Potentiometer: duk abin da ya kamata ku sani

amintaccen ma'auni

El amintaccen ma'auni ba komai bane face tsayayyar juriya da zaka iya daidaitawa. Wannan irin Kayan lantarki ana iya amfani dashi don aikace-aikace da yawa, kamar a dimmer sauya. Game da aikace-aikacen maimaitawa tare da Arduino, yawanci wasa ne mai kyau don fuskokin LCD, wanda zaku iya tsara hasken daidai da shi.

Idan kuna sha'awar sani kadan game da wannan sinadarin, a nan akwai cikakken jagora wanda zaku iya koyan abubuwan yau da kullun don fara amfani da shi a ayyukanku na gaba kuma rubuta rubutunku na farko tare da Arduino don gwada yadda zata iya aiki ...

Menene ƙarfin ƙarfin?

aiki

Un amintaccen ma'auni sigar lantarki ne mai kama da masu adawa ko masu adawa na al'ada, amma na wani m darajar. Wannan yana ba da damar iya sarrafa ƙarfin halin yanzu wanda ya ratsa ta wata da'ira wacce aka haɗa ta a layi daya, ko kuma sarrafa digon wutan lantarki idan aka haɗa shi cikin jerin.

Mitocin ƙarfin yana kama da baya, tare da banbancin cewa nesa yana watsar da ƙarin ƙarfi kuma ana amfani dashi a cikin manyan da'irar yanzu.

Don yin wannan, yi amfani da a kayan tsayayya na wani tsayi. Kuma tare da siginan kwamfuta, wanda zai zama wanda za a iya sarrafa shi da hannu, zai sanya shi motsawa cikin ma'amala da abubuwan da ke tsayayya. Kamar yadda siginan kwamfuta ke haɗe da lantarki zuwa fitarwa, zai haifar da halin yanzu dole ne ya wuce ta mafi tsayi (ƙarin juriya) ko gajeren tsayi (ƙaramin juriya)

Lokacin da aka rufe gaba ɗaya, ma'ana, mafi ƙarancin tafiye-tafiye, to muna samun matsakaicin irin ƙarfin lantarki a kofar fita (wacce take bakin kofar shiga). Duk da yake idan ta buɗe cikakke, a ƙarshen yawon shakatawa, za'a sami mafi ƙarancin. A cikin matsakaiciyar matsayi, zai zama ƙarfin lantarki a fitarwa wanda zai dace da ƙananan ɓangaren wannan a shigarwar.

Aplicaciones

Tebur na DJ, ko mahaɗin mahaɗa

da aikace-aikace na potentiometer su ne mafi bambance-bambancen, kuma a cikin yau zuwa yau kuna amfani da yawancin waɗannan abubuwan kusan ba tare da sanin shi ba. Misali:

  • A cikin kayan sauti, kun ga shahararrun ƙwanƙwasawa ko masu juyawa wanda ake sarrafa ƙarar da ita, misali. Ko kuma a cikin daidaito, da dai sauransu. Duk waɗannan maƙasudin ƙarfin ne.
  • A cikin hasken wuta zaku ganshi cikin masu kula da tsananin haske, suna canza zafin fitila.
  • Ana iya amfani da su azaman masu auna firikwensin, tunda motsi na angular wanda aka yi aiki akansu zai haifar da juriya sabili da haka ƙarfin lantarki ya bambanta. Bayan haka, ta hanyar auna tsarin da auna abin da aka fitar, ana iya tantance nawa ya motsa.
  • Hakanan za'a iya amfani dasu azaman abubuwan sarrafawa.

Ire-iren abubuwa masu karfi

alama mai karfi mai ƙarfi

Akwai da yawa nau'ikan potentiometers, kodayake ba duka suna da amfani sosai don aikace-aikacen gama gari ba. Mafi mahimmanci sune:

  • Arirgar bambancin ra'ayi mai ƙarfi: nau'ine wanda juriyarsa zata bambanta a jere, ma'ana, daidai gwargwadon kusurwar juyawa. Wato a cikin wannan nau'in ƙarfin ƙarfin, lokacin da aka rufe rabin tafiya, za a sami juriya 50%. Wannan nau'ikan shine wanda yafi kowa, kuma waɗanda yawanci ana amfani dasu tare da Arduino kuma a mafi yawancin da'ira, dimmers, da dai sauransu.
  • Bambancin logarithmic mai karfin karfi: a wannan yanayin, zai bambanta logarithmically zuwa kusurwar juyawa, don haka haɓaka zai zama mafi girma fiye da na baya. Ana iya amfani da wannan don sauran nau'ikan aikace-aikacen da ke buƙatar irin wannan martani. A wannan yanayin, galibi ana amfani da su don da'irar sauti, tunda kunnen ɗan adam yana hango ƙarar logarithmic da mara layi, kamar yadda ya kamata ku sani.

Tabbas, waɗannan entwararrun masanan zasu sami matsakaici na hali juriya. Misali, zasu iya zama 10 kΩ. A irin wannan yanayi, idan sun kai matuka na tafiyarsu za su ba da cikakkiyar juriya.

Pinout

Kamar yadda kake gani a hoton da ya gabata, haɗin wannan ɓangaren abu ne mai sauƙi. Yana da kawai kusoshi uku, ko fanto, Wato, ya fi masu tsayayyar al'ada. A wannan yanayin, samfuri 1 zai zama shigar da ƙarfin lantarki, yayin da 2 zai zama fitarwa, kuma 3 za a haɗa shi da GND (ƙasa).

Haɗa ƙarfin ƙarfin tare da Arduino

Screenshot na Arduino IDE

Tare da Jirgin Arduino da mai ƙarfin ƙarfin aiki Za'a iya yin abubuwa da yawa. Amma kafin haka, ya kamata ku san hakan, don yin misali mai sauƙi wanda za'a fara ganin aikin mashin din, zaku iya amfani da kowane irin alamar analog ɗin akan allonku. Misali, a cikin Arduino UNO zaka iya amfani da shi daga A0 zuwa A5.

Tunda suna da ƙuduri na 10-bit, wannan yana nuna cewa kuna da 1024 dabi'u masu yiwuwa (0000000000-1111111111), kuma kamar yadda karfin wutar lantarki yake akwai daga 0v zuwa 5v, to za'a iya daidaita shi domin 0000000000 (ko 0) 0V ne kuma 1111111111 (ko 1023) 5v ne, saboda haka yana iya gano karuwar karfin wuta na 0.004v (5/1024).

para haɗin, zaka iya yin wadannan kawai:

  • Haɗa shigar da potentiometer zuwa 5V na allon.
  • Arfin ƙarfin mai ƙarfi zai haɗu da ɗayan abubuwan analog ɗin analog. Misali, A1.
  • Amma ga sauran ragowar maɓallin ƙarfin, dole ne ku haɗa shi da GND.

Da zarar an gama wannan, zaku iya ƙirƙirar ƙarami zane a Arduino IDE don iya gwada yadda ƙarfin ƙarfin aiki yake aiki. Tare da wannan lambar, abin da zaka samu shine don iya karanta ƙididdigar ƙarfin lantarki da aka samo a yayin fitowar yayin da kake juya siginan a kan ƙarfin ƙarfin.

//Ejemplo de prueba de potenciómetro
long valor;

void setup() {
  //Inicializamos la comunicación serial
  Serial.begin(9600);
  
  //Escribir el valor leído por el monitor serie
  Serial.println("Inicio de sketch - Valores del potenciómetro");

}

void loop() {
  // Leer los valores del A1
  valor = analogRead(A1);

  //Imprimir en el monitor serie
  Serial.print("Valor leído = ");
  Serial.println(valor);
  delay(1000);

}

para ƙarin bayani, iya zazzage darasin shirye-shiryen Arduino...


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