon tare da ATmega168 microcontroller, abubuwan ci gaba masu zuwa sun bi daidaiton daidaito. Massimo Banzi da David Mellis zasu kara goyi bayan ATmega8 don Wayoyi, wanda ya ma fi arha ƙima fiye da na 168. Sabili da haka farkon ƙwayoyin cuta na abin da ke yau ya taso Arduino UNO. Aikin Wayoyi an sake masa suna Arduino.

Sunan sanannen aikin ya samo asali ne a wata mashaya a Ivrea, inda waɗanda suka kafa aikin suka haɗu. Ana kiran sandar Bar di Re Arduino, wanda kuma aka sanya masa suna Arduino daga Ivrea, sarkin Italiya har zuwa 1014.

Ganin irin wadatar wadannan faranti, sai aka kara samun tallafi daga al'umma don ci gaba da kirkirar karin faranti. Bugu da kari, masu samar da kayan haɗin lantarki da masana'antun sun fara tsara takamaiman samfuran dace da Arduino Kamar yadda lamarin yake ga masana'antar Adafruit. Daga nan ne aka sami garkuwa da yawa da ƙarin kayayyaki don waɗannan faranti.

Fuskantar da gagarumar nasara, an kuma samar da ita Gidauniyar Arduino, don ci gaba da haɓakawa da haɗuwa da ƙoƙarin aikin Arduino. Misali irin na sauran ƙungiyoyi masu kama da irin su Linux Foundation, Raspberry Pi Foundation, RISC-V Foundation, da sauransu.

Kamar yadda yake a wannan lokacin, yawancin abubuwan Arduino sun lalace, tare da dalilai daban-daban da masu sarrafa abubuwa daban-daban, da kayan haɗi da yawa cewa mun tattauna a cikin wannan shafin:

Cikakken bayani game da Arduino UNO

Wannan farantin Arduino UNO Yana da wasu halaye waɗanda suka sa shi ya zama na musamman, kuma yana da jerin bambance-bambance game da sauran allon Arduino waɗanda za mu haskaka.

Halaye na fasaha, makirci da pinout

Arduino Pinout

El halaye da fasaha na hukumar Arduino UNO Rev3 Suna da mahimmanci su san yadda ake amfani da shi da kyau, in ba haka ba ba za ku san iyakoki da kuma madaidaiciyar hanyar haɗi duk abubuwan haɗin lantarki zuwa samfuran da bas ɗin da suke da su ba.

An fara farko da ta HALAYE, Kuna da:

  • Atmel ATmega328 microcontroller a 16 Mhz
  • Memorywaƙwalwar ajiya ta SRAM: 2KB
  • Haɗin ƙwaƙwalwar EEPROM: 1 KB
  • Memorywawalwar walƙiya: 32 KB, wanda 0.5KB ke amfani da shi ta bootloader, don haka ba za a iya amfani da su don wasu dalilai ba.
  • Chip mai aiki da lantarki: 5v
  • Abubuwan da aka ba da ƙarfin lantarki: 7-12v (kodayake yana tallafawa 6 zuwa 20v)
  • Ci gaba mai ƙarfi na yanzu: 40mA don I / O da 50mA don fil na 3.3V.
  • Kusoshin I / O: 14 fil, wanda 6 cikinsu PWM.
  • Analog fil: 6 fil
  • Sake saita maɓallin don sake farawa aiwatar da shirin da aka ɗora a ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya.
  • Interfacearfin kebul na USB
  • Agogon Oscillator don siginar da suke buƙatar kari.
  • LEDarfin wutar lantarki akan PCB.
  • Hadakar mai kula da wutar lantarki.
  • Farashin kusan € 20.

Amma ga fil da haɗin akwai akan farantin Arduino UNO:

  • Gangar Jack ko DC Power Jack: shine mahaɗin jirgin Arduino UNO don samun ikon wutan lantarki. Katin zai iya amfani da katako ta dace da adafta don samar da volts 5-20. Idan zaku haɗa abubuwa da yawa zuwa farantin, da alama za ku iya shawo kan shingen 7v don isa.
  • kebul: ana amfani da tashar USB don haɗa allon Arduino zuwa PC, ta wannan hanyar zaku iya tsara ta ko karɓar bayanai daga gare ta ta tashar jirgin ruwa. Wato, zai taimaka muku sosai don ɗora hotunanku na Arduino IDE zuwa cikin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar ciki na microcontroller don ta iya aiwatar dashi. Hakanan yana iya cika aikin wuta don hob da abubuwan da aka haɗa da shi.
  • VIN Fil: zaka kuma sami VIN fil wanda zai baka damar amfani da hukumar Arduino UNO ta amfani da wutar lantarki ta waje, idan baku son amfani da USB ko Jack na sama.
  • 5V: yana ba da wutar lantarki na 5V. Energyarfin da zai isa shi ya zo ne daga ɗayan lamura guda uku da suka gabata ta hanyar da zaka iya ƙarfin farantin ka.
  • 3V3: wannan fil din yana baka damar ciyar da 3.3v har zuwa 50mA zuwa ayyukan ka.
  • GND: yana da maɓallan ƙasa guda 2, don haɗa ƙasa da ayyukanka na lantarki da su.
  • Sake saita: fil don sake saitawa ta hanyar aika siginar ƙasa da shi.
  • Serial tashar jiragen ruwa: Yana da fulodi biyu 0 (RX) da 1 (TX) don karɓar da watsa bayanan TTL a jere. Suna haɗe da microcontroller akan abubuwan USB-to-TTL ɗinsu.
  • Katsewar waje: 2 da 3, fil da za a iya saita su don haifar da katsewa tare da tashi, faɗuwar ƙasa, ko maɗaukaki ko ƙimar ƙima.
  • SPI: bas din yana kan fil mai alama 10 (SS), 11 (MISOI), da 13 (SCK) wanda zaku iya sadarwa dasu ta amfani da dakin karatun SPI.
  • A0-A5: su ne analog fil.
  • 0-13: sune shigarwar dijital ko fil ɗin fitarwa waɗanda zaku iya saita su. An haɗa ƙaramin LED a haɗe zuwa pin 13 cewa idan wannan fil ɗin ya yi tsawo zai haskaka.
  • TWI: goyon bayasadarwa TWI ta amfani da ɗakin karatu na Waya. Zaka iya amfani da fil A4 ko SDA kuma fil A5 ko SCL.
  • AREF: matattarar wutar lantarki don abubuwan analog.

Datasheets

Kasancewa buɗe asusun buɗe ido, ba kawai ba zaka sami takaddun bayanan kamar yadda yake a cikin sauran kayayyakin lantarki da yawa. Hakanan zaka iya zazzage wasu takaddun da yawa da zane-zane na lantarki waɗanda zasu taimaka maka fahimtar yadda wannan hukumar ke aiki. Arduino UNO ciki har ma ka gina naka Arduino aiwatar da kanka. Misali, kuna da bayananku na hukuma masu zuwa:

Bambanci da sauran allon Arduino

Allon Arduino

Arduino UNO Rev3 shi ne madaidaicin farantin ga duk wadanda suka fara don amfani da irin wannan faranti. Menene ƙari, akwai kayan farawa don farawa tare da duk abin da kuke buƙatar haɗawa. Wannan kayan aikin ba wai kawai ya hada da adadi mai yawa na kayan aikin lantarki don fara farashi ba, har ma da littafi mai cikakken bayani don taimaka muku a kowane mataki.

Koyaya, akwai wasu sifofi ko tsari na hukumar Arduino waxanda ke da matukar amfani ga sauran aikace-aikacen da suka ci gaba ko aiwatar da wani aiki inda girman abubuwa yake. Da babban bambance-bambance tsakanin faranti Sun fi yawa a cikin nau'ikan mai sarrafa microcontroller, wasu suna da ɗan ƙarfi kuma suna da ƙarin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya don haɗawa da zane ko shirye-shirye masu ƙwarewa da yawa, da kuma adadin fil da ke akwai. Amma idan muka kwatanta allon talla guda uku, banbancin sune kamar haka:

  • Arduino UNO Rev3: duba sashe tare da halayen fasaha.
  • Mega Arduino: Farashin ya tashi sama da € 30, tare da girman girman girman farantin UNO. Bugu da kari, ya hada da mai karfin ATmega2560 microcontroller wanda shima yake aiki a 16Mhz, amma yana da 256KB na memori mai walwala, 4KB na EEPROM, da 8KB na SRAM don ƙarin hadaddun shirye-shirye. Bugu da kari, shi ma yana da karin fil, tare da I / O dijital 54, 15 PWM, da analog na 16.
  • ArduinoMicro: ya fita waje don ƙaramin girman sa, kasancewar yana ƙasa da UNO, kodayake yana da irin wannan farashin. A wannan karamin sararin, yana haɗa karamin ATmega32U4 microcontroller, amma kuma yana aiki a 16Mhz. Memorywaƙwalwar ajiyar daidai take da ta UNO, ban da SRAM, wanda ke da ƙarin 0.5KB. Hakanan an ƙara fil ɗin duk da ƙaramin girman, tare da dijital 20, 7 PWM da analog 12. Wani bambancin shine cewa yana amfani da micro-USB don haɗinsa maimakon USB. Kasancewa karami bai dace da garkuwa ko garkuwa kamar na biyun da suka gabata ba ...

Arduino IDE da shirye-shirye

Screenshot na Arduino IDE

Don shirya Arduino, a cikin kowane nau'inta, kuna da IDE ko yanayin ci gaba da ake kira IDE na Arduino. Ya dace da duka macOS, Windows da Linux. Isakin kyauta ne kuma buɗaɗɗen tushe wanda zaku iya zazzage daga wannan mahadar. Tare da shi zaku iya ƙirƙirar lambobin don shirya guntu microcontroller akan allon kuma don haka ayyukanku suyi aiki.

Ana tallafawa wannan dandamali ta hanyar harshen Arduino wanda yake dogara ne da yaren shirye-shirye masu girma Processing, wanda kuma yayi kama da sanannen C ++. Wannan shine dalilin da ya sa za su sami daidaitattun maganganu da hanyar aiki.

Kuna iya sani game da yadda ake amfani da Arduino IDE tare da abubuwan da ke cikin wannan rukunin yanar gizon waɗanda ke bayanin yadda ake haɗa kowane kayan lantarki ko ƙananan abubuwa tare da kwamiti, ko kuma sauke tsarin shirye-shirye kai tsaye IDE na Arduino a cikin PDF kyauta. Tare da shi zaku koyi yadda ake tsara kalmomi da yaren shirye-shiryen farawa da ayyukanku ...


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