Electromagnet: yadda zaka hada wannan kayan aikin tare da hukumar Arduino

Kayan aikin lantarki

Akwai wasu ayyukan lantarki ko don amfani tare da Arduino ɗinku, inda zaku buƙaci aiki da maganadisu mai sarrafawa. Ina nufin, a cikin madaidaiciyar maganadisu, koyaushe za a sami ƙarfi mai jan hankali, amma tare da lantarki zaka iya sarrafa wannan maganadisu don samar dashi a dai dai lokacin da kake buƙata. Ta wannan hanyar, zaku iya jawo hankalin kayan aikin ferromagnetic don yawan aikace-aikace.

Misali, kaga cewa kana so ka bude ko rufe karamin kyankyasar kwano kai tsaye lokacin da wani abu ya faru, ko matsar da wani karfe, da dai sauransu. A wannan yanayin, mafi kyawun abin da zaka iya amfani da shi shine electromagnet, saboda haka guje wa samun ƙirƙirar wasu cikakku hanyoyin da suke yin aiki iri ɗaya.

Menene electromagnet?

na'urar lantarki

Un lantarki Na'ura ce ta lantarki wacce ke ba ka damar samar da maganadisu ta yadda yake so. Wato, na'urar da zata zama maganadisu kawai lokacin da kake buƙata, kuma ba koyaushe tana son maganadisu na dindindin ba. Ta waccan hanyar, zaku iya jan hankalin abubuwa masu ƙarfin a daidai lokacin da kuke so.

Ana amfani da electromagnets a ciki masana'antu. Misali, tabbas ka gani a talabijin waɗancan injunan waɗanda suke wasu wurare inda ake sake sarrafa ƙarfe kuma suna da wutan lantarki da mai aiki ke kunnawa daga cikin gida don ɗaukar sharar motar tarkace, ko jawo wasu sassa na ƙarfe. Sannan a lokacin da kodar dake dauke da wannan na’urar lantarki ta sanya kanta a inda take son barin wadannan abubuwan karfen, kawai suna kashe magnetic electromagnet din ne kuma komai zai fadi.

Hanyar kunna shi ita ce ta wadatar da wannan ɓangaren tare da m halin yanzu. Muddin wannan aikin yana aiki akan lantarki, ana kiyaye filin magnetic kuma ƙarfen ya kasance a haɗe da shi. Lokacin da wannan halin ya ƙare, zai ɓace kuma abubuwan ƙarfe zasu cire. Don haka zaka iya sarrafa shi da sauri.

Da kyau, wannan ma kuna iya amfani da ku don amfanin kanku kuma ta hanya mai arha. Kuna iya siyan electromagnet mai shirye ko sanya shi da kanku, tunda bashi da rikitarwa kwata-kwata, sabanin sauran abubuwan lantarki.

Amma idan kuna tunanin cewa electromagnets kawai zasu iya kama ko jawo abubuwa, gaskiyar ita ce kuna kuskure. Da amfani ko aikace-aikace suna da yawa. A zahiri, idan kun duba kewaye da ku, tabbas na'urori da yawa suna amfani da wannan tasirin don aikin su. Misali, zaka sameshi don kararrawa da yawa na gida, ga wasu na'urori wadanda suke da karfin sarrafa injina masu aiki da lantarki, don mutummutumi, ga rumbun kwamfutoci, don injin lantarki (na'ura mai juyi yana jujjuya godiya ga filayen maganadisu da ake samarwa), masu bada wuta, masu magana, zango, makullin maganadisu, da dogon dss.

Ta yaya yake aiki?

Koda koda kana da cikakkun bayanai game da yadda ake sarrafa lantarki, dolene ka fahimci yadda yake aiki jawo hankali ko korar abubuwa (idan kun canza rarrabuwa). Tare da waɗannan nau'ikan na'urori, ba lallai bane ku yi amfani da maganadisu mai ɗorewa don jan hankalin abubuwa masu ƙirar ƙarfe kamar ƙarfe, cobalt, nickel, da sauran gami.

Ka tuna da nau'ikan ƙarfe ko ƙarfe da za ka yi amfani da shi don aikinka, tunda ba kowa ne yake sha'awar waɗannan maganadisu ba.

Don electromagnet yayi aiki, dole ne mu koma ga karatun Danish Hans Christian Orsted, 1820. Ya gano cewa igiyar wutar lantarki na iya samar da filayen magnetic. Daga baya, Burtaniya William Sturgeron zai yi amfani da electromagnet na farko wanda zai ci gajiyar wannan binciken, kuma hakan ya samo asali ne tun a shekarar 1824. Kuma ba zai zama ba sai a shekarar 1930, lokacin da Joshep Henry zai kammala shi don kirkirar lantarki wanda muke da shi a yau.

Jiki za a yi shi da wani murfin rauni da kuma a ciki daskararren ƙwayar cuta, kamar ƙananan ƙarfe, ƙarfe da sauran gami. Madaukai yawanci ana yinsu ne da jan ƙarfe ko aluminium, kuma suna da abin rufe fuska kamar varnish don hana su yin tuntuɓar, tunda zasu kusanci juna ko kuma kai tsaye zasu iya tuntuɓar su don ƙara daidaita su. Wani abu mai kama da abin da ke faruwa tare da murfin mai jujjuyawar wuta, wanda kuma yake da wannan varnar.

Aikin murhunn shine don samar da faɗi magnetic filin, kuma ainihin zai ƙara wannan tasirin kuma ya tattara shi don rage asarar watsawa. A cikin babban abu, yankunanta za a daidaita su ko kuma daidaita su ta hanya guda saboda tsananin ƙarfin murfin, watau, yana kama da abin da ke faruwa a cikin maganadisu na dindindin, wanda kuma ya ce yankuna da ke kan layi a cikin takamaiman shugabanci gwargwadon sandar sa.

Zai iya zama sarrafa ƙarfin jan hankali kara yawan wutar da kake bi ta hanyar lantarki. Wancan ya ce, dole ne in faɗi cewa ba shine kawai abin da ke shafar tasirin kwayar halitta ba, don haɓaka ikonta zaka iya haɓaka ɗaya ko duka waɗannan abubuwan masu zuwa:

  • Yawan jujjuyawar solenoid
  • Kayan abu.
  • Intensarfin halin yanzu.

Lokacin da halin yanzu ya ƙare, yankuna sukan sake juya kansu ba tare da izini ba, sabili da haka rasa maganadisu. Don haka lokacin da kuka cire halin yanzu, electromagnet ya daina jan hankali. Koyaya, saura magneticism zai iya kasancewa wanda ake kira magnetism mai dorewa. Idan kuna son kawar da shi, zaku iya amfani da filin tilastawa a cikin kishiyar shugabanci ko ɗaga zafin jikin kayan sama da yanayin zafin Curie.

Sami na'urar lantarki

gidan lantarki

Kamar yadda na riga nayi tsokaci, zaku iya ƙirƙirar shi da kankaIdan kana son DIY ko kana neman nau'in electromagnet tare da halaye waɗanda basu gamsu da waɗanda zaka iya siya ba. Wata hanya kuma, idan kun fi raggo, to ku sayi electromagnet a kowane shago irin su Amazon.

Da fatan za a lura da wani abu, idan za ku sayi lantarki. Kuma zaku sami farashi daban-daban da nau'ikan da yawa waɗanda ke da halaye daban-daban. Daga cikin su, abin da yafi bambanta shine yawan nauyin da zasu iya tallafawa ko jawo hankali. Misali, 25N na 2.5Kg, 50N na 5Kg, 100N na 10 Kg, 800N na kilogiram 80, 1000N na 100 Kg, da dai sauransu. Akwai wadanda suka fi girma don aikace-aikacen masana'antu, amma ba sau da yawa don aikace-aikacen gida ... Kar kuyi tunanin cewa farashin ya tashi sosai tsakanin ɗayan da ɗayan, tunda kuna da su daga € 3 zuwa € 20.

Idan ka shawarta zaka ƙirƙirar shi da kankaKuna iya samun electromagnet mai arha ta hanyar sauƙaƙan waya don samar da abin ɗorawa kuma a ciki dole ne ku saka gwadaran ƙarfe. Misali, mafi sauki kuma mafi sauki lantarki wanda yara sukanyi don koyo a dakunan gwaje-gwaje, shine suyi amfani da batirin da suke haɗuwa da waya mai aiki da rauni (dole ne a rufe shi da varnish ko insulator na roba don kar suyi tuntuɓar juya) da kuma ciki wanda suke gabatar da yadin da aka saka a matsayin cibiya. Lokacin da ka haɗa ƙarshen biyu zuwa kowane sandar tantanin halitta ko batir, za a samar da wani maganadisu a cikin murfin da ke jan ƙarfe ...

Tabbas, electromagnet zaka iya don kammala tare da murfin da ya fi girma ko amfani da maɓallin ƙarfe daban idan kuna son cimma girman ƙarfin wuta da fannonin maganadiso.

Haɗuwa tare da Arduino

makircin makirci tare da Arduino

La hadewa tare da Arduino bashi da rikitarwa kwata-kwata. Ko dai electromagnet da aka siya ko wacce da kanka ta kirkira, kai tsaye zaka iya amfani da kayan aikin Arduino da kuma samarda wuta don kunna ko kashe electromagnet din kamar yadda kake so ta amfani da lambar zane. Amma idan kanaso kayi shi ta hanya mafi kyau, yakamata kayi amfani da wasu abubuwa dan sarrafa electromagnet din ta hanyar da ta dace, musamman idan yafi karfin lantarki. A wannan yanayin, zaku iya amfani da misali transistor MOSFET a matsayin abun sarrafawa, ko NPN TIP120 (shine na saba gwada shi), har ma da relay. Don haka, zaku iya amfani da ɗayan dijital dijital don sarrafa transistor kuma wannan bi da bi zuwa electromagnet ...

Dole ne ku sanya komowa ko diode na kamantawa kamar wanda yake cikin hoton, tsakanin masu haɗa mahaɗan electromagnet ɗin. Hakanan dole ne ku haɗa da 2K ohm resistor kamar yadda kuke gani a zane. Sauran hanyoyin haɗin suna da sauƙi, kamar yadda kuke gani. Tabbas, a wannan yanayin, wayoyi masu shuɗi da shuɗi suna dacewa da ƙarfin waje wanda za'a yi amfani da shi akan mashigin lantarki.

Ka tuna cewa akwai electromagnets na Maras ƙarfi ƙarfin lantarki 6V, 12V, 24V, da dai sauransu, saboda haka dole ne ku san ƙarfin wutar lantarki wanda dole ne ku yi amfani da shi don kada ku lalata shi. Kuna iya ganin cikakkun bayanai a cikin kwatancen Amazon ko ta hanyar neman takaddun bayanan abubuwan da kuke amfani da su. Ka tuna kuma ka mutunta pinout ɗinsa, waɗanda suke fil biyu, ɗaya don ƙasa ko GND ɗayan kuma Vin don amfani da ikon sarrafawa.

Wanda nayi amfani dashi wajan tabbatarwa wannan makircin makirci wanda na kirkira a Fritzing shine 6V, saboda haka a layin da na sanya a dama a jikin zane za'a yi amfani da shi + 0 / 6V a cikin ja da -0 / 6V a shudi. Ka tuna cewa gwargwadon ƙarfin za ka sami ƙarfi ko ƙasa da ƙarfi.

para lambar, Kuna iya yin abu mai sauƙi kamar mai zuwa (ku tuna cewa zaku iya canza lambar ta yadda maimakon kunnawa da kashewa lokaci-lokaci bayan wani lokaci, kamar wannan, yana yin hakan ya dogara da wani firikwensin da kuke dashi a cikin da'irarku, ko kuma cewa wani lamari ya faru ...):

const int pin = 3;
//Recuerda que debes usar el pin correcto que hayas utilizado en el esquema eléctrico de tu proyecto
 
void setup() {
  pinMode(pin, OUTPUT);  //definir pin como salida
}
 
void loop(){
  digitalWrite(pin, HIGH);   // poner el Pin en HIGH para activar el electroimán
  delay(10000);               // esperar un segundo
  digitalWrite(pin, LOW);    // poner el Pin en LOW para desactivar el electroimán
  delay(10000);               // esperar un segundo
}


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