Nā kaapuni hoʻohui: he aha lākou, ʻokoʻa me nā mea i paʻi ʻia a me nā mea hou aku

nā holomua integrated

ka nā kaapuni hoʻohui, nā ʻāpana, nā microchips, IC (Integrated Circuit) a i ʻole CI (Integrated Circuit), a i ʻole nā ​​mea āu e makemake ai e kāhea iā lākou, he ʻano ia o nā kaapuni uila i hiki ai ke holomua o ka ʻenehana i nā pae o kēia manawa. Inā ʻaʻole kēia mea i hana ʻia, ʻaʻole paha e like me ke kelepona a me ke kelepona, a ʻokoʻa loa nā mea uila a me nā uila.

ʻOiai ko lākou liʻiliʻi liʻiliʻi, a aia lākou ma nā wahi a pau, hūnā kēia mau kaapuni hoʻohui nā mea haohao nui e ʻike ai. Maanei hiki iā ʻoe ke aʻo hou aʻe e pili ana i kēia mau mea Nā mea uila...

He aha nā kaapuni hoʻohui?

nā holomua integrated

ka ʻO nā kaapuni i hoʻohui ʻia he mau pad o kahi semiconductor hoʻopili ʻia a loaʻa kahi kaapuni uila i hoʻopaʻa ʻia. Ma muli o ka ʻohana logic nona lākou, e hana ʻia kēia mau kaapuni i nā ʻāpana uila miniaturized like ʻole. No ka laʻana, hiki iā lākou ke diodes, transistors, resistors, capacitors, etc.

Mahalo iā lākou ua hiki ke hoʻomohala mea uila hou a hoʻomaka i kahi au hou i hāʻawi ʻia i ka hoʻohui nui a lākou e ʻae ai. ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, hiki i kekahi o nā chips ʻoi loa i kēia lā ke hoʻohui i nā piliona o nā transistors i loko o kahi make he mau millimeters square wale nō.

Moolelo o na chips

I ka wā mua, hoʻomaka ka uila e hoʻohana i ka ʻino kiwikā like me nā ʻōpuʻu kukui maʻamau. He nui keia mau puuwai, aole pono, wela loa, a nahaha maalahi, no laila, pono e pani i ka puhi i mea e hana mau ai na lolouila a me na lako e ae.

En ʻO ka makahiki 1947 ka mea i hoʻokumu ʻia o ka transistor, kahi ʻāpana e pani ai i nā valve kahiko a e hoʻololi hou i ka uila. Mahalo iā ia, ua hiki ke loaʻa i kahi mea paʻa paʻa, ʻoi aku ke kūpaʻa, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi, a ʻoi aku ka wikiwiki ma mua o nā valves. Eia naʻe, manaʻo kekahi e hiki iā lākou ke hoʻohui i kekahi o kēia mau mea i loko o kahi pahu silika hoʻokahi. ʻO kēia ke ʻano i hana ʻia ai nā kaapuni hoʻohui mua i ka mōʻaukala.

I ka wā lōʻihi, ua ulu a hoʻemi ʻia ka nui o nā ʻāpana, a me ka hoʻohaʻahaʻa ʻana i nā kumukūʻai. I ka hopena o nā makahiki 50, ua kapa ʻia kahi mea hoʻokumu Texas Instruments Jack Kilby, ua manaʻo ʻo ia e hana i kahi chip semiconductor a me kekahi mau uwea i hoʻopili i nā ʻāpana like ʻole. Ua lilo kēia i chip mua ma ka mōʻaukala, a e lanakila ʻo ia i ka makana no ka Nobel.

Aneane like, Robert NoyceI kēlā manawa, he limahana o Fairchild Semiconductor (ma hope o kekahi o nā mea hoʻokumu o Intel), ua hoʻomohala ʻo ia i kahi mea like, akā me nā pōmaikaʻi nui ma mua o Kilby. Ua hana ʻo Noyce i ka manaʻo e hāʻawi i ke ala i nā kaapuni hoʻohui o kēia lā. Ua kapa ʻia kēia ʻenehana he planar, a ua ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi ma mua o ka ʻenehana mesa a Kilby.

Mai ia manawa, ʻaʻole i pau ka ʻōmaikaʻi a me ka hoʻomaikaʻi ʻana i kēia mau ʻāpana. Ua emi nā kumukūʻai, e like me ka hoʻokele waiwai a me ka nui, ʻoiai ua hoʻomaikaʻi nui ka hana a me ka hana. ʻAʻohe ʻāpana ʻē aʻe i ulu nui loa, a ʻaʻohe ʻāpana ʻē aʻe i loaʻa ka hopena nui i ke kanaka ...

Pehea lākou i hana ʻia ai?

Ke kaʻina hana o ka hana ʻana o nā kaapuni i hoʻohui ʻia he paʻakikī loa. Eia naʻe, e like me ka mea i ʻike ʻia ma ka wikiō, hiki ke hōʻuluʻulu ʻia i loko o kekahi mau ʻanuʻu maʻalahi i hiki i nā poʻe ke hoʻomaopopo i ka hana ʻana.

Eia au e hoao hōʻuluʻulu i nā ʻanuʻu hoʻolālā ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi, me ka ʻole o ka hohonu hohonu, no ka mea e hāʻawi ia no nā kaukani ʻatikala:

  1. E lilo i ʻāpana o kahi pono, kahi noi e pono ai ʻoe e hana i kahi kaapuni uila.
  2. ʻO kahi hui hoʻolālā ke kuleana o ka wehewehe ʻana i nā ʻano a me nā kikoʻī e pono ai ka chip.
  3. A laila, e hoʻomaka ka hoʻolālā e hoʻohana i nā puka logic a me nā mea hoʻomanaʻo ʻē aʻe, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe, a hiki i ka loaʻa ʻana o kahi hoʻolālā logic e hoʻomohala i ka hana i hoʻolālā ʻia ai kēia chip.
  4. Ma hope o kēia, e hele ia ma waena o nā ʻanuʻu ma waena o nā hoʻāʻo a me nā simulation e hoʻoholo ai e hana pololei ia ma kahi pae loiloi, a ua hana ʻia nā pahu hoʻāʻo e ʻike inā hana lākou i ke kino.
  5. Ke hoʻopau ʻia ka pae hoʻolālā, hana ʻia kahi ʻano o nā masks no ka hana ʻana mai ka hoʻolālā o ke kaapuni i hoʻolālā ʻia. Ua kahakaha ʻia kekahi ʻano ma luna o lākou i hiki ke kahakaha ʻia ma ke silikona.
  6. Hoʻohana ʻia kēia hiʻohiʻona e ka foundry a i ʻole hale hana, e hana i nā kaapuni i hoʻohui ʻia i loko o kahi wafer semiconductor. Loaʻa i kēia mau wafers a hiki i ka 200 a i ʻole 300 mau ʻāpana i kekahi mau hihia.

ʻO kēia a hiki i ka pae hoʻolālā, mai ka aoao hana, mākou:

  1. Loaʻa ka mineral silika mai ke one a i ʻole ka quartz.
  2. I ka manawa e hoʻomaʻemaʻe ʻia ai ka ultra-pure, a i ʻole EGS (Electronic-Grade Silicon), me kahi pae o ka maʻemaʻe i ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe ma mua o ke kilika i hoʻohana ʻia ma nā ʻoihana ʻē aʻe.
  3. Hiki mai kēia EGS ma ke ʻano o nā ʻāpana i ka hale hana, kahi e hoʻoheheʻe ʻia ai i loko o kahi kīʻaha a ma o kahi aniani hua e ulu ai me ka hoʻohana ʻana i ke ʻano Czochralski. No ka maʻalahi o ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana, ua like ia me ke ʻano o ka hana ʻia ʻana o ka pulupulu maʻamau ma nā hale kūʻai, hoʻolauna ʻoe i ka lāʻau (seed crystal) a me ka pulupulu (siliconi hoʻoheheʻe) a hoʻonui i ka nui.
  4. I ka pau ʻana o kēlā ʻanuʻu, ʻo ka hopena he ingot, kahi ʻāpana nui o ke aniani silicon monocrystalline i ke ʻano o ka cylinder. Ua ʻoki ʻia kēia pā i loko o nā wafer lahilahi loa.
  5. Ke hele nei kēia mau wafers i nā kaʻina hana e hoʻomaʻemaʻe i ka ʻili i noho lākou me ka haumia ʻole no ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ka hana.
  6. Ma hope iho, e hele kēia mau wafers i nā kaʻina hana hou e hana i nā ʻāpana ma luna o lākou. ʻO kēia mau kaʻina hana he ʻano kino-kemika, e like me ka photolithography, etching or etching, epitaxial growth, oxidation, ion implantation, etc.
  7. ʻO ka manaʻo hope loa, ʻo ia ka hana ʻana i nā ʻāpana uila, nā transistors maʻamau, ma ka substrate wafer, a laila hoʻohui i nā papa e hoʻopili i nā ʻāpana i ʻōlelo ʻia e hana i nā puka logic i ka papa haʻahaʻa, a laila ma nā papa aʻe e hoʻopili ʻia kēia mau ʻīpuka e hana i nā ʻāpana haʻahaʻa (adders, nā papa inoa, ...), ma nā papa aʻe nā ʻāpana hana (hoʻomanaʻo, ALU, FPU, ...), a ʻo ka hope ua hui pū ʻia nā mea a pau e hana i ke kaapuni piha, no ka laʻana, he CPU. Ma kahi chip holomua hiki ke hiki i 20 mau papa.
  8. Ma hope o kēia mau kaʻina hana, hiki ke hoʻopau i kekahi mau mahina, e loaʻa nā haneli o nā kaʻa like no kēlā me kēia wafer. ʻO ka mea aʻe, ʻo ia ka hoʻāʻo a ʻokiʻoki iā lākou, ʻo ia hoʻi, e puʻunaue iā lākou i loko o nā ʻāpana silika pākahi.
  9. I kēia manawa ua make lākou, hoʻomaka mākou e encapsulate (DIP, SOIC, PGA, QFP, ...) kahi i pale ʻia ai ka chip a hoʻopili ʻia nā pads, ʻo ia nā ala conductive ma ka ʻili, me nā pine o ke kaapuni i hoʻohui ʻia. .

ʻIke ʻia, ʻAʻole like nā kaapuni hoʻohui a pau. Maʻaneʻi ua kamaʻilio wau e pili ana i nā ʻāpana hana a me nā mea paʻakikī e like me ka CPU, akā aia kekahi mau kaapuni maʻalahi e like me ka 555 timer a i ʻole IC me 4 logic gates i maʻalahi loa. E loaʻa iā lākou he mau kakini liʻiliʻi a e hoʻopili ʻia me hoʻokahi a i ʻole kekahi mau papa o nā pilina metala ...

Nā ʻano IC

ʻĀpana RISC-V

ʻAʻole hoʻokahi wale nō ʻano, akā he nui ʻano o nā kaapuni hoʻohui. ʻO nā mea kaulana loa āu e ʻike ai:

  • Kikohoʻe hoʻohui kaʻapuni: Ua kaulana loa lakou, a ua hoohanaia i na mea hana hou he nui, mai na lolouila, a i na mea paani, Smart TV, etc. Hoʻohālikelike ʻia lākou e ka hana ʻana ma muli o ka ʻōnaehana kikohoʻe, ʻo ia hoʻi, me 0 a me 1, me 0 kahi hōʻailona uila haʻahaʻa a ʻo 1 kahi hōʻailona kiʻekiʻe. Pēlā lākou e hoʻopili ai i ka ʻike a hana. Hiki i nā laʻana ke PLC, FPGA, hoʻomanaʻo, CPU, GPU, MCU, etc.
  • Analogi: ma kahi o ka hoʻokumu ʻana i nā hōʻailona binary, i kēia hihia he mau hōʻailona mau nā mea hoʻololi i ka volta. Mahalo i kēia, hiki iā lākou ke hoʻokō i nā hana e like me kāna kānana, hoʻonui hōʻailona, ​​demodulation, modulation, etc. ʻOiaʻiʻo, hana nā ʻōnaehana he nui me nā kaapuni analog a me nā kikohoʻe, e hoʻohana ana Nā mea hoʻololi AD / DA. Hiki iā lākou ke hoʻokaʻawale ʻia i ʻelua pūʻulu nui, linear integrated circuit a me radio frequency (RF). Hiki i nā laʻana he chip no ke kānana leo, nā mea hoʻonui leo, nā ʻōnaehana hoʻokuʻu a i ʻole nā ​​​​ʻōnaehana hoʻokipa no nā nalu electromagnetic, nā mea ʻike, a pēlā aku.
  • Nā IC hōʻailona hui ʻia: e like me ka inoa, he hui ia o laua. ʻO kekahi mau laʻana, ʻo ia nā mea hoʻololi analog-digital a i ʻole nā ​​mea hoʻololi kikohoʻe-analog iā lākou iho, kekahi mau pahu no nā wati, timers, encoders / decoders, etc.

Nā ʻokoʻa me nā kaapuni paʻi

PCB pai ia kaapuni

ʻAʻole pono e huikau nā kaapuni hoʻohui me nā kaapuni paʻi. He mau mea like ole laua. ʻOiai e pili ana ka mea mua i nā microchips, e like me kāu i ʻike ai, kaapuni pai, a i ʻole PCBʻO ia kekahi ʻano o nā kaapuni uila i paʻi ʻia ma nā pā nui.

ka nāʻokoʻa ʻO nā mea kaulana loa:

  • Paʻi kaapuni: ua hana ʻia lākou me kahi pā i loaʻa ke ʻano o nā laina conductive, e like me nā ala keleawe e hoʻopili ai i nā ʻāpana like ʻole i hoʻokomo ʻia (capacitors, transistors, resistors, microchips, ...), soldered by tin soldering, a me ka dielectric. mea ( substrate ) e hoʻokaʻawale i nā papa o ka hoʻohui ʻana i nā pilina. Loaʻa iā lākou ma loko o nā lua, a i ʻole vias, no nā ʻāpana non-surface mount (SMD). Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, loaʻa iā lākou kahi moʻolelo, kahi ʻano o nā māka, nā leka a me nā helu e ʻike ai i nā ʻāpana a maʻalahi i ka mālama ʻana. No ka pale ʻana i ke keleawe, ka mea maʻalahi i ka oxidizes, loaʻa iā lākou kahi lāʻau lapaʻau. A, ʻaʻole like me nā kaapuni i hoʻohui ʻia, hiki ke hoʻoponopono ʻia, hoʻololi i nā ʻāpana ʻino a hoʻihoʻi hou i nā pilina.
  • Nā kaapuni hoʻohuiHe liʻiliʻi loa lākou i ka nui, kūlana paʻa, a he haʻahaʻa ke kumu kūʻai o ka hana nui. ʻAʻole like me kahi PCB, ʻaʻole hiki ke hoʻoponopono ʻia kēia mau mea no ka mea he liʻiliʻi loa ko lākou mau ʻāpana a me nā pilina a hiki ʻole.

ʻAʻole nā ​​kaapuni i hoʻohui ʻia i pani no nā kaapuni paʻi a ʻaʻole hoʻi. Loaʻa nā mea ʻelua i kā lākou hoʻohana a ma ka hapa nui e hele pū lākou i nā noi kūpono ...

ʻO nā pōʻai hoʻohui kaulana loa

 

microchips, kaapuni hoʻohui

ʻO ka hope, he nui nā mea kaulana loa nā kaapuni hoʻohui limahana no nā papahana uila, e like me nā mea o ʻīpuka noʻonoʻo. He maʻalahi lākou, a hiki ke loaʻa ma nā hale kūʻai e like me Amazon a i ʻole nā ​​​​mea uila kūikawā. Eia kekahi laʻana, eia kekahi o nā mea kaulana loa:


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

Kāu leka uila aae? E,ʻaʻole e paʻiʻia.

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.

Hoʻāʻo PelekaniaE ho'āʻo iā Catalankuʻikahi Paniolo