Peltier cell: duk game da wannan kashi

tantanin halitta

Da alama kuna buƙata sanya wani abu a cikin ayyukanka na DIY. Don wannan, kuna buƙatar tantanin halitta Peltier. Wannan na'urar semiconductor dangane da tasirin thermoelectric yana bada damar sanyayawa cikin sauri. Kuna iya siyan shi a cikin wasu Stores kamar Amazon, ko kuma kawai cire shi daga lalatacciyar na'urar inda yake. Na'urorin da zaka iya samun ɗayan su sune masu rarraba masu ruwan sanyi da wasu abubuwan cire ƙona ba tare da compressor ba.

Wannan nau'in Kwayoyin Peltier ana amfani dasu ko'ina a sassa daban-daban na masana'antar don sanyaya. Dalili kuwa shine yana da yawa fa'idodi akan sauran tsarin sanyaya na gargajiya. Misali, a cikin misalai biyun da na kawo a sama, dangane da na'urar bada ruwa an sadaukar dashi ne don sanyaya tankin ruwa domin ya kasance sabo ne, yayin da yake fitar da danshi yana sanyaya iska mai shigowa domin danshi ya dunkule ya diga a cikin tanki mai tanki ...

Tasirin yanayin zafi

da tasirin thermoelectric su ne waɗanda ke canza bambancin zafin jiki zuwa ƙarfin lantarki ko akasin haka. Ana samun wannan ta amfani da thermocouples ko takamaiman takamaiman nau'ikan kayan aiki, yawanci masu karantarwa. A cikin waɗannan, ɗaliban zafin jiki suna samar da masu ɗaukar caji a cikin kayan, ko dai wutan lantarki (-) ko ramuka (+).

Ana iya amfani da wannan tasirin don taron na aikace-aikace, daga dumama, sanyaya, yanayin aunawa, samar da wutar lantarki, da sauransu. Kuma wannan ya faru ne saboda tasirin da yake akwai tsakanin abubuwan da ake kira thermoelectric. Wasu daga cikinsu sune:

  • Sakamakon Seebek: wanda Thomas Seebek ya lura dashi, wani lamari ne wanda ake amfani da ɗimbin zafi wanda ake amfani da bambancin zafin jiki a cikinsa. An gano lokacin da aka lura cewa karafa biyu haɗe da ɗayan ƙarshen ƙarshensu an yi amfani da bambancin zafin jiki a ciki kuma suna haifar da wani bambanci mai yiwuwa a ƙarshen ƙarshensu. Tare da wannan, zai iya yiwuwa a yi amfani da zafin da wasu tushe ke samarwa don canza shi zuwa wutar lantarki.
  • Sakamakon Thomson: yana bayanin dumama ko sanyaya mai ɗaukar hoto mai ɗauke da yanayin zafin jiki. Williams Thomson ko Lord Kelvin ne suka bayyana shi.

Kullum, sakamakon Seebek, Thomson, da Peltier na iya zama mai juyawa, kodayake ba haka lamarin yake a yanayin Joule dumama ba.

Tasirin Peltier

Tasirin Peltier

El Tasirin Peltier yayi kamanceceniya, kuma shine abubuwan da ƙwayoyin da muka tattauna a cikin wannan labarin suke. Tare da wannan kadarorin da Jean Peltier ya gano a cikin 1834, kuma yayi kama da Seebek. Hakan na faruwa ne yayin da wutar lantarki ke haifar da banbancin zafin jiki tsakanin abubuwa biyu daban daban ko kuma masu kara kuzari. Dangane da na'urori na yanzu sune semiconductors, amma kuma ana iya zama karafa da aka sani da mahaɗan Peltier.

Wannan yana nufin cewa idan ana amfani da cajin lantarki akan waɗannan na'urori, gefe daya zai yi zafi wani bangaren kuma zai yi sanyi. Wannan ya faru ne saboda electrons suna tafiya daga yanki mai girma zuwa mara ƙasa, suna faɗaɗawa kamar yadda gas mai kyau yake yi, sabili da haka, suna sanyaya yankin.

Af, mataki guda TEC na iya samar da bambancin zafin jiki tsakanin sassan sa har zuwa 70ºC. Don haka idan kun sanya sassan zafi a sanyaya, ƙarancin sanyaya wannan TEC ko Peltier cell ɗin zai sami. Wannan zafin da aka sha zai dace gwargwadon yadda ake bayarwa da kuma lokaci.

Fa'idodi da rashin amfani na TEC

Kamar kowane tsarin, TEC ko Peltier cell yana da fa'ida da rashin amfani. Wannan shine dalilin da yasa wasu tsarin sanyaya har yanzu sun fi son amfani da wasu hanyoyin na al'ada. Tsakanin amfanin Su ne:

  • Ba shi da sassan motsi, don haka ba ya bukatar kulawa kuma ya kasance mafi abin dogara.
  • Baya amfani da compres babu gurɓataccen gas na CFC.
  • Zai iya zama sarrafa zafin jiki sauƙi kuma sosai daidai, har zuwa ƙananan ɓangare na digiri ta hanyar sauya yanayin amfani da shi.
  • Sizeananan girma, kodayake ana iya kerarre da su girma dabam.
  • Yana da tsawon rai na har zuwa awanni 100.000, idan aka kwatanta da abin da wasu firinji na inji suke bayarwa.

da Rashin dacewar amfani da TEC Su ne:

  • Zaku iya kawai dissipate iyakance adadi zafin rana.
  • Ba ingantacce magana da kuzari idan aka kwatanta da tsarin matse gas. Koyaya, sababbin ci gaba suna ƙara inganta shi sosai.

Propiedades

Una Peltier plate kamar TEC1 12706 Ana iya sa shi farashin yuro biyu, saboda haka yana da arha sosai. Wannan allon yana da girman 40x40x3mm kuma yana ɗauke da ma'aurata 127 a ciki. Thearfin wutar lantarki 60w ne da ƙarfin samarda ƙarfin lantarki na 12v da maras ƙarfi na 5A.

Da ita zaka iya haifar da bambancin zafin jiki tsakanin fuskokinsu 65 betweenC, wanda yake da kyau sosai. Zai iya aiki tsakanin -55ºC da 83ºC ba tare da lalata kansa ba, don haka idan ka motsa a waje da waɗannan ƙimomin ka sami haɗarin kasancewa mara amfani. Idan ka kiyaye dabi'u a cikin hakan, zai iya maka tsawon 200.000 na aiki daidai, ma'ana, shekaru da yawa ...

Ingancin wannan ƙirar ta kusan 12-15w zafi aka cire, Wannan yana da inganci kusan 20 ko 25% la'akari da cewa yana cin kusan 60w. Ko ta yaya, dole ne ku tuna cewa wannan ƙimar za ta iya rinjayar ƙwarai da yanayin zafin yanayi.

Idan ka fi so, maimakon siyan TEC ko Peltier cell kawai, zaka iya siyan a Babu kayayyakin samu. cikakken tsarin sanyaya.

Aikace-aikacen Peltier cell

Firiji tare da Peltier

Da kyau, tantanin Peltier za a iya amfani da farko don sanyaya. Misali, zaka iya sanyaya ruwa ko wani ruwa da shi, ko ka ƙirƙiri abin ɗi ɗumi na gida. Duk abin da yake, saitin sa yana da sauƙi. Da zarar ka saya ko ka sami tantanin halitta, kawai za ka yi amfani da madaidaiciyar hanyar yau da kullun ta hanyoyin da ke da kyau da mara kyau. Ta wannan hanyar daya bangaren zai yi zafi wani bangaren kuma zai yi sanyi. Dole ne ku tantance bangarorinsa da kyau gwargwadon abin da kuke nema.

Misalin aikace-aikace tare da Arduino

Kuna iya amfani da a makircin haɗi kamar wanda muka yi masa Relay module, amma maimakon ciyar da kwayar Peltier da fan tare da 220v AC, ana ciyar da ita tare da DC a 12v. Kuna iya amfani da wannan makircin kuma haɗa mai sanyaya ku da jirgin Arduino.

Da zarar an haɗa komai da komai, zaka iya ƙirƙiri lamba mai sauƙi don Arduino IDE don haka za'a iya sarrafa tsarin firjin ku, kamar wannan don sarrafa relay a cikin gwargwadon wane yanayi don a kunna tsarin (zaku iya amfani da ƙarin danshi, firikwensin zafin jiki, da sauransu):

const int pin = 9; //Debe ser el pin conectado al relé para su control

const float thresholdLOW = 20.0;
const float thresholdHIGH= 30.0;

bool state = 0; //Celda Peltier desactivada o desactivada

float GetTemperature()
{
return 20.0; //sustituir en función del sensor de temperatura (o lo que sea) empleado
}

void setup() {
pinMode(pin, OUTPUT); //el pin de control se define como salida
}

void loop(){
float currentTemperature = GetTemperature();

if(state == 0 && currentTemperature > thresholdHIGH)
{
state = 1;
digitalWrite(pin, HIGH); //Se enciende el TEC
}
if(state == 1 && currentTemperature < thresholdLOW)
{
state == 0;
digitalWrite(pin, LOW); //Se apaga el TEC
}

delay(5000); //Espera 5 segundos entre las mediciones de temperatura en este caso
}


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