Mai aikin layi na Arduino: mechatronics don ayyukanku

Arirgar actuator

Mechatronics horo ne wanda ya haɗu da injiniyoyi da kayan lantarki, kasancewar shi babban reshe ne na injiniyanci wanda ke jan hankalin mutum-mutumi, lantarki, lissafi, sadarwa, sadarwa, da sauransu. Don wuce ayyukan DIY na lantarki, kuma fara gwaji tare da ayyukan mechatronic, zaku iya fara haɗa na'urori kamar injunan ko arirgar actuator don Arduino naka.

Wannan ya buɗe ku Sabuwar duniya mai yiwuwa ga masu yi. A zahiri, wannan mai aiwatar da linzamin shine mafi amfani tare da ikon aiwatar da ayyukan wayar hannu ko tilasta ƙarfi akan wasu abubuwa. Shin kuna son ƙarin bayani? Muna gaya muku ...

Nau'in masu aiki da linzami

Excavator na'ura mai aiki da karfin ruwa actuator

Akwai masu yin aiki da yawa iri-iri, kodayake a cikin wannan labarin za mu mai da hankali kan wanda ke amfani da injin lantarki don tuka abin fuɗa. Amma ya kamata ka sani cewa akwai wasu nau'ikan kuma:

  • Ruwan lantarki: Suna amfani da wani nau'in ruwa don matsar da fiska Misali na iya zama na injina da yawa na aikin gona ko kuma masu hakar kasa, ta amfani da wadannan piston da matsi na mai don matsar da hannayen da aka zayyana, injin matatar ruwa, da sauransu.
  • Wuta: su masu motsa jiki ne waɗanda ke amfani da dunƙule mara ƙarewa wanda injin lantarki ke motsawa don samar da motsi. Hakanan akwai nau'ikan solenoid (electromagnet), wanda ke amfani da filin maganaɗisu don matsar da fistan ko jifa da maɓuɓɓugar ruwa don mayar da shi zuwa ga asalinsa yayin da ba a aiwatar da wannan filin. Misali mai amfani na iya zama misali na ƙarshe wanda na gabatar a cikin wannan labarin, ko kuma wasu da yawa na kayan aikin mutum-mutumi, naurorin injunan yau da kullun, da dai sauransu.
  • Taya: suna amfani da iska a matsayin ruwa, maimakon ruwa kamar yadda yake a yanayin aikin ruwa. Misalin waɗannan su ne masu aikin layi na yau da kullun waɗanda aka samo a cikin bita na fasaha na wasu cibiyoyin ilimi.

Babban burin wannan na'urar shine canza makamashi na'ura mai aiki da karfin ruwa, lantarki ko jin zafi a cikin layin linzami a wannan yanayin, saboda haka yin aiki da karfi, tursasawa, aiki azaman mai tsarawa, kunna wasu hanyoyin, da dai sauransu.

Game da mai yin amfani da lantarki

Indoor Linear Actuator: aiki da sassa

M a lineirgar mai aiki da lantarki ba komai bane face wutar lantarki, wani lokacin na iya zama NEMA kamar yadda aka riga aka gani. Wannan motar tana juya sandarta, kuma ta hanyar haɗin giya ko sarƙoƙin haƙori za ta juya dunƙule mara ƙarewa. Wannan dunƙule mara ƙarewa zai kasance mai kula da zamar da fistan ko sanda a wata hanya ko wata (gwargwadon juyawa).

Ese mai likawa zai kasance shine wanda ke aiki a matsayin mai matsawa don tura wani abu, ja wani abu, yin karfi, da dai sauransu. Aikace-aikacen suna da fadi sosai. Kamar yadda kake gani, abu ne mai sauƙin gaske wanda baya riƙe asirai da yawa.

Wadannan masu aiwatar da layin, ba kamar sauran wadanda ba na layi ba, suna da damar da za su iya aiki manyan rundunoni da ƙaura babba (dangane da samfurin). Amma don Arduino, kuna da wasu samfura waɗanda zasu iya zuwa daga 20 zuwa 150 Kgf (ƙarfin kilogram ko kilopond), da kuma sauyawa daga 100 zuwa 180 mm.

Kamar yadda babbar hasara shine gudun hijiraSaboda lokacin da ake yin waɗannan manyan rundunoni, ƙafafun raguwa da suka wajaba don haɓaka ƙarfin zai haifar da saurin tsawo kuma ya janye ya zama ƙasa. Za'a iya bayar da saurin 4 zuwa 20 mm / s akan samfuran al'ada. Wannan yana nufin cewa don kammala duk tsarin layi, zai iya zuwa daga secondsan daƙiƙa kaɗan zuwa fewan mintoci idan ya fi tsayi da hankali ...

Amma nasa ciyar, kuna da su na karfin wuta daban-daban ko kuma ƙarfi. Misali, abinda aka saba shine sune 12 ko 24v, kodayake zaka iya samun wasu a kasa da sama da hakan. Dangane da amfanin su, zasu iya zama daga 2A zuwa 5A a wasu yanayi. Kamar yadda kuke gani, kasancewar injin mai ƙarfi, yawan amfani yana da yawa ... Don haka idan kuna shirin ciyar dashi tare da batura, ya kamata kuyi la'akari da cewa suna da damar da ake bukata.

Arirgar actuator sarrafawa

Mai yin amfani da layin lantarki wanda zaka iya nemo wa Arduino zai iya samun nau'ikan iri daban-daban iko:

  • Tare da amintaccen ma'auni: ta hanyar maƙerin ƙarfin suna ba da damar zaɓar matsayin fistan.
  • Tare da ƙarshen aiki: sauya iyaka a kowane karshen zai sa ya tsaya da kansa da zarar ya isa saman.
  • Ba shi da iko: ba su da ɗayan tsarin sarrafawa na sama.

Pinout

El kuraje na mai linzamin kwamfuta actuator ba zai iya zama mafi sauki ba. Yana da igiyoyi masu sarrafawa guda biyu don ciyar da wutar lantarki wanda yake haɗuwa, kuma babu wani abu fiye da hakan. Saboda haka, siffofin rikitarwa. Abinda kawai zaka kiyaye don karawa ko kuma janye kara shi ne cewa dole ne a juya juyawar motar (polarity na yanzu).

Domin hakan ya zama mai yuwuwa zaka iya yi amfani da mai kula da gada ta H-Bridge kamar wanda aka yi amfani da shi don motocin kai tsaye na yanzu. Kuna iya tunanin cewa wani kamar shi yana bauta muku L298N, u wasu gani, kamar su TB6612FNG, da sauransu. Amma gaskiyar ita ce cewa babu ɗayansu da ke da isasshen ƙarfi ga waɗannan masu aiwatar da layin linzamin (idan suna da girma). Sabili da haka, mai sarrafawa zai ƙone.

Saboda haka, zaku iya gini kawai naku saurin sarrafawa ta amfani da transistors kamar BJTs ko MOSFETs, har ma zango m jihar ...

A ina zan sayi mai yin layi?

Arirgar actuator

El farashin na mai aiki da linzami na linzami zai dogara ne da girman, gudun, tsawonsa, da kuma ƙarfin da zai iya jurewa. Yawancin lokaci zaka same su daga kusan Yuro 20 zuwa 200. Kuma zaka iya samun su a cikin shagunan lantarki na musamman ko a wasu shagunan yanar gizo irin su Amazon. Misali:

Yawancin waɗannan samfuran suna da kariya daga ƙura da fesawa ta takardar shaidar IPX54. Kuma ka tuna da shawarwarin masana'antun, ba a ko da yaushe ana tallata nauyin nauyi da aka nuna don duk tsawon tsawo, a wasu lokuta kawai ana iya tallafawa wani iyakantaccen nauyi har zuwa wani tsawo.

Haɗuwa tare da Arduino

Layin linzamin kwamfuta da haɗin Arduino

Waɗannan nau'ikan masu aiwatarwa na iya samun amfani daban-daban idan kun haɗa su tare da kwamitin Arduino. Don yin wannan, abu na farko da ya kamata ku sani shine hanyar da zaku iya yi zane-zane tare da lambarka. Kamar yadda kake gani, bashi da rikitarwa kwata-kwata, don haka baya gabatar da matsala mai yawa.

Kamar yadda zaku iya gani daga makircin da na zana na sama, nayi amfani da zango biyu da kuma mai aiki da linzami. Da layuka masu launi Kun ga wakiltar masu zuwa:

  • Ja da baki: sune igiyoyi na mai aiki da linzami wanda zai tafi kowane ɗayan bayanan da aka yi amfani dasu.
  • m: kun haɗa zuwa ƙasa ko GND a cikin kowane zango kamar yadda kuke gani.
  • Azul: yana zuwa wutar lantarki Vin don relay, a wannan yanayin zai kasance tsakanin 5v da 12v.
  • Verde: Layin layin Vcc ɗin koyaushe an haɗa shi da 5v na jirgin Arduino.
  • m: Har ila yau ƙasa, an haɗa shi daga ɗayan sashin zuwa Arduino GND.
  • Launin shunayya da lemu: sune layukan sarrafawa waɗanda zasu tafi kowane ɗayan Arduino fil don sarrafa juyawa. Misali, zaka iya zuwa D8 da D9.

Amma ga misali na lambar tushe don ID ɗinku na Arduino, zane don sarrafawa na asali zai kasance kamar haka:

//configurar las salidas digitales
const int rele1 = 8;
const int rele2 = 9;
 
void setup()
{
   pinMode(rele1, OUTPUT);
   pinMode(rele2, OUTPUT);
 
   //Poner los relés a bajo
   digitalWrite(rele1, LOW);
   digitalWrite(rele2, LOW);
}
 
void loop()
{
   extendActuator();
   delay(2000);
   retractActuator();
   delay(2000);
   stopActuator();
   delay(2000);
}
 
//Activar uno de los relés para extender el actuador
void extendActuator()
{
   digitalWrite(rele2, LOW);
   delay(250);
   digitalWrite(rele1, HIGH);
}
 
//Lo inverso a lo anterior para retraer el émbolo
void retractActuator()
{
   digitalWrite(rele1, LOW);
   delay(250);
   digitalWrite(rele2, HIGH);
}
 
//Poner ambos releś apagados parar el actuador
void stopActuator()
{
   digitalWrite(rele1, LOW);
   digitalWrite(rele2, LOW);
}

Kuna iya gyara lambar don iya sarrafawa da sanya abin jingina a cikin takamaiman matsayi idan kuna so, ko ƙara ƙarin abubuwa ...


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