1n4148: nā mea āpau e pili ana i ka diode kumu nui

diode 1n4148

Nui a hewahewa nā ʻano o nā diode semiconductor, me nā ʻano noi like ʻole. Mai nā diode rectifier, ma o ka Zener, i nā LED e hoʻomālamalama i ka mālam. I kēia ʻatikala hoihoi mākou he mea uila pōhaku paʻa, ka 1n4148 diode kumu nui. ʻO ia ka mea e nānā mākou i nā ʻano o kāna ʻano a e hōʻike mākou i kekahi o nā noi hiki.

ʻO ka 1n4148 a ʻāpana silikona liʻiliʻi hūnā i nā mea huna nui āu e ʻike ai. ʻO kahi mea hiki ke hāʻawi nui i kāu mau papahana inā makemake ʻoe i ka DIY uila a i ʻole he mea hana ...

He aha ka diode semiconductor?

diode 1n4148

Un ʻO diode kahi mea hana semiconductor Hana ia e like me ke kuapo mokuʻāina paʻa a hoʻokahi ala no kēia au. ʻOiai he ʻokoʻa, e like me ka LED a i ʻole IR diode, e hoʻopuka nei i kahi nalu electromagnetic. I ka hihia mua, kahi kukui i ʻike ʻia o kekahi kala, a i ʻole kukuna infrared. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, i kēia ʻatikala, ʻoiai e kamaʻilio mākou e pili ana iā 1n4148, hoihoi wale mākou i nā mea e hana nei ma ke ʻano he mea hoʻopale.

No ka ʻōlelo Helene ka diode, a ʻo ia hoʻi "ʻelua ʻaoʻao". ʻOiai kēia, ʻo ka mea e hana pololei ai i ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, ʻo ia ka mea, ālai i ke kahe o ke au i kekahi ala ʻē aʻe. Eia nō naʻe, inā mahalo ʻia ke ʻano IV piʻo o ka diode, hiki ke ʻike ʻia he ʻelua mau ʻāpana ʻokoʻa. Ma lalo o kahi ʻokoʻa hiki ke ʻano e like me ke kaapuni ākea (ʻaʻole e alakaʻi), a ma luna aʻe e like me ke kaapuni pōkole me ka liʻiliʻi o ka pale uila.

Loaʻa i kēia mau diode kahi hui o ʻelua ʻano semiconductor P a me N. A he ʻelua hoʻi mau kikowaena hoʻopili, kahi anode (kahi hopena maikaʻi) a me kahi cathode (hopena maikaʻi ʻole). Kaukaʻi ʻia i ke ala e hoʻopili ai i kēia manawa, hiki ke hoʻokaʻawale ʻia nā hoʻonohonoho ʻelua:

  • Polarization pololei: ke hala ke kahe o kēia manawa. ʻO ka pou maikaʻi ʻole o ka paukū a i ʻole ka lako mana e hoʻohuli ai i nā uila uila manuahi mai ke aniani N a kuhikuhi ʻia nā electrons i ka huina PN. ʻO ka pou maikaʻi o ka pākiko a i ʻole ke kumuwaiwai e huki i nā electron valence mai ke aniani P (pahu i nā puka i ka hui PN). Ke ʻoi aku ka ʻokoʻa ma waena o nā pahu ma mua o ka ʻokoʻa hiki o ka ʻāpana uku hakahaka, loaʻa i nā uila uila ma ka aniani N ka lawa ka ikehu e lele i loko o nā lua o ka P aniani a me nā kahe o kēia manawa.
  • Hoʻohuli polarization: ke hana ʻo ia ma ke ʻano he insulator a ʻae ʻole e kahe i kēia manawa. I kēia hihia, ʻo ka polarization e lilo i ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, ʻo ia hoʻi, e hāʻawi ana ke kumuwaiwai i ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, e hoʻokomo i ke au o nā uila i loko o ka wahi P a pahu i nā electrons i loko o nā hua. ʻO ka pahu hopena maikaʻi o ka pākiko e huki i nā electron mai ka wahi N, a e hoʻoulu kēia i kahi kahakaha e hana ma ke ʻano he insulator ma waena o nā huina.
Eia mākou ke nānā nei i hoʻokahi ʻano diode. Hoʻololi ka mea me nā photodiodes a i ʻole nā ​​LED, etc.

Ua hoʻokumu ʻia kēia mau mea e pili ana i ke kumumanaʻo o ka Nā hoʻokolohua ʻo Lee De Forest. ʻO ka mea i hōʻike mua ʻia he mau kiwikā nui a ʻo nā paipu hakahaka. Thermionic aniani ampoules me ka moʻo o nā uila i lawelawe e like me kēia mau hāmeʻa, akā ua hoʻokuʻu i kahi nui o ka wela, hoʻopau nui, nui, a hiki ke hōʻino ʻia e like me nā ipukukui. No laila ua hoʻoholo ʻia e hoʻololi iā ia me nā mea paʻa paʻa (semiconductors).

noi

Diodes, e like me 1n4148, loaʻa lehulehu o nā noi. He mea makemake nui ʻia lākou i nā kaapuni uila pololei o kēia manawa a i kekahi o nā mea hou e kū nei. I ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, ua ʻike mua mākou pehea i ka lako uila ua hoʻokō lākou i kahi hana nui i ka hele ʻana mai AC a DC. ʻO ia ko lākou hiʻohiʻona ma ke ʻano he hoʻopololei, no ka mea hoʻololi lākou i kahi hōʻailona o kēia manawa sinusoidal no kahi mea mau i ke ʻano o nā puʻupuʻu ma ke kāpae ʻana i ke au ma kahi ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe.

Hiki iā lākou ke hana ma ke ʻano mea hoʻololi uila, ma ke ʻano he poʻe pale kaapuni, ma ke ʻano he mau hoʻohua kani, a pēlā aku.

Nā ʻano diode

Hiki ke hoʻokaʻawale ʻia nā diode e like me ka uila a lākou e hoʻomanawanui ai, ka ikaika, nā mea (eg: silikone), a me nā ʻano ʻē aʻe. Kekahi o nā ʻano nui loa Ka mea, e:

  • Hōʻailona diode: ʻike ʻia lākou ma ke ʻano he hōʻailona haʻahaʻa a pili paha i ka lae. Hoʻonohonoho ʻia lākou no ka hoʻohana ʻana me nā alapine kiʻekiʻe loa a me ke au haʻahaʻa. Hiki iā ʻoe ke loaʻa iā lāua i hana i ka germanium (paepae 0.2 a 0.3 volts) a me ka silikone (paepae 0.6 a 0-7 volts). Kaukaʻi ʻia i ka doping o nā ʻāpana P a me N e loaʻa iā lākou nā ʻano kūʻē ʻē a me nā pala.
  • Diode hoʻoliʻiliʻi: kalaiwa lākou ma ka poralization pololei wale nō, e like me kaʻu i hōʻike mua ai. Hoʻohana ʻia lākou e hoʻololi i nā uila a i ʻole hoʻoponopono i nā hōʻailona. Hiki iā ʻoe ke ʻike i nā ʻano ʻokoʻa, me nā hoʻomanawanui like ʻole e pili ana i nā uila o kēia manawa a kākoʻo ʻia.
  • Diode Zener: kekahi ʻano kaulana loa. ʻAe lākou i kēia kahe e kahe i hope a hoʻohana pinepine ʻia ma ke ʻano he mana hoʻomalu. Inā polarized pololei lākou hiki iā lākou ke hana e like me ka diode maʻamau.
  • alakai: ʻokoʻa ka diode-emitting light i nā mea ma mua, ʻoiai ka mea e hana ai e hoʻololi i ka ikehu uila i ka mālam. Mahalo nui kēia i kahi kaʻina electroluminescence kahi e hoʻohui hou ai nā lua a me nā uila e hana i kēia kukui ke polarized pololei ʻia.
  • ʻO Diode SchottkyʻIke ʻia lākou ma ke ʻano wikiwiki a i ʻole nā ​​mea lawe wela. Hana pinepine ʻia lākou i ka silicon a hoʻohālikelike ʻia e kahi hāʻule uila liʻiliʻi loa (<0.25v approx). ʻO ia, pōkole loa ka manawa hoʻololi.
  • Diode Schockley: ʻOiai ke ʻano like o ka inoa, ʻokoʻa ia mai ka mea i hala. Loaʻa iā PNPN nā hui a ʻelua mau mokuʻāina paʻa (ka pale ʻana a i ʻole impedance kiʻekiʻe a me ka alakaʻi ʻana a i ʻole impedance haʻahaʻa).
  • Diode Recovery Diode (SRD)ʻIke ʻia ʻo ia ka mālama ʻana i ka uku, a hiki iā ia ke mālama i kahi uku no ka lāʻau maikaʻi a me ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka pulse maikaʻi ʻole o nā hōʻailona sinusoidal.
  • Tunode diode- Kāhea ʻia hoʻi e like me Esaki, hoʻohana ʻia lākou e like me ka wikiwiki wikiwiki paʻa paʻa i hiki iā lākou ke hana i nā nanoseconds. ʻO ia no kahi o ka zona depletion lahilahi a me kahi piʻo kahi e emi ai ka ʻāpana kūʻē maikaʻi ʻole i ka piʻi ʻana o ka uila.
  • Diode varactor: ʻaʻole ʻike ʻia ma mua o nā mea i hala, akā hoʻohana ʻia ia i kekahi mau papahana. Hoʻohana ʻia ka varicap ma ke ʻano he capacitor variable variable. Hana ia i ka inversely.
  • Laser a me IR photodiode: ʻO lākou nā diode e like me nā LED, akā ma kahi o ka hoʻomālamalama ʻana i ka kukui, hoʻokuʻu lākou i kahi nalu electromagnetic kikoʻī loa. ʻOiai hiki ke lilo i kukui monochromatic (laser) a i ʻole infrared (IR).
  • Hoʻolaha Hoʻololi Uila Uila (TVS)- Hoʻonohonoho ʻia e kāpae a pale paha i nā kui uila a pale i nā kaapuni mai kēia pilikia. Hiki iā lākou ke pale aku i ka hoʻokuʻu electrostatic (ESD).
  • Nā diode gula i hoʻopili ʻia: he diode lākou i kope ʻia me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā atoms gula. Hāʻawi kēlā iā lākou i kahi pōmaikaʻi, a ʻo ia ka wikiwiki wikiwiki o kā lākou pane.
  • Diode Peltier: kēia ʻano o nā pūnaewele ke ʻae i kahi uniona hiki ke hana i ka wela a me ke anuanu e pili ana i ka ʻaoʻao. hou 'ike.
  • Diode Avalanche: Ua like lākou me ka Zener, akā hana lākou ma lalo o kahi hanana i ʻike ʻia ma ke ʻano he avalanche.
  • 'ē aʻe: aia kekahi e like me GUNN, nā mea ʻokoʻa o nā mea ma mua e like me OLEDs no nā pale, etc.

1n4148 diode kumu nui

hōʻailona a me pinout o diode 1n4148

El diode 1N4148 ʻO ia kahi ʻano o ka diode hoʻololi silikone maʻamau. ʻO ia kekahi o nā mea makemake nui ʻia e hoʻohana ʻia i ka honua o ka uila. He kūpaʻa loa ia, no ka mea, he kikoʻī maikaʻi loa ʻoiai ke kumu kūʻai haʻahaʻa.

Hahai ka inoa i ka ʻO ka inoa nomed JEDEC, a he mea pono loa no ka hoʻololi ʻana i nā noi a hiki i kahi o 100 mau alapine Mhz me kahi manawa hoʻihoʻi hou ʻaʻole i ʻoi aku ma mua o 4ns.

Historia

Texas mea hana hana ʻia i ka makahiki 1960 ka diode 1n914. Ma hope o kona hoʻopaʻa inoa ʻana i hoʻokahi makahiki ma hope mai, ʻoi aku ma mua o ke kakini mea hana i loaʻa nā kuleana iā ia e hana. Ma 1968 e hōʻea ana ka 1N4148 i ka papa inoa JEDEC, e hoʻomaka ana e hoʻohana i nā pūʻali koa a me nā ʻoihana ʻenehana i kēlā manawa. I kēia manawa he nui ka poʻe e hana a kūʻai aku i kēia mau hāmeʻa ma lalo o ka inoa 1N4148 a ma lalo o ka 1N914. ʻO nā ʻokoʻa ma waena o nā mea ʻelua ka inoa a me ka mea ʻē aʻe. Kūleʻa wale lākou i kā lākou kiko kikoʻī i kēia manawa.

Pinout a me ka ʻūlū o ka 1n4148

Hele mai maʻamau ʻo 1n4148 diode pūʻolo ma lalo o DO-35, me kahi envelope aniani axial. Hiki iā ʻoe ke loaʻa iā ia i nā ʻano ʻē aʻe e like me SOD no ke kau ʻana o luna, etc.

No ka ʻōpiopio, ʻelua wale nō ona a i ʻole nā ​​ʻoki. Inā ʻoe e nānā i ke kaha ʻeleʻele ma kēia diode, ʻo ka welau kokoke loa i kēlā ʻāpana ʻeleʻele ka cathode, ʻo ka hopena ʻē aʻe ke anode.

ʻIke hou aku - datasheet

Nā māohaka

No ka kūlana kiko'ī mai 1n4148, maʻamau lākou:

  • ʻO ke anakahi uila i mua: 1v a i 10mA
  • ʻO ke anakahi uila breakdown a hoʻohuli i kēia au kahe: 75v ma 5 μA; 100 V ma 100 μA
  • ʻO ka manawa hoʻihoʻi hope loa: 4ns
  • ʻO ka hoʻopau loa ʻana i ka mana: 500mW

Kahi e kūʻai ai i kahi 1n4148

Inā makemakeʻoe kūʻai i kahi diode 1n4148 Pono ʻoe e ʻike he polokalamu makepono loa ia, a hiki iā ʻoe ke ʻike iā ia i nā hale uila uila a i ʻole ma ka pūnaewele i nā ʻilikai e like me Amazon. ʻO kahi laʻana, eia kekahi mau ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo:


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.