DRV8825: direba ne na motar stepper

suwara 8825

Un direban mota Wuri ne wanda yake ba da izinin sarrafa matukan kai tsaye ta hanya mai sauƙi. Waɗannan masu kula suna ba ka damar sarrafa wutar lantarki da raƙuman ruwa wanda ake kawo motar don sarrafa saurin juyawa. Bugu da kari, suna aiki ne a matsayin hanyar kariya don hana wayoyin lantarki na injina lalacewa ta hanyar iyakance na yanzu da ke zagayawa (sara).

Sabili da haka, idan zaku ƙirƙiri aikin DIY wanda zaiyi hada da daya ko fiye da motar DCKowane irin nau'ikan su ne, kuma musamman don motocin motsa jiki, ya kamata ka yi amfani da direba na mota don sauƙaƙa abubuwa a gare ka. Kodayake akwai hanyoyi don yin shi daban, ta amfani da transistors, kayayyaki tare da direbobin mota sun fi aiki da sauƙi. A zahiri, waɗannan direbobin sun dogara ga transistors don yin aikin su ...

Me yasa nake bukatar direba?

El direba wajibi ne don sarrafa motar, kamar yadda na fada a baya. Hakanan, yakamata ku tuna cewa kwamitin Arduino da mai sarrafa shi ba zasu iya yin motsi da motar ba. An tsara shi kawai don siginar dijital, amma ba zai yi aiki da kyau ba yayin da za a kawo ƙaramin ƙarfi kamar yadda waɗannan nau'ikan injunan ke buƙata. Wannan shine dalilin da ya sa dole ku sami wannan nauyin tsakanin hukumar Arduino da injina.

Nau'in direbobi

Lallai yasan hakan akwai direbobi iri-iri ya danganta da nau'in injin da aka nufa da su. Wannan yana da mahimmanci don sanin yadda za'a bambance shi don samun direba mai dacewa:

  • Direba don motar unipolar: sune mafi sauki ga sarrafawa, tunda halin yanzu da yake gudana ta cikin kullun koyaushe yana tafiya zuwa hanya ɗaya. Aikin direba kawai dole ne ya san abin da yake motsa shi don kunna kowane bugun jini. Misali na irin wannan mai sarrafawa zai zama ULN2003A.
  • Direba don motar bipolar: wadannan injunan sunada rikitarwa kuma direbobinsu suma sunada yawa, kamar DRV8825. A wannan yanayin ana iya kunna su tare da halin yanzu ta wata hanya ko ɗayan (arewa-kudu da kudu-arewa). Direba ne ke yanke shawara game da canza canjin yanayin maganadisu wanda aka samar cikin motar. Mafi sanannun da'irar juya juzu'i ana kiranta Punete H, yana bawa injin damar juyawa a duka hanyoyin. Wannan gadar H ta kunshi transistors da yawa.

Wadannan na ƙarshe sun zama sananne sosai a cikin recentan shekarun nan saboda suma suna cikin wasu 3D marubuta don sarrafa bugu tare da kai. Zai yuwu idan kunyi niyyar hawa firintar 3D ko kuma idan kuna da ita, kuna buƙatar ɗayan waɗannan don iya sarrafa motar ko maye gurbin wannan ɓangaren idan ya lalace. Hakanan ana amfani dasu don mutummutumi, masu maƙarƙashiya, masu buga takardu na yau da kullun, sikantas, motocin lantarki, da dogon dss

Saukewa: DRV8825

Akwai samfuran direbobi da yawa akan kasuwa. Misali, shi DRV8825 sigar haɓakawa ce ta A4988. Wannan direba kawai yana buƙatar abubuwan dijital guda biyu daga microcontroller don iya iya sarrafa motar yadda yakamata. Tare da wannan kawai za ku iya sarrafa shugabanci da matakin motar tare da waɗannan alamun biyu. Wato, wannan yana ba da izini, ko kuma motar tana juyawa mataki zuwa mataki maimakon juyawa da sauri kamar sauran injina masu sauƙi.

DRV8825 yana ba da izinin aiki tare da ƙaƙƙarfan ƙarfi fiye da waɗanda A4988 ke amfani da shi, tun zai iya kaiwa 45v maimakon 35v na A4988. Hakanan zai iya ɗaukar ƙananan raƙuman ruwa, musamman 2.5A, wannan rabin amfani ne fiye da A4988. Toari ga wannan duka, wannan sabon direban yana ƙara sabon yanayin microstepping na 1/32 (1/16 don A4988) don ya sami damar matsar da ƙirar matattarar motar daidai.

In ba haka ba sun yi kama da juna. Misali, dukansu suna iya kaiwa yanayin zafi mai aiki ba tare da matsala ba. Sabili da haka, idan kuna biye da su da ƙaramin ruwan zafi, mafi kyau (samfuran da yawa sun riga sun haɗa shi), musamman idan zaku yi amfani da shi sama da 1A.

Idan encapsulation ya kai yanayin zafi mai zafi, a matsayin kiyayewa ya kamata ku kashe shi. Zai yi kyau a shawarci bayanai na samfurin da kuka siya kuma ku ga matsakaicin zafin da zai iya aiki. Ara firikwensin zafin jiki kusa da direba don saka idanu da yawan zafin jiki da amfani da da'irar da ke katse aikin idan ya kai wannan ƙarancin zafin jiki za a ba da shawarar sosai ...

DRV8825 yana da kariya daga matsaloli na yawan wuce gona da iri, gajeren zagaye, wuce gona da iri da yanayin zafi. Sabili da haka, suna da matukar abin dogara da na'urori masu juriya. Kuma duk don farashi mai sauki a cikin shagunan musamman inda zaku iya samun wannan ɓangaren.

microstepping

microstepping

Tare da dabara na microstepping matakai kasa da na maras kyau mataki za a iya cimma na motar stepper da zaka yi amfani da ita. Wato, raba jujjuya zuwa karin rabo don samun damar ciyarwa a hankali ko kuma daidai. Don yin wannan, halin da ake amfani da shi a kowane murji ya bambanta ta hanyar kwaikwayon ƙimar analog tare da sigina na dijital da ke akwai. Idan an sami cikakkun siginar analog na sinusoidal kuma 90º ya fita daga lokaci tare da juna, za'a sami juyawar da ake so.

Amma ba shakka, ba zaku iya samun wannan siginar analog ɗin ba, saboda muna aiki tare da sigina na dijital. Wannan shine dalilin da ya sa ya kamata a bi da waɗannan don ƙoƙari don daidaita siginar analog ta hanyar ƙananan tsalle a cikin siginar lantarki. Theudurin motar zai dogara da wannan: 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, ...

Don zaɓar ƙudurin da kuke so dole ne ku sarrafa m0, M1 da M2 fil ɗin koyaushe. Ana haɗa pin ɗin zuwa ƙasa ko GND ta hanyar masu tsayayya, don haka idan ba a haɗa komai ba koyaushe za su zama OWASA ko 0. Don canza wannan ƙimar, dole ne ku tilasta darajar 1 ko HIGH. Da dabi'u na M0, M1, M2 daidai da waɗanda suka zama daidai da ƙuduri, sune:

  • Cikakken mataki: Lowasa, Lowasa, Lowasa
  • 1/2: Babban, Lowananan, Lowasa
  • 1/4: Lowananan, Maɗaukaki, Lowasa
  • 1/8: Babban, Maɗaukaki, Lowasa
  • 1/16: Kadan, Kadan, Maɗaukaki
  • 1/32: duk wasu dabi'u masu yuwuwa

Pinout

DRV8825 mai kashe ido

El Direban DRV8825 yana da makircin haɗi mai sauƙi, kodayake samun fil fil na iya zama ɗan rikitarwa ga ƙwararren masani. Kuna iya ganin shi a hoton da ke sama, amma tabbatar da sanya madaidaicin yadda yakamata yayin duban fil, tunda abu ne na yau da kullun yin kuskure da ɗaukar shi a juye, wanda ke haifar da mummunan haɗi har ma da lalacewa.

Como shawarwarin haɗa direba, ana bada shawara don daidaitawa da daidaita na'urar ta bin matakan da ke ƙasa don aiki mai kyau kuma kada su lalata shi:

  1. Haɗa direba zuwa ƙarfin lantarki ba tare da motar da aka haɗa ko microstepping ba.
  2. Auna tare da multimeter tashin hankali hakan ya kasance tsakanin GND da mai ƙarfin ƙarfin.
  3. Daidaita ma'auni har sai ya zama darajar da ta dace.
  4. Yanzu zaka iya kashe wuta.
  5. A wannan lokacin eh zaku iya haɗa mota. Kuma sake haɗa wutar zuwa mai nutsar.
  6. Tare da ma'aunin multimeter tsananin tsakanin direba da motar mataki-mataki kuma zaka iya yin gyara mai kyau na mai iya aiki da karfi.
  7. Kashe wutar kuma kuma yanzu zaka iya haɗa shi da Arduino.

Idan bazaka yi amfani da shi ba microstepping zaka iya daidaita ƙarfin mai sarrafawa har zuwa 100% na motar da aka auna yanzu. Amma idan zakuyi amfani dashi, dole ne ku rage wannan iyaka, tunda ƙimar da zata zagaya zata fi ta wanda aka auna ...

Labari mai dangantaka:
L298N: koyaushe don sarrafa injuna don Arduino

Haɗuwa tare da Arduino

ARduino da DRV8825 makirci

Don amfani da direban DRV8825 tare da Arduino, haɗin yana da sauki kamar yadda zaku iya gani a saman wannan makircin lantarki daga Fritzing:

  • VMOT: an haɗa shi zuwa wuta har zuwa iyakar 45v.
  • GND: ƙasa (mota)
  • SLP: ku 5v
  • RST: ku 5v
  • GND: zuwa ƙasa (ma'ana)
  • STP: zuwa Arduino fil 3
  • DIR: zuwa Arduino fil 2
  • A1, A2, B1, B2: zuwa stepper (mota)

Da zarar an haɗa ka kuma an daidaita shi daidai, lambar don sarrafa ta ma kai tsaye ce. Misali, don sarrafa motar taki zaka iya amfani da wadannan lambar a cikin Arduino IDE:

const int dirPin = 2;
const int stepPin = 3;
 
const int steps = 200;
int stepDelay;
 
void setup() {
   // Configura los pines como salida
   pinMode(dirPin, OUTPUT);
   pinMode(stepPin, OUTPUT);
}
 
void loop() {
   //Se pone una dirección y velocidad
   digitalWrite(dirPin, HIGH);
   stepDelay = 250;
   // Se gira 200 pulsos para hacer vuelta completa del eje
   for (int x = 0; x < 200; x++) {
      digitalWrite(stepPin, HIGH);
      delayMicroseconds(stepDelay);
      digitalWrite(stepPin, LOW);
      delayMicroseconds(stepDelay);
   }
   delay(1000);
 
   //Ahora se cambia la dirección de giro y se aumenta la velocidad
   digitalWrite(dirPin, LOW);
   stepDelay = 150;
   //Se hacen dos vueltas completas
   for (int x = 0; x < 400; x++) {
      digitalWrite(stepPin, HIGH);
      delayMicroseconds(stepDelay);
      digitalWrite(stepPin, LOW);
      delayMicroseconds(stepDelay);
   }
   delay(1000);
}

Ina baku shawara kuma ku gwada wasu misalai na lamba waɗanda zaku samu a cikin misalan da suka zo tare da Arduino IDE kuma kuyi ƙoƙari ku gyara ƙimomin don koyon yadda yake shafar motar.

para ƙarin bayani game da motocin stepper, sarrafa su da shirye-shiryen Arduino, ina ba da shawara zazzage karatun shirye-shiryen mu kyauta.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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  1.   Yesu m

    Barka dai, Ina kera CNC na gida tare da drv8825, tambayata itace idan zan iya sanya nema 23 2.8a Motors tunda sunada ɗan rahusa fiye da 2.5a, zan sami matsala? na gode

    1.    Ishaku m

      Sannu Yesu,
      Godiya ga karanta mu. Game da tambayar ku, ku sa ido kan direban da zaku yi amfani da shi don ya dace da waɗancan injunan. Shari'ar DRV8825 har zuwa matsakaicin 2.5A. Duba don ganin TB6600, wanda zai iya zuwa 3.5A idan na tuna daidai ...
      Na gode!

  2.   Rodolfo m

    Salaudos. Menene amfanin ƙarfin wutan lantarki wanda yake cikin wutan lantarki. Godiya.