Nau'in RAM: duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da babban ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya

La RAM memory na kwamfuta shine ɗayan mahimman abubuwa kuma waɗanda aka ƙwadago, tunda tana kawo saurin tsarin ka. Kari akan haka, akwai nau'ikan RAM da yawa, kuma kowane daya yana da wasu halaye da dole ne mai amfani ya sanya idanu don sanin shin tsarin ya dace ko kuma bai dace da kayan aikin su ba ko kuma zai samar da ayyuka masu yawa ko kadan. Yawancin waɗannan halaye na fasaha cikakke ne ga yawancin masu amfani ba su sani ba.

Saboda haka, a cikin wannan labarin na nuna muku duk abin da ya kamata ku sani game da ƙwaƙwalwar RAM, don haka a gaba in ka sayi wata hanya don faɗaɗa ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar kwamfutarka, ba ta da wani sirri gare ka. Idan kana so zama gaskiya ƙwaƙwalwar "gwani" Nau'in RAM, ci gaba da karantawa ...

A kadan tarihi

IBM naushi katin

Bayani

da kwakwalwa suna buƙatar ƙwaƙwalwa don adana shirye-shiryen (bayanai da umarni). A farkon, kwamfutoci a cikin 30s sun yi amfani da katunan naushi. Sun kasance kwali ne na kwali ko wasu abubuwa tare da ramuka da aka yi dabaru yadda kwamfutar zata iya fassara waɗancan ramuka a matsayin lambar binary. Wannan hanyar an ɗora shirye-shiryen. Mace ce ta fito da waɗannan katinan naushi, musamman Ada LovelaceAda Byron. Ada an dauki matsayin mai shirya shirye-shirye na farko na tarihi, saboda aikinsa na sanya shahararren masanin binciken Charles Babbage ya zama mai amfani.

Byananan ƙananan injunan sun samo asali. Tare da isowar ENIAC, a cikin 1946, yayi amfani dashi fanfunan fanko gini tunanin tare da jefa-flops. Wadannan bawul din sun haifar da matsaloli da yawa saboda rashin amincin su, gine-ginensu yayi kama da kwan fitila kuma sun ƙone kamar waɗannan, don haka dole ne a sauya su akai-akai. Bugu da kari, sun kasance masu dumi kuma sun cinye makamashi mai yawa.

An buƙaci wani abu daban Lantarki idan kanaso ka cigaba. A cikin 1953, an fara amfani da abubuwan tunawa mai ƙarfi. Kuma har sai shekarar 1968 IBM ya tsara memorywaƙwalwar mai kwakwalwa ta farko. Wannan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar ƙwaƙwalwar ta warware matsalolin waɗanda suka gabata, yana ba da aminci, ɗorewa da sauri. Tana da damar 64-bit, amma mafi ban sha'awa shine cewa kwakwalwan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya na farko sun kasance anan.

Domin yawancin tarihi, Tsarin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya daban-daban, kamar kaset din maganadisu, diski mai taya, kafofin watsa labarai na gani (CD, DVD,…), na'uran farko masu karfin maganadisu (HDD), tunanin mai kwakwalwa (SSD, RAM, register, buffer / cache, ROM,…), da sauransu.

A wannan gaba, dole ne a faɗi cewa a da ɗaya kawai matakin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya. Babban ƙwaƙwalwa wanda shine inda shirin yake. Amma kamar yadda sarrafa kwamfuta ya samo asali, sauran abubuwan shirye-shiryen shirye-shiryen daban-daban an haɗa su har zuwa bayyanar saurin tunani kamar RAM.

Zuwan RAM

Lokacin da RAM tazo, kwamfutoci sun fara da matakai biyu na ƙwaƙwalwa. A gefe guda akwai ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar ƙarfin aiki, ƙananan gudu da mai rahusa, kamar yadda sakandare na biyu. Wannan ƙwaƙwalwar ta biyu ita ce rumbun diski, wanda a halin yanzu ya samo asali daga rumbun ƙarfin maganadisu (HDD), zuwa rumbun kwamfutoci masu ƙarfi na yanzu bisa ga semiconductors ko SSDs.

Yayin da babban ko ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya shine muke kira RAM (Memory Access Memory ko kuma Random Access Memory). Wannan ƙwaƙwalwar tana da sauri fiye da ƙwaƙwalwa ta biyu sau da yawa, amma ƙarfinta ya ragu ƙwarai, tunda farashinta ya fi girma kuma ba shi da amfani don samun manyan ƙarfi.

Memoryaddamar da ƙwaƙwalwar sakandare mai ƙarfi don adana shirye-shiryenmu da bayananmu, tare da ƙwaƙwalwar tsaka-tsakin ƙwaƙwalwa tsakanin sakandare da ƙungiyar sarrafawa, ana iya samar da ƙarin saurin sauri ba tare da sadaukar da babban ƙarfin ba. A cikin RAM zasu tafi umarni masu lodawa da bayanai daga tafiyar matakai ko shirye-shirye ta yadda CPU za ta iya samun damar su ba tare da samun damar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ba, wanda zai zama da hankali sosai.

Hakanan, RAM wani nau'in ƙwaƙwalwar maras tabbas Yana asarar abinda ke ciki idan an cire wutar lantarki. Ba zai zama da amfani ba kawai a sami irin wannan ƙwaƙwalwar, tunda duk lokacin da aka kashe kayan aikin, komai zai ɓace. Wannan shine dalilin da yasa har yanzu tunanin sakandare yake da mahimmanci. Abubuwan tunawa ne na dindindin waɗanda basa buƙatar samun wutar lantarki mai ɗorewa don adana ƙimomin.

Idan kana son tarihi, da Lokacin tafiyar RAM takaita shi ne:

  • Daya daga cikin farkon tunanin RAM shine na magnetic tsakiya na 1949. Kowane bit an adana shi a cikin toroid na kayan ƙarfe. Kowane yanki ya kasance 'yan milimita a diamita, saboda haka ɗaukar sarari da yawa da iyakance iya aiki. Amma ya kasance mafi kyau fiye da zango da layin jinkiri don wannan nau'in ƙwaƙwalwar damar bazuwar.
  • A cikin 1969 raguna na farko da aka kirkira tare da injiniyoyin semiconductors na Intel zasu zo. Tare da kwakwalwan kwamfuta kamar 3101 64-bit. A shekara mai zuwa ya gabatar DRAM ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya na 1 KB (guntu 1103), aza harsashin tunanin bazuwar damar shigowa yanzu. A zahiri, DRAM zai zama abin misali, don haka ƙirƙirar kamfanin IBM ta mamaye masana'antar.
  • Shekaru daga baya za a ci gaba da zama miniaturized, tare da kwakwalwan kwamfuta tare da haɓaka ƙarfin aiki da aiki, har sai da aka fara watsi da SIPPs da DIPs don fara amfani da na yanzu. SIMM kayayyaki (Single In-line Memory Module), ma'ana, kayayyaki tare da dukkan lambobin sadarwa a gefe ɗaya. Hakan ya sauƙaƙa sauya RAM da ƙara su kamar dai su katunan faɗaɗa ne.
  • A ƙarshen 80s, fasaha mai sarrafawa ta sanya masu sarrafawa da sauri fiye da RAM, wanda ke haifar da mahimmanci kwalban. Ya zama dole don haɓaka bandwidth da saurin samun damar kwakwalwan kwakwalwar lagging.
  • Yawancin fasaha fara isowa don rage girman wannan kwalba, kamar FPM RAM (Fasaha ta Azumin Rama), wanda aka samo shi ta Burst Mode na Intel 80486. Yanayin magancewa wanda ya inganta samun dama, tare da lokutan samun 70 ko 60 ns.
  • EDORAM, o addamar da Sakamakon Bayanai, zai zo a 1994 tare da lokutan samun dama na 40 ko 30 ns. Ci gaban da ya dogara da wannan shine BEDO, Burst EDO, yana samun ci gaba na 50% akan EDO.
  • da saurin tunani sun kasance na microprocessors, kamar su cell based rijista SRAM (Static RAM). Amma suna da tsada sosai don cimma manyan dabaru tare da su, don haka basu kasance masu amfani ba duk da yawan rawar da suke da shi. Wannan shine dalilin da ya sa aka mayar da su ƙaramin buffers ko ƙaramin rajistar CPU. Saboda wannan dalili, EDO, BEDO, FPM, har yanzu suna cikin nau'in DRAM.
  • A cikin 1992, Samsung ya ƙirƙiri gungun kasuwanci na farko SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM), daidaitaccen halin yanzu.
  • Daga nan gaba, duk ragamar an gina ta ne akan ƙwayoyin ƙwaƙwalwar SDRAM. Daya daga cikin wadanda suka fara bayyana shine Rambus daga Intel, wanda ya wuce ba tare da ciwo ko ɗaukaka ba a gaban mai rahusa SDR RAM (Single Data Rate RAM).
  • Don inganta ayyukan waɗanda suka gabata ba ɗaga farashin kamar yadda ya faru da Rambus ba, DDR zai iso (Dual Data Rate). DDR ya ba da izinin canzawa akan tashoshi biyu a lokaci guda a kowane zagaye na agogo, yana ninka ayyukan SDR.
  • Kuma daga DDR, kun san yadda tarihi yaci gaba da bayyanar DDR2, DDR3, DDR4, DDR5, ...

... amma bai isa ba

Lissafi yana buƙatar ƙara aiki. Da HDDs sun canza zuwa SSDs yafi sauri. Kuma microprocessors sun fara hada tunanin kansu na sauri tsakanin bangarorin aiki da RAM. Ta waccan hanyar, za su iya loda musu bayanai da umarni don samun damar gaggawa kai tsaye maimakon ci gaba da tafiya kai tsaye zuwa RAM duk lokacin da suke buƙatar abu.

Waɗannan tunanin da na ambata su ne ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya, abin ajiyewa wanda ke aiki azaman ajiyar ajiya tsakanin CPU da RAM. Dole ne a faɗi cewa a da kuna iya siyan ɗakunan ɓoye kamar RAM, kuma kuna iya ƙarawa idan kuna son ƙungiyar ku. Wani abu kamar tsofaffin masu aiwatarwa ko FPUs, waɗanda ba a haɗa su cikin kwakwalwar CPU kanta ba. Amma bayan lokaci, an haɗa su cikin kunshin sarrafa kanta (duba misali Intel Pentium Pro) kuma a ƙarshe sun zama ɓangare na IC ɗin kamar yadda yake a cikin microprocessors na yanzu.

Waɗannan tunanin sun kasance suna girma cikin matakan, kamar L1 na yanzu (haɗawa ko rarrabe don umarni / bayanai), haɗin L2, L3, da dai sauransu. Kuma ba wai kawai wannan ba, a waje da microprocessor kuma ana aiki don ƙara saurin samun dama ga bayanai da umarni, kamar su Intel Octant modules da sauran nau'ikan buffers, amma wannan wani labarin ne ...

DDR-SDRAM

DIMM vs. SO-DIMM

Bayan sanya ku a baya, kun riga kun san hanyar da aka ɗauka har zuwa zuwan halin yanzu DDR SDRAM. Yanzu, zamu ga nau'ikan da ke akwai da halayensu. Dole ne a ce idan aka kwatanta da Intel Pentium 4 da suka yi amfani da RAMBUS galibi, AMD Athlon sune farkon waɗanda suka goyi bayan DDR mai arha. Gabanin tallace-tallace da aikin kwamfutocin AMD, Intel an tilasta shi ma yayi amfani da DDR ...

Iri

Dangane da sigar DDR

da Sigogin DDR ba da izini mara kyau:

  • DDR: PC-xxxx yana nuna bandwidth na module din, idan misali PC-1600 ne, wannan yana faruwa ne daga ninka 100.000.000 hz (100 Mhz bus) x 2 (kasancewar Dual Data Rate) x 8 bytes = 1600 MB / s ko 1.6 GB / s canja wurin
    • DDR-200 (PC-1600): tare da bas 100 Mhz da 200 Mhz I / O. Sunanta ya fito ne daga canjin 1600 MB / s ko 1.6 GB / s canja wurin.
    • DDR-266 (PC-2100): tare da bas 133 Mhz da 266 Mhz I / O. Tare da damar canja wuri na 2.1 GB / s.
    • DDR-333 (PC-2700): tare da bas 166 Mhz da 333 Mhz I / O. Tare da damar canja wuri na 2.7 GB / s.
    • DDR-400 (PC-3200): tare da bas 200 Mhz da 400 Mhz I / O. Tare da jimlar mafi yawan canja wurin 3.2 GB / s.
  • DDR2: yana aiki da ragowa 4 a kowane zagaye, ma'ana, 2 yana tafiya da 2 baya. Wannan yana inganta ƙimar DDR1 da ta gabata.
    • Daga DDR2-333 (PC2-2600): yana aiki tare da bas mai tushe 100 Mhz, tare da 166 Mhz I / O, wanda ke ba shi damar canja wuri na 2.6 GB / s. 10 ns lokacin shiga
    • Har zuwa DDR2-1200 (PC2-9600): bas din ya hau zuwa 300Mhz, 600Mhz don I / O kuma 9.6GB / s canja wuri. 3,3ns lokacin isowa
  • DDR3: yana ba da saurin saurin canja wuri da saurin aiki idan aka kwatanta da DDR2, kodayake jinkirin ya fi girma.
    • Daga DDR3-1066 (PC3-8500): bas 133 Mhz, 533 Mhz I / O, Canza 8.5 GB / s. Lokacin isowa na 7.5 ns.
    • Har zuwa DDR3-2200 (PC3-18000): bas ɗin Mhz 350, 1100 Mhz I / O, da canja wurin 18 GB / s. 3.3 ns damar lokaci
  • DDR4: supplyarfin wutar lantarki da ƙananan canja wuri idan aka kwatanta da waɗanda suka gabata. Abun takaici yana da jinkiri mafi girma, wanda ya rage aikinsa duk sauran abubuwa daidai suke.
    • Daga DDR4-1600 (PC4-12800): tare da bas mai tushe 200 Mhz, 1600 Mhz I / O, da canja wurin 12.8 GB / s.
    • Har zuwa DDR4-2666 (PC4-21300): tare da bas mai tushe 333 Mhz, 2666 Mhz I / O, da canja wurin 21.3 GB / s.
  • DDR5, DDR6, DDR7 ...: nan gaba kadan.

Dangane da nau'in module

da Sifofin SIMM sun canza zuwa DIMM na yanzu, waɗanda aka raba su zuwa:

  • DIMM (Module mai ƙwaƙwalwa a cikin layi biyu): moduleirar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya tare da lambobi a ɓangarorin biyu, yana ba da damar yawan lambobin sadarwa. Su ne kwamfutocin tebur ke amfani da su.
  • SO-DIMM (IMananan Shafin DIMM)- Wannan sigar saukarwa ce ta DIMMs na yau da kullun, ma'ana, gajerun kayayyaki don ƙananan kwamfutoci. Ana amfani da su a cikin kwamfyutocin rubutu, motherboards don miniPCs tare da ƙananan sifofin abubuwa kamar mini-ITX, da dai sauransu.

Ko sun kasance DIMMs ko SO-DIMMs, suna iya zama na ƙarfinsu daban-daban, halaye, da nau'ikan da aka gani a sama. Wannan baya canza komai.

A cewar tashoshin

Memorywarorin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya na RAM za a iya haɗuwa tare da bas ko ɗaya:

  • Tashar Memory guda ɗaya: duk rukunin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar an haɗa su zuwa cikin banki guda ɗaya, suna raba bas ɗaya.
  • Tashar Memory Dual- Kuna da bankunan banki daban daban guda biyu akan katako. Ana iya saka matakan a cikin waɗannan tashoshin guda biyu, tare da motocin bas biyu daban, suna ba da babbar bandwidth, sabili da haka aiki. Misali, idan kana da APU ko Intel tare da hadadden GPU, zai iya kawo babbar fa'ida ta barin CPU MMU ya sami damar shiga motar bas guda daya yayin da mai kula da ƙwaƙwalwar GPU ya sami damar ɗayan ba tare da tsangwama tsakanin su biyu ba ...
  • Hanyar Memory QuadLokacin da buƙatun samun damar suka fi yawa, yana yiwuwa a sami katunan uwa tare da tashoshi huɗu, kodayake samun tashoshi huɗu ba koyaushe ke samar da aikin da ake tsammani ba idan ba a amfani da wannan ƙarfin da gaske.

Latitude

Ramin RAM a kan katako

A karshe, lokacin da kake son fadada RAM dinka, akwai jerin fasali, baya ga abinda aka riga aka gani, wadanda zasu iya rikita maka yayin siyan wacce ta dace. ina nufin da latencies, na CAS, RAS, da sauransu. Game da wutar lantarki da nau'ikan sigar, gaskiyar magana ita ce, wannan zai dogara ne da dacewar katunanku da nau'in ƙwaƙwalwar da aka zaɓa. Ya kamata ku karanta littattafan katunanku don sanin abin da ƙwaƙwalwar kwakwalwar ku ke goyan baya da kuma irin nau'in darasin da kuke da shi.

Hakanan zaka iya duban ƙirar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ko kayayyaki waɗanda ka riga ka girka don sanin yadda zaka sami irin wannan tsarin don faɗaɗa shi, kuma yana da halaye iri ɗaya kuma masu dacewa.

Gudun RAM koyaushe yana da alaƙa da dalilai biyu, ɗaya shine mitar agogo kuma ɗayan latency ne. Latency shine lokacin da ake buƙata don samun dama (rubuta ko karantawa). Kuma za'a iya samun nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan tsarin layi daban-daban, kuma anan ne masu amfani suke rikicewa har suka yarda da cewa idan suka girka wata manhaja da lattin ta daban to ba zata dace ba, ko kuma hakan zai iya shafar ko a'a ... Wato abin da zan gwada bayyana anan.

Da farko dai dole zama bayyananne game da yadda RAM ke aikiLokacin da aka buƙata don samun damar takamaiman toshewar ƙwaƙwalwar, wato, wani ɓangare na ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya inda aka adana bayanai, ana rarraba ƙwaƙwalwar a cikin layuka da ginshiƙai. Ta hanyar kunna layin da suka dace da layin zaɓi, zaku iya rubuta ko karanta duk abin da kuke so. Amma don waɗannan ayyukan samun damar faruwa, suna buƙatar bi ta wasu cyan hanyoyi don aiwatar da ayyukan da ke jinkirta aikin. Wannan latency ne.

Ta yaya zan san makarar tsarin? Da kyau, ƙila kun lura cewa kayan aikin suna da alamar alama 16-18-18-35 ko makamancin haka, waɗannan sune latencies a nanoseconds. Kowace lamba tana da ma'anarta gwargwadon matsayin da take ciki:

  • 16: Valueimar farko zata iya bayyana kamar CL ko CAS Latency, yana da alama yana nuna lokacin da ya wuce tsakanin processor da ke neman bayanai daga RAM kuma ya gano kuma ya aika shi.
  • 18: Ana iya samun lamba ta biyu kamar TRCD ko RAS zuwa CAS Latency, wannan lambar tana wakiltar lokaci tsakanin wuri da kunna layin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya (RAS) da shafi (CAS), tuna cewa an tsara ƙwaƙwalwar kamar dai ta dara hukumar.
  • 18: Lamba ta uku ana iya samun ta kamar TRP ko RAS Precharge kuma tana nufin lokacin da ake daukar memori kafin ayi break break, wato a kashe layin data da kuke amfani da shi yanzu da kuma kunna sabon layi.
  • 35: A ƙarshe ƙimar ta huɗu tana nuna abin da zai iya bayyana azaman TRAS, Mai aiki ko Mai aiki don precharge. Yana wakiltar lokacin jira kafin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ta sake samun damar bayanai.

Lokacin ƙananan lambobin, mafi kyaukamar yadda sauri zai kasance. Idan kana da tsarin DDR4 tare da CL11 da tsarin CL9, na biyun zai fi sauri, babu shakka.

Shin zaku iya haɗuwa da kayayyaki tare da lattin daban?

Wannan daga ina ya fito tambayar karni, da rikicewar masu amfani da yawa. Amsar ita ce eh. Idan kuna da tsarin DDR4, tare da mitar agogo iri ɗaya, amma tare da takamaiman CL da aka sanya a kwamfutarka kuma za ku sayi wani mai halaye iri ɗaya, amma tare da CL daban, babu matsala. Zai yi aiki, ba za su iya jituwa ba, ƙungiyarku ba za ta ƙi shi ba. Latency kamar iya aiki ne ko alama, yana iya zama daban tsakanin kayayyaki ba tare da wani abu ya faru ba.

Sa'an nan? Abinda kawai watakila baza ku cimma rawar gani ba, ko wataƙila zai ɗan rage kaɗan dangane da zaɓinku. Zan bayyana muku shi da misali. Ka yi tunanin wani aiki mai amfani, cewa kana da tsarin Kingston DDR4 na 8 GB a 2400 Mhz da CL14 da aka girka a kwamfutarka. Amma kana so ka fadada RAM dinka ka siya Corsair DDR4 8GB a 2800Mhz da CL16. Kuna da matakai guda biyu waɗanda suke da cikakkiyar jituwa, ƙungiyarku za ta haƙura da shi, ba za ta daina aiki ba. Kuna da 16 GB na RAM aiki. Amma ... abubuwa da yawa na iya faruwa:

  1. Dukansu rukunin RAM suna rage mitar su zuwa tsoffin bayanan martaba na ƙimar JEDEC, kamar su 2133 Mhz. Wato, ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyarka zata ɗan sami raguwa ta hanyar rage mitar agogo, sabili da haka saurin canzawarta.
  2. Wani zaɓi shine don koyaushe don daidaita tsarin da yake a cikin latency da mita. A wannan yanayin, maimakon 2800 Mhz, dukansu zasuyi aiki a 2400Mhz kuma a mafi girman CL.

Yaushe za ku sami matsala? Lokacin da kake amfani da Dual Channel ko Quad Channel. A waɗancan lokuta ya fi kyau ka sayi kayayyaki iri ɗaya dangane da halaye (ƙwarewa da ƙirar mai ƙerawa na iya bambanta).

Nawa RAM nake bukata?

Da kyau, a taƙaice wannan ya dogara da bukatun kowane mai amfani. Misali, idan zaku yi amfani da software na ofis, kewaya, da sauransu, watakila 4-8 GB zasu isa. Amma idan kuna son yin wasa, wataƙila kuna buƙatar 8-16GB. Idan zaku aiwatar da injina na zamani da yawa kuna iya buƙatar 32 GB ko fiye… abu ne na sirri. Babu wata hanyar sihiri don yawan abin da kuke buƙata.

Yana da matukar mahimmanci ka ga abubuwanda ake buƙata na software ɗin da zaku yi amfani dasu akai-akai don zaɓar kayan aikin ku da kyau ...

Akwai wata dabara wacce take taimaka maka zaɓi mafi ƙarancin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya, don kar a girka ƙasa da yadda ya kamata. Kuma yana wucewa ninka 2 GB ga kowane ginshiƙi ko mahimmin da CPU ɗinku ke dashi. Saboda haka, idan kuna da quadcore ya kamata ku sami aƙalla 8 GB.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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  1. Mai alhakin bayanan: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Dalilin bayanan: Gudanar da SPAM, gudanar da sharhi.
  3. Halacci: Yarda da yarda
  4. Sadarwar bayanan: Ba za a sanar da wasu bayanan ga wasu kamfanoni ba sai ta hanyar wajibcin doka.
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  6. Hakkoki: A kowane lokaci zaka iyakance, dawo da share bayanan ka.

  1.   Miguel Angel Nieva m

    Yayi bayani sosai

  2.   Gustavo Aguirre mai sanya hoto m

    Labari mai kyau, anyi bayani sosai. Kuma idan haka ne tare da Chanel din biyu, kowa yayi tambaya iri ɗaya… »tambayar dala miliyan»… Ina da tunanin 2 kingston hyper X. ofayan 8gb a 1866MHz ɗayan kuma 4gb a 1600MHz. Gudun a cikin Channel biyu Yayi, amma a bayyane yana aiki tare da mitar da aka iyakance zuwa 1600MHz duka kuma tare da mafi ƙarancin jinkiri. Tare da shirin tabbatar da tashar tashar biyu a 128bits maimakon 64bits. Na gode da aikinku akan labarin. Gaisuwa