Yadda ake ƙirƙirar seismograph na gida daga karce mataki zuwa mataki

alamar seismograph akan takarda

Un seismograph ko seismometer wata na'ura ce da ke bada damar auna jujjuyawar fuskar duniya, ma'ana, girgizar ƙasa ko girgizar ƙasa kowane iri. Gabaɗaya, ana amfani dasu don auna waɗanda aka samar ta hanyar motsin tectonic ko lithospheric plate, don haka su sami damar gudanar da karatu da kuma hango yiwuwar girgizar ƙasa. Dan Scotsman James David Forbes ne ya kirkireshi a shekarar 1842.

Kayan aikin wancan lokacin ya kasance na da, kuma ya kunshi abun kwalliya wanda, saboda yawansa, ya kasance mara motsi saboda rashin kuzari. Yayin da duk sauran sassan inji suka zagaye shi. Pendulum yana da awl a ƙarshen sa kuma an bashi damar yin rubutu akan abin nadi lokaci-takarda takarda. Ta wannan hanyar, lokacin da ƙasa ta girgiza, an wakilta ta akan takarda a cikin sifofin lanƙwasa.

Ananan kaɗan kayan aikin auna sun samo asali don daidaitawa da sababbin sikeli don auna rawar ƙasa kawai da mutane zasu ji. Tun daga wannan lokacin, ci gaban ya kasance yana gudana har zuwa sababbi da mafi daidaito da yawa da damuwa game da ayyuka daban-daban na masana ilimin ƙasa da sauran ma'aikatan da galibi ke amfani da irin wannan ma'aunin. Da isowar kayan lantarki, an inganta waɗannan na'urori kuma sun zama masu ƙwarewa sosai har sai sun kai ga yanayin seismographs na yanzu.

A halin yanzu, seismographs na iya karɓar bayani daga rawar ƙasa daga wurare daban-daban a Duniya. Waɗanda ke kusa da girgizar ƙasa na iya ɗaukar karatun girgizar ƙasa don yin rikodin kira S taguwar ruwa da P taguwar ruwa. A gefe guda kuma, wadanda suka fi nesa suna iya yin rikodin raƙuman ruwa na P.Kuma idan baku sani ba, abubuwan firikwensin da aka sanya a ƙasa don ɗaukar waɗannan girgizar duniya ana kiran su geophones, kodayake a cikin teku ana amfani da wayoyin lantarki masu amfani auna igiyar ruwa da ake watsawa ta ruwa yayin girgizar kasa.

Yadda ake hawa seismograph

Tsarin seismograph na gida

Idan kuna da sha'awar irin wannan na'urar, kuma mai ƙera ta, zaku iya naku kayan kwalliyar DIY don ƙasa da € 100...

El aiki na wannan aikin Abu ne mai sauki, kamar yadda ake iya gani a zane a hoton da ke sama. Sismograph na gida zai gano motsin ƙasa saboda maganadisu wanda ya rataye daga bazara don ya iya tashi sama da ƙasa da yardar kaina.

Ana sanya murfin waya mai tsaye a kusa da maganadisu a farfajiyar bayanin. Godiya gareshi, za'a gano duk wani motsi komai kankantar maganadisu, tunda zai samar da igiya a cikin kebul wanda za'a iya auna shi tare da daidaito. Sauran kayan aikin shine lantarki da ake buƙata don canza waccan lantarki zuwa bayanan da za'a iya rikodin su kuma duba su akan allon PC ɗin mu.

Abubuwan da ake Bukata

Don ƙirƙirar irin wannan tsarin, kuna buƙatar 'yan kaɗan abubuwa masu mahimmanci kuma duk muna da kan yatsunmu. Cikakken jerin sune:

  • Un ƙarfe bazara. Yana iya zama ɗayan sanannen abin wasan Slinky, Jr., waɗanda kuke gani a cikin wasu fina-finai waɗanda ke saukar da wasu matakala su sauka shi kaɗai ...
  • Rigar maganadisu sanya shi mai ƙarfi (RC44), misali ya zama na neodymium.
  • Ara haske siginar OpAmp LT1677CN8, kuma murfin tagulla Magnetic (makaran 42 ma'aunin varnish) don canza siginar mai rauni zuwa mafi ƙarfi. (MW42-4)
  • PVC bututu don kunna kebul.
  • Na'urar da ke iya sauya siginar analog ɗin zuwa dijital. A wannan yanayin ana amfani da shi Arduino.
  • Rikodi da rikodi. A wannan yanayin, software tana gudana mu pc wakiltar abin da Arduino ya karba ...
  • Estructura da katako, ƙarfe ko filastik don riƙe bazara.
  • Gurasar abinci ko farantin na da'irar bugawa don siyarwa.
  • Masu adawa 10K da 866K
  • Masu iya aiki 0.01uF, 0.1uF, 1uF, 330pF
  • Kebul don haɗi

Mataki-mataki mataki

1 mataki

Da farko dole ne ka kunna waya ta jan ƙarfe tare da rufi ƙirƙiri nada. A cikin wannan aikin suna amfani da bututun PVC wanda zaku iya samu a kowane fanfo. An yanke tuben kuma zaka bar kimanin inci 1 (inci 2.54) inda aka nannade shi da zare 2500. Ka tuna cewa dole ne a sanya shi tare da wasu varnish, an riga an sayar dasu kamar haka a wasu kamfanoni.

Hakanan zaka iya ƙirƙirar yanki tare da 3D firinta idan ka fi so, ko amfani da wasu nau'ikan kayan da aka sake amfani da su don maye gurbin bututun PVC ... Wani zabin kuma shi ne a yi amfani da mazubi da kansu inda raunin ya fito idan kuna da ma'aurata. Kuma don kunsa wayar, zaka iya amfani da taimakon injin keken ɗinki ko rawar soja kamar yadda aka gani a bidiyon.

Wirearfin wayar jan ƙarfe

Ka tuna dole ne Sanya wayoyi na al'ada zuwa ƙarshen ƙarshen waƙar jan ƙarfen. Tare da su zaku sami damar inganta hanyoyin sosai, tunda igiyar tagulla ta murfin siririya ce sosai don iya aiki tare da ita sannan kuma hada ta da jirgin Arduino.

2 mataki

Mataki na gaba shine rataye da daidaita bazara tare da maganadisu. Don wannan dole ne ku sanya maganadisun da aka lika a kan waya ko bazara. Ya kamata a dakatar da su a cikin bututun tare da kunna abin da kuka ƙirƙira a cikin matakin da ya gabata. Dole ne ku daidaita daidai nisan da kuka rataye shi a katako, ƙarfe ko duk abin da kuka yi amfani da shi na tallafi ..., don haka idan ana rawar ƙasa, lokacin bazara ya motsa maganadisu a tsakiyar murfin don ya iya haifar da shi halin yanzu a ciki.

Dakatar da maganadisu

Bugu da kari, katanga ya kamata ya sanya vibration shine 1Hz, ma'ana, yana motsawa sama da kasa sau daya a dakika daya. Sama da ƙasa shine cikakken zagaye wanda dole ne a yi shi a cikin dakika ɗaya.

3 mataki

para kara ƙarfin halin yanzu a cikin murfinTunda motsa maganadisu a cikin murfin murfin yana haifar da ƙananan ƙananan raƙuman ruwa, ana buƙatar haɓakar sigina. Akwai nau'ikan abubuwa masu kyau masu karfafa sigina, zaku iya amfani da kowane daya. Haɗin haɗin yana da sauƙi, zaka iya yin sa a kan teburin burodi ko a kan faranti mai ruɓaɓɓe ta hanyar bene, idan za ku bar shi na dindindin Dole ne kawai ku haɗa da'irorin kamar yadda aka nuna a hoton ...

4 mataki

Yanzu bari hukumar arduino Uno, wanda zai kasance mai kula da canza siginar da aka kara ta hanyar da'irar matakin da ta gabata da sauya shi zuwa bayanan dijital. Seismograph ya dogara ne akan wani TC1 aikin inda zaku iya samun cikakkun bayanai game da tsarin Arduino.

5 mataki

Shirin rajista na sigina

Lokacin da ka haɗa Arduino da PC, ta USB, za a kama bayanan, kuma ta hanyar software za a iya shigar da bayanan ta hanyar serial tashar jiragen ruwa cewa kuna da a cikin Arduino IDE. Duk abin yakamata ya nuna bayanan da suka dace, idan ba haka ba, duba cewa an haɗa shi da kyau zuwa tashar COM mai kyau.

Kuna iya amfani jAmaSixAiki ne mai ban sha'awa kuma iya ganin tare da raba bayanai tare da sauran ɗalibai da masana kimiyya a duk duniya.

Hakanan zaka iya yin wasu gyare-gyare da haɓakawa zuwa rage amo kuma ya hanaku bada wasu bayanan karya. Tsarin yana da matukar damuwa, saboda haka yana iya rikodin rawar ƙasa waɗanda ba ainihin girgizar ƙasa ba. Hakanan yana iya ɗaukar vibrations daga wasu na'urori ko motocin da ke kusa. Yanzu yi Tsarkakewa da Kuskure! Har sai na tune shi ...

Source:

Kayan koyarwa - DIY Seismometer

TC1 seismograph


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  1. Mai alhakin bayanan: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Dalilin bayanan: Gudanar da SPAM, gudanar da sharhi.
  3. Halacci: Yarda da yarda
  4. Sadarwar bayanan: Ba za a sanar da wasu bayanan ga wasu kamfanoni ba sai ta hanyar wajibcin doka.
  5. Ajiye bayanai: Bayanin yanar gizo wanda Occentus Networks (EU) suka dauki nauyi
  6. Hakkoki: A kowane lokaci zaka iyakance, dawo da share bayanan ka.