Raspberry Pi vs Nā Servers NAS: ʻO nā mea āpau āu e ʻike ai

Raspberry Pi vs nā kikowaena pūnaewele NAS

Ināʻoe e noʻonoʻo ana hoʻohana i nā kikowaena pūnaewele NAS, a laila pono ʻoe e ʻike he nui kāu mau koho ma kou manamana lima. Mai ka hoʻohana ʻana i kahi Raspberry Pi me kahi kikowaena mālama, ʻo ia ke kāleka SD ponoʻī a i ʻole kahi memo USB kūwaho, hoʻonohonoho ʻia e lawelawe ma ke ʻano he lawelawe mālama pūnaewele, i ka hoʻohana ʻana i kahi lawelawe mālama ʻōpua mai kahi mea hāʻawi, e like me ka hoʻokipa elena mai Webempresa, ma o nā lakohana. Nā hāʻina NAS.

E like me a Pūnaewele pūnaewele, Nā kikowaena pūnaewele NAS hiki iā lākou ke lilo i mea pono loa i kēia mau lā. E mālama paha i ka ʻikepili i hiki iā ʻoe ke kiʻi mai nā wahi āpau i kēlā me kēia manawa, e hoʻohana ai i kēia mau mea no nā papaʻa a me nā kope kope, e like me kāu waihona multimedia ponoʻī, a me nā mea hou aku. ʻOi aku ka nui o ka maʻalahi, akā pono ʻoe e aʻo hou e pili ana i nā hopena e kū nei i hiki ai iā ʻoe ke koho i kahi ʻoi loa no kāu mau pono ...

He aha ke kikowaena?

he aha ke kikowaena

He mea nui ia e ʻike he aha ke kikowaena No laila ʻike ʻoe ʻaʻole lākou a pau i nā kikowaena ʻikepili nui, akā hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻokō iā ia ma kāu PC, ma kāu Raspberry Pi, a ma ka pūnaewele paʻalima hoʻi.

I ka hoʻolālā ʻana, ʻaʻohe mea kikowaena ma mua o kamepiulame ka nānā ʻole i ka nui a me ka mana. E komo kēia kamepiula i nā ʻāpana pono o nā pono pono a pau, a me kahi ʻōnaehana hana a me nā polokalamu e lawelawe i kahi lawelawe (no laila kona inoa). ʻO kahi laʻana, hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻolaʻa i nā kikowaena NAS no ka mālama pūnaewele ʻana, nā pūnaewele pūnaewele e hoʻokipa i nā ʻaoʻao, nā kikowaena hōʻoia, a pēlā aku.

ʻO kēlā me kēia lawelawe i hāʻawi ʻia e ka kikowaena, e loaʻa nā polokalamu ʻē aʻe e hoʻopili iā ia e pōmaikaʻi ai i ka lawelawe a lākou e hāʻawi ai (kumu kūʻai kikowaena-mea kūʻai aku). ʻO kēia mau manaʻo ʻē aʻe i ʻike ʻia ma ke ʻano he mea kūʻai aku a hiki pū kekahi mai ke kelepona paʻalima, kahi Smart TV, PC, a pēlā aku.

Pehea e hoʻolālā ai i nā kikowaena

kumu kūʻai kikowaena mea kūʻai aku

ʻO ke kumu hoʻohālikelike-mea lawelawe he manaʻo maʻalahi ia, kahi e kali mau ai kahi mea lawelawe no kahi mea kūʻai aku a i ʻole mea kūʻai aku e noi. Akā, wahi a ke kikowaena hiki ke hoʻokō ʻia ma nā ʻano like ʻole:

  • Ua kaona: kuhikuhi pinepine i ka hoʻokipa ʻana, a i ʻole ka hoʻokipa pūnaewele ʻana, kaʻana like ʻia. ʻO ia, kahi e hoʻokipa ʻia ai nā pūnaewele a ʻona mau ʻia e nā ʻona ʻokoʻa. ʻO ia, kaʻana like ʻia nā lako pono kikowaena (RAM, CPU, mālama, a me ka bandwidth).
    • Nā pōmaikaʻi: ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o lākou ke kaʻana ʻia me nā poʻe ʻē aʻe. ʻAʻole pono ʻoe i ka ʻike loea kiʻekiʻe, maʻalahi ka hoʻomaka ʻana.
    • drawbacks: ʻaʻole ia he mea maʻalahi a no kekahi mau noi hiki ke ʻike ʻia i ka nele o ka kaohi. Ke kaʻana like ʻia, ʻaʻole paha nā pōmaikaʻi ke ʻoi loa.
    • He aha no? Hiki iā lākou ke lilo i mea maikaʻi no nā blog hoʻomaka a i ʻole pūnaewele me ka liʻiliʻi ma mua o 30.000 mau kipa i kēlā me kēia mahina. ʻOiai no nā puka liʻiliʻi ʻoihana liʻiliʻi.
  • VPS (Pūnaewele Tūmau Kope): ke lilo nei lākou i mea makemake nui ʻia. ʻO ke kumu he kamepiula "fragment" ia i nā kikowaena pūnaewele like ʻole. ʻO ia, kahi mīkini kino e hoʻokaʻawale ʻia kāna mau kumuwaiwai i waena o nā mīkini uila. E haʻalele iā lākou ma waena o ka māhele a me ka hoʻolaʻa. ʻO ia, hiki i kēlā me kēia mea hoʻohana ke hoʻohana i kahi ʻōnaehana no lākou iho, a me nā kumuwaiwai (vCPU, vRAM, mālama, pūnaewele) ʻaʻole lākou e kaʻana like me kekahi, hiki ke hoʻokele i ka VPS me he mea lā he mea laʻa ia.
    • Nā pōmaikaʻi: hāʻawi i ke kūpaʻa a me ka scalability. Hiki iā ʻoe ke aʻa i ke kikowaena (i kāu kuhi). Hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻouka a uninstall paha i kekahi polokalamu āu e makemake ai. Ma ke ʻano o ke kumukūʻai, ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o lākou ma mua o nā mea hoʻolaʻa.
    • drawbacks: ʻo ka hoʻokele, ka hoʻopili ʻana a me ka palekana kāu kuleana. Inā kū nā pilikia, pono ʻoe e hoʻoponopono iā lākou, no laila pono ʻoe i ka ʻike loea ma mua o kēlā kaʻana like. ʻOiai ʻoi aku ka mākaukau ma mua o ka mea i kaʻana like ʻia, hoʻomau ia i kekahi mau palena i hoʻohālikelike ʻia i ka mea hoʻolaʻa.
    • He aha no? Nui no nā ʻoihana liʻiliʻi a me ka liʻiliʻi e makemake e hoʻokipa i kā lākou pūnaewele a lawelawe paha.
  • Hoolaa: iā lākou e kaohi ai ʻoe i ke kaiapuni, me ka ʻole o nā "hoalauna hōʻeha". ʻO ia ka manaʻo e loaʻa iā ʻoe ka mīkini no ʻoe, hiki ke hoʻokele iā ia akā makemake ʻoe a kūkulu i nā hanana e pono ai.
    • Nā pōmaikaʻi: customizable, access access and control over the server, hoʻohiki i ka loaʻa o nā kumuwaiwai āpau nāu, hoʻomaikaʻi i ka pilikino a me ka palekana, hana paʻa a wānana ʻia.
    • drawbacks: ʻoi aku ka pipiʻi a e koi i nā kumuwaiwai ʻenehana e hoʻokele iā lākou. Pono lākou i ka mālama mau.
    • He aha no? Kūpono no nā polokalamu pūnaewele, nā pūnaewele eCommerce, a me nā lawelawe e loaʻa i nā kaʻa kiʻekiʻe.
  • Naʻu iho: ʻo nā mea i hala aku nei ua hāʻawi ʻia nā kikowaena āpau e kahi ʻoihana ao. Eia nō naʻe, hiki iā ʻoe ke loaʻa i kāu kikowaena pūnaewele ponoʻī. Hiki i kēia ke loaʻa nā pōmaikaʻi nui, ʻoiai ʻo ʻoe ka mea nona ka lakohana, hoʻonui i ka pilikino a me ka palekana o kāu ʻike. E loaʻa i kāu kikowaena ponoʻī, hiki ke hana ʻia, e like me kaʻu i ʻōlelo ai ma mua, e hoʻohana ana i kekahi PC, kelepona paʻalima, a me kahi Raspberry Pi. ʻOiaʻiʻo, inā ʻoe e pono i kahi mea i ʻoi aku ka ikaika ma mua o kēlā, pono ʻoe e kūʻai i nā kikowaena e like me nā mea i hāʻawi ʻia e nā ʻoihana e like me HPE, Dell, Cisco, Lenovo, a pēlā aku, e hana i kāu "kikowaena ʻikepili" ponoʻī, ʻo ka nui ...
    • Nā pōmaikaʻi: ʻo ʻoe ka mea nona ke kikowaena, no laila ʻoe e kaohi piha. ʻOiai ke hoʻonui a hoʻololi paha i nā ʻenehana pono.
    • drawbacks: pono ʻoe e mālama i nā pilikia āpau e kū aʻe, hoʻoponopono, mālama, a pēlā aku. Eia hou, hoʻonui kēia i ke kumukūʻai, kūʻai aku i nā lakohana pono a me nā laikini, a me ka hoʻohana uila i loaʻa i ka mīkini, a me ka uku ʻana i ka IPS inā pono ʻoe i ka broadband wikiwiki.
    • He aha no? Hiki ke kūpono no nā hui, nā ʻoihana, a me nā aupuni e pono ai ka kaohi piha o ka ʻike, a i ʻole no nā mea hoʻohana e makemake e hoʻonohonoho i kahi mea kikoʻī loa a waiho ʻole i kā lākou ʻikepili i ka lima o haʻi.

Aia paha nā mea ʻokoʻa ma waena o kēia, keu hoʻi no nā lawelawe a me nā pono i hoʻolako ʻia e kekahi mau mea lawelawe o kēia manawa, e like me nā lawelawe i hoʻokele ʻia i mea e hopohopo ʻole ai ʻoe i kekahi mea, nā hopena palekana, nā mea hoʻonoho maʻalahi e hoʻouka i nā ʻōnaehana a i ʻole polokalamu me ka ʻike ʻole, etc.

Nā ʻano o nā kikowaena

Nā kikowaena kikowaena NAS

Ma ka ʻāpana mua ua hiki iā ʻoe ke ʻike i nā ala e hoʻokō ai i kahi kikowaena pūnaewele, akā naʻe, hiki ke palapala ʻia lākou kaukaʻi ʻia i ke ʻano o ka lawelawe ʻaiʻē:

  • Pūnaewele pūnaewele: Kaulana loa kēia ʻano kikowaena. ʻO kāna hana ka hoʻokipa a hoʻonohonoho i nā ʻaoʻao pūnaewele i hiki i nā mea kūʻai aku, me nā polokalamu kele pūnaewele a i ʻole nā ​​mea kolo, ke kiʻi iā lākou ma o nā kuʻina e like me HTTP / HTTPS.
  • Waihona kikowaena: nā mea i hoʻohana ʻia e mālama i ka ʻikepili mea kūʻai aku i hiki iā lākou ke hoʻouka a hoʻoiho ʻia ma o ka pūnaewele. Ma loko o kēia mau kikowaena he nui nā ʻano, e like me nā kikowaena NAS, nā kikowaena FTP / SFTP, SMB, NFS, etc.
  • Nā Kikowaena Email: nā lawelawe i hoʻolako ʻia e hoʻokō i nā kaola leka uila i hiki i nā mea kūʻai aku ke kamaʻilio, loaʻa a hoʻouna i nā leka uila. Loaʻa kēia ma o ka polokalamu e hoʻokō i nā kuʻina e like me SMTP, IMAP, a i ʻole POP.
  • Nā kikowaena pūnaeweleʻOiai hiki iā lākou ke papa inoa ma waena o nā faile, mālama kēia ʻano i ka ʻike i kahi hierarchical a me ka hoʻonohonoho pono i ka waihona. ʻO kekahi polokalamu e hoʻokō i kahi waihona pūnaewele ʻo PostgreSQL, MySQL, MariaDB, etc.
  • Mea lawelawe pāʻani: he lawelawe i hoʻolaʻa ʻia no ka hāʻawi ʻana i nā mea e pono ai nā mea kūʻai (nā mea pāʻani) i hiki ke pāʻani i ka mode multiplayer pūnaewele.
  • Pūnaewele kikowaena: lawelawe ma ke ʻano he kamaʻilio kamaʻilio i nā pūnaewele. Hana lākou ma ke ʻano he waena
  • Pūnaewele DNS: ʻo kāna pahuhopu ka hāʻawi ʻana i kahi lawelawe hoʻonā inoa inoa kikowaena. ʻO ia, i ʻole ʻoe e hoʻomanaʻo i ka IP o ke kikowaena āu e makemake ai e komo, kahi mea hoʻoluhi a maʻalahi ʻole, e hoʻohana wale ʻoe i ka inoa hoʻokipa (domain and TLD), e like me www.example, es , a e ʻimi ana ʻo DNS kikowaena i kāna waihona no ka IP e pili ana i kēlā inoa kikowaena e ʻae ai i ke komo.
  • Nā kikowaena kikowaena hōʻoia: lawelawe lākou i nā lawelawe no ke komo ʻana i kekahi ʻōnaehana. Loaʻa iā lākou kahi waihona pūnaewele me nā ʻike o nā mea kūʻai aku a. ʻO kahi laʻana o kēia ʻo LDAP.
  • 'ē aʻeAia kekahi poʻe, me ka hoʻohui, hāʻawi nā lawelawe lawelawe he nui i kahi hui o kekahi o kēia mau mea. ʻO kahi laʻana, aia nā wahi noho e hāʻawi iā ʻoe i ka hōkeo ʻikepili, ka leka uila, a pēlā aku.

Nā kikowaena NAS: nā mea āpau āu e ʻike ai

Nā kikowaena NAS

ka Nā lawelawe NAS (Pūnaewele Pepa Pūnaewele) he mea hoʻopili pūnaewele paʻa lākou. Me kēia hiki iā ʻoe ke lilo i mea e hoʻokipa ai i ka ʻikepili a loaʻa iā ʻoe i kēlā me kēia manawa. Hiki ke hoʻokō ʻia kēia ʻano kikowaena ma ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka polokalamu ma nā hāmeʻa lehulehu, e like me ka PC, kahi hāmeʻa kelepona, kahi Raspberry Pi, e uku ana no kahi lawelawe mālama ʻōpua, a me ke kūʻai ʻana i kāu NAS ponoʻī (aʻu e nānā ai i kēia ʻāpana. ).

E loaʻa i kēia mau kikowaena NAS kā lākou CPU, RAM, mālama (SSD a i ʻole HDD), ʻŌnaehana I / ʻO, a me kāu ʻōnaehana ponoʻī. Hoʻohui, i ka mākeke hiki iā ʻoe ke ʻike i kekahi e kia ana i nā mea hoʻohana hale, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe no nā wahi ʻoihana me ka ʻoi aku ka nui a me ka hana.

El e hana nei o kēia mau kikowaena mea maʻalahi e hoʻomaopopo:

  • Pūnaehana: Loaʻa i nā kikowaena NAS kahi lakohana a me kahi ʻōnaehana e hana i nā hana āpau i ka mea kūʻai aku. ʻO ia, ke hoʻoholo ka mea kūʻai aku e hoʻouka, kāpae, a hoʻoiho i ka ʻikepili, e mālama ia i nā ʻanuʻu kūpono āpau e hana pēlā, e hāʻawi ana i kahi maʻa maʻalahi i ka mea kūʻai aku.
  • Kelepili Pono'ī: hiki iā ʻoe ke loaʻa iā lākou me nā kau ʻokoʻa. I kēlā me kēia kau i hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻokomo i kahi kikowaena mālama e hoʻonui i kona hiki, he HDD a i ʻole he SSD. Kūlike like nā kīleʻa paʻakikī i nā mea āu e hoʻohana ai ma kāu PC maʻamau. Eia nō naʻe, aia kekahi pūʻulu kikoʻī no NAS, e like me ka Western Digital Red Series, a i ʻole ʻo Seagate IronWolf. Inā makemake ʻoe i kahi ʻoihana, loaʻa iā ʻoe ka WD Ultrastar a me ka Seagate EXOS.
  • ʻulaʻula: ʻOiaʻiʻo, e hiki ai i nā mea kūʻai aku, pono e pili i ka pūnaewele. A i ʻole ma ke kāpena Ethernet a i ʻole ka ʻenehana uea ʻole.

He aha kaʻu e hana ai me NAS?

 

Nā kikowaena NAS

ʻO ka loaʻa ʻana o nā kikowaena NAS e ʻae iā ʻoe e loaʻa i kāu 'ao' mālama pilikino, kahi hiki ke loaʻa nā pōmaikaʻi nui. Mawaena o ka nā polokalamu i kau ʻia ʻo lākou nei:

  • Ma ke ʻano he kikowaena mālama pūnaewele: hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻohana iā ia e mālama i nā mea āpau āu e makemake ai, no ka laʻana, mālama i kāu mau kiʻi mai kāu kelepona paʻalima, hoʻohana ia ma ke ʻano he pūnaewele pūnaewele o nā faile multimedia, kāu lawelawe e like me Netflix e hoʻokele nei i kāu mau kiʻi ʻoniʻoni a me nā moʻo (hiki iā Plex ke mālama i kēia , Kodi,…), Etc.
  • Bakup: hiki iā ʻoe ke hana kope kope o kāu ʻōnaehana ma kāu NAS ma kahi ala maʻalahi. Ma kēia ala e loaʻa mau i kahi kākoʻo i kou manamana lima a e hōʻoia ʻoe i kāu ʻike ma kahi kikowaena pūnaewele i ʻike ʻia.
  • puu: hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻohana ia mea e kaʻana like i nā faile me kāu mau hoaaloha a me kou ʻohana, a i ʻole me ka poʻe āu e makemake ai. E hoʻouka wale i nā mea āu e makemake ai e kaʻana a hiki iā ʻoe ke hāʻawi iā ia e komo i nā mea kūʻai aku ʻē aʻe i hiki ai iā lākou ke komo a hoʻoiho iā ia.
  • kikowaena: Hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻohana iā ia ma ke ʻano he host pūnaewele e mālama i kāu pūnaewele ma aneʻi. Eia naʻe, e noʻonoʻo e kaupalena ʻia nā kikowaena NAS i kāu bandwīwī pūnaewele. ʻO ia, inā ʻaʻohe ou laina wikiwiki, a ke kiʻi nei nā poʻe ʻē aʻe i ka NAS, ʻike ʻoe i nā kulu hana kaulana. Me nā optic fiber e hoʻomaikaʻi nui ʻia kēia.
  • 'ē aʻe: Aia kekahi mau kikowaena NAS hiki ke lawelawe ma ke ʻano he kikowaena FTP, e hoʻokipa i kahi waihona, a ʻo kekahi pū kekahi me nā hana no VPN.

Pehea e koho ai i nā kikowaena pūnaewele NAS maikaʻi loa?

Nā kikowaena NAS

Ke kūʻai ʻana i kāu mau kikowaena NAS ponoʻī, pono ʻoe e hele i kekahi kaʻenehana ʻenehana E hōʻoia i kāu kūʻai maikaʻi ʻana:

  • lako paʻa- He mea nui e loaʻa iā ʻoe kahi CPU me ka hana maikaʻi a me kahi nui kūpono o RAM no ka wikiwiki nui. Pehea e maʻalahi ai kēia lawelawe ma kēia, ʻoiai e hilinaʻi iki nā mea āpau i kāu pono ponoʻī.
  • Nā Kaha / Pūnaewele: e hoʻolohe i ka helu a me ke ʻano o nā kihi (2.5 ″, 3.5 ″,…) i loaʻa i ka ʻokoʻa (SATA, M.2,…). Kākoʻo kekahi mau kikowaena NAS i ka hoʻouka ʻana i nā helu ʻoi aku o nā pā paʻakiki e hoʻonui i ka hiki (1TB, 2TB, 4TB, 8TB, 16TB, 32TB,…). Aia pū kekahi me ka hiki ke hoʻonohonoho ʻana i nā ʻōnaehana RAID no ka hōʻemi ʻikepili. A e hoʻomanaʻo he mea nui ia e koho i nā pā paʻaloko kikoʻī ʻo NAS, i hoʻomākaukau ʻia e kākoʻo i nā kaumaha kiʻekiʻe a me ka manawa kiʻekiʻe.
  • Pūhili pūnaewele: kekahi mea ʻē aʻe e noʻonoʻo ai e hoʻopili i kāu kikowaena me nā mea kūʻai aku i ke ala kūpono ʻoi loa.
  • ʻOihana ʻōnaehana a me nā polokalamu: hāʻawi mau kēlā me kēia mea hana i kāna ʻōnaehana ponoʻī, a me kahi o nā polokalamu pono a me nā hana. ʻO ka maʻamau, ʻo ke ala āu e neʻe ai i nā menus a me nā koho āu i kou manamana lima e hilinaʻi ia. Hoʻololi ʻia ma muli o ka mea hāʻawi.
  • Nā mana maikaʻi loa- ʻO kekahi mau mana i makemake nui ʻia o nā kikowaena NAS ʻo Synology, QNAP, Western Digital, a me Netgear. ʻO kekahi mau ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo kūʻai mai:

Raspberry Pi: ka Swiss Army Knife no nā mea hana

Piʻi Piʻi 4

ʻO kahi hopena haʻahaʻa no nā kikowaena NAS inā ʻaʻohe ou makemake nui e hoʻohana i kāu SBC e hoʻokō i kekahi o ia mau mea. Hāʻawi ka Raspberry Pi iā ʻoe e loaʻa ʻo kāu NAS ponoʻī ʻemi ma ka home. E pono wale ʻoe:

  • He Raspberry Pi.
  • Pili pūnaewele.
  • Kahi mālama pūnaewele (hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻohana i ke kāleka hoʻomanaʻo ponoʻī a i ʻole kahi pūnaewele mālama USB e pili ana i kāu Pi.
  • Polokalamu e hoʻokō i ka lawelawe. Hiki iā ʻoe ke koho mai nā papahana like ʻole, a me nā kumuwaiwai hamama, e like meCloud, NextCloud, etc

Nā mea maikaʻi a me nā maikaʻi ʻole o ka Raspberry Pi me nā kikowaena NAS i hoʻolaʻa ʻia

nā pono a me nā ponoʻole

Inā hoʻoholo ʻoe e leʻaleʻa i nā pono o nā kikowaena NAS, pono ʻoe e loiloi nā pono a me nā ponoʻole hiki ke hoʻokō ʻia ma o kahi Raspberry Pi:

  • Nā pōmaikaʻi:
    • Kūleʻa
    • ʻO ka hōʻemi liʻiliʻi
    • Ke aʻo ʻana i ke kaʻina hana
    • Ka nui kūiki
  • drawbacks:
    • Nā palena hana
    • Palena palena
    • Ka paʻakikī i ka hoʻonohonoho ʻana a me ka mālama ʻana
    • Pono e pili mau i ka pūnaewele a i ka lako mana (ʻai)
    • ʻOiai ʻaʻole ia he polokalamu NAS i hoʻolaʻa ʻia, aia paha he mau pilikia inā makemake ʻoe e hoʻohana i ka SBC no nā papahana ʻē aʻe

En hopena hopenaInā ʻoe e pono i kahi lawelawe ʻoihana NAS kūlohelohe a haʻahaʻa loa hoʻi, ʻo ka Raspberry Pi kāu mea kōkua maikaʻi loa no laila ʻaʻole pono ʻoe e hoʻopukapuka kālā nui loa. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, no nā lawelawe me ka nui o ka hiki ke mālama, kūpaʻa, scalability, a me ka hana, a laila ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi ke kūʻai aku i kāu kikowaena NAS ponoʻī a hoʻolimalima paha i kahi lawelawe mālama ʻōpua ...


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

Kāu leka uila aae? E,ʻaʻole e paʻiʻia. i hāliu aku i koi 'ia kula *

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.