1n4148: zonse zokhudzana ndi diode

magawo 1n4148

Pali mitundu yambiri yama diode semiconductor, yokhala ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana. Kuchokera pa ma diode okonzanso, kudzera mu Zener, kupita kuma LED omwe amatulutsa kuwala. M'nkhaniyi tili ndi chidwi chinthu chamagetsi konkriti, 1n4148 cholinga chazonse. Idzakhala yomwe tidzaasanthula malinga ndi mawonekedwe ake ndipo tiwonetsa zina mwazomwe zingagwiritsidwe ntchito.

1n4148 ndi a yaing'ono pakachitsulo wagawo zomwe zimabisa zinsinsi zazikulu zomwe muyenera kudziwa. Chida chomwe chitha kuthandiza kwambiri pantchito zanu ngati mumakonda zamagetsi zamagetsi kapena ndimapanga ...

Kodi diode ya semiconductor ndi chiyani?

magawo 1n4148

Un diode ndi chida cha semiconductor Imakhala ngati switch yolimba komanso njira imodzi pakadali pano. Ngakhale pali zosiyana, monga diode ya LED kapena IR, yomwe imatulutsa mawonekedwe amagetsi. Poyamba, kuwala kowoneka kwamtundu wina, kapena radiation ya infrared. Kumbali inayi, m'nkhaniyi, popeza tikambirana za 1n4148, tili ndi chidwi ndi iwo okha omwe akuchita zosokoneza pakali pano.

Mawu oti diode amachokera ku Chi Greek, ndipo amatanthauza "njira ziwiri". Ngakhale izi, zomwe zimachita ndizosiyana ndendende, ndiye kuti, zimatseka kuyenda kwa njira ina kupita kwina. Komabe, ngati mawonekedwe a IV a diode akuyamikiridwa, titha kuwona kuti ili ndi zigawo ziwiri zosiyana. Pansi pamtundu wina womwe ungakhalepo udzakhala ngati dera lotseguka (osayendetsa), ndipo pamwamba pake ngati kanthawi kochepa kopanda magetsi.

Ma diode awa ali ndi mgwirizano yamitundu iwiri ya semiconductor P ndi N. Ndipo alinso ndi malo awiri olumikizirana, anode (malo abwino) ndi cathode (malo osayenerera). Kutengera ndi momwe magetsi akugwiritsidwira ntchito, mawonekedwe awiri amatha kusiyanitsidwa:

  • Kulunjika molunjika: pamene kutsika kwaposachedwa kumadutsa. Phokoso loyipa la batri kapena magetsi limabwezeretsa ma electron aulere kuchokera ku N kristalo ndipo ma elekitironi amalunjika kulumikizana ndi PN. Mtengo wabwino wa batri kapena gwero umakopa ma elekitironi a valence kuchokera ku P crystal (amakankhira mabowo kulowera kolowera PN). Kusiyanitsa komwe kungakhalepo pakati pama terminals ndikokulirapo kusiyana ndi kuthekera kosiyanitsa malo oyang'anira danga, ma elekitironi aulere mu N kristalo amakhala ndi mphamvu zokwanira zolumphira m'mabowo mu P crystal ndi ma flow apano.
  • Bwezerani kusintha: ikakhala ngati wotetezera ndipo salola kuti pano iziyenda. Poterepa, kugawanika kudzakhala kosiyana, ndiye kuti, gwero likhala likupereka njira ina, kupangitsa kuti ma elekitironi azilowa m'dera la P ndikukankhira ma elekitironi m'mazira. Malo osungira bwino a batri amakopa ma elekitironi kuchokera ku N zone, ndipo izi zimapangitsa mzere womwe ungakhale wotetezera pakati pamipando.
Apa tikuyang'ana pa mtundu umodzi wa ma diode. Chinthucho chimasiyanasiyana ndi ma photodiode kapena ma LED, ndi zina zambiri.

Zida izi zidapangidwa potengera mfundo ya Kuyesera kwa Lee De Forest. Choyamba kuwonekera anali mavavu akulu kapena zingwe zopumira. Magalasi a Thermionic okhala ndi maelekitirodi angapo omwe amagwiritsa ntchito ngati zida izi, koma amatulutsa kutentha kwambiri, kumadya kwambiri, anali akulu, ndipo amatha kuwonongeka ngati mababu amagetsi. Chifukwa chake adaganiza kuti m'malo mwake akhale ndi zigawo zolimba (semiconductors).

ofunsira

Ma diode, monga 1n4148, ali nawo unyinji wa ntchito. Ndi zida zotchuka kwambiri pamagetsi azamagetsi apano komanso munthawi zina zamakono. M'malo mwake, tawona kale momwe magetsi adakwaniritsa ntchito yofunikira kwambiri kuchoka ku AC kupita ku DC. Izi ndizomwe zimawongolera, popeza amasintha siginecha yamtundu wa sinusoidal kuti ikhale yopitilira muyeso ya nyerere potsekereza zomwe zikulowera kwina.

Zitha kugwiranso ntchito ngati zamagetsi ankalamulira masiwichi, monga otetezera madera, monga ma jenereta amawu, ndi zina zambiri.

Mitundu ya diode

Ma diode amatha kugawa kutengera mphamvu yomwe amalekerera, kulimba kwake, zinthuzo (mwachitsanzo: silicon), ndi mawonekedwe ena. Zina mwa mitundu yofunika kwambiri Iwo ndi:

  • Chowonera diode: Amadziwika ngati chizindikiro chotsika kapena kulumikizana kwa point. Zapangidwa kuti zigwiritsidwe ntchito ndimafupipafupi kwambiri komanso pano. Mutha kuwapeza onse opangidwa ndi germanium (malire a 0.2 mpaka 0.3 volts) ndi silicon (yolowera 0.6 mpaka 0-7 volts). Kutengera doping ya madera a P ndi N iwo adzakhala ndi mawonekedwe osagwirizana komanso kuwonongeka.
  • Wokonzanso diode: Amangoyendetsa pokhapokha, monga ndanenera kale. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito kusintha ma voltages kapena kukonza ma signature. Muthanso kupeza mitundu yosiyanasiyana, yokhala ndi kulolerana kosiyanasiyana malinga ndi magetsi amakono ndi othandizidwa.
  • Zener diode: ndi mtundu wina wotchuka kwambiri. Amalola kutseguka kwaposachedwa ndipo amagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati zida zowongolera. Ngati atagawanika mwachindunji amatha kukhala ngati diode wamba.
  • LED: diode yotulutsa kuwala ndiyosiyana ndi yapita, popeza zomwe zimachita ndikusintha mphamvu yamagetsi kukhala kuwala. Izi zili choncho chifukwa cha njira yamagetsi yamagetsi yomwe mabowo ndi ma elekitironi amapanganso kutulutsa kuwunikaku ikakulungidwa mwachindunji.
  • Chidwi cha SchottkyAmadziwika kuti akuchira mwachangu kapena otengera otentha. Nthawi zambiri amapangidwa ndi silicon ndipo amadziwika ndi kutsika kwakanthawi kwamagetsi (<0.25v approx). Ndiye kuti, nthawi yosintha idzakhala yayifupi kwambiri.
  • Ma diode a Schockley: Ngakhale kufanana m'dzina, ndi zosiyana ndi yapita. Ili ndi mipata ya PNPN ndipo ili ndi zigawo ziwiri zotheka (kutsekereza kapena kuthamanga kwambiri kapena kuchititsa kapena kutsika pang'ono).
  • Gawo Lobwezeretsa Gawo (SRD): Imadziwikanso kuti yosungira chindapusa, ndipo imatha kusunga chiwongolero cha kugunda kwabwino ndikugwiritsa ntchito mayendedwe olakwika azizindikiro za sinusoidal.
  • Ngalande diode: Amatchedwanso Esaki, amagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati ma swichi olimba othamanga momwe angagwiritsire ntchito ma nanoseconds. Izi ndichifukwa chakuchepa kocheperako kozungulira komanso kokhotakhota komwe kudana kosavomerezeka kumachepa mphamvu yamagetsi ikamachuluka.
  • Varodeor diode: sichidziwika kwenikweni kuposa m'mbuyomu, koma imagwiritsidwanso ntchito m'ma projekiti ena. The varicap ntchito ngati voteji ankalamulira variable capacitor. Imagwira mosemphana.
  • Laser ndi IR photodiode: Ndi ma diode ofanana ndi ma LED, koma m'malo motulutsa kuwala, amatulutsa mawonekedwe amagetsi amagetsi. Monga kungakhale kuwala kwa monochromatic (laser) kapena infrared (IR).
  • Wosakhalitsa Voteji Kupondereza Diode (TVS)- Yapangidwa kuti izitha kudutsa kapena kutsegulira ma spikes amagetsi ndikuteteza madera pamavuto awa. Amatha kuteteza motsutsana ndi kutulutsa kwamagetsi (ESD).
  • Ma diode opangidwa ndi golide: Ndi ma diode omwe amapangidwa pogwiritsa ntchito ma atomu agolide. Izi zimawapatsa mwayi, ndikuti amayankha mwachangu kwambiri.
  • Zojambula za Peltier: maselo amtunduwu amalola mgwirizano womwe ungapangitse kutentha ndi kuzizira kutengera mbali iti. Zambiri.
  • Chiwombankhanga diode: Ndi ofanana ndi Zener, koma amagwira ntchito pansi pazinthu zina zotchedwa avalanche athari.
  • ena: pali zina monga GUNN, mitundu yam'mbuyomu monga ma OLED azithunzi, ndi zina zambiri.

1n4148 cholinga chazonse

chizindikiro ndi pini ya diode 1n4148

El 1N4148 diode Ndi mtundu wa diode yosintha pakachitsulo. Ndi imodzi mwazotchuka kwambiri padziko lapansi zamagetsi. Imakhalanso yolimba kwambiri, popeza ili ndi mawonekedwe abwino ngakhale itakhala yotsika mtengo.

Dzinalo limatsatira Dzina la JEDEC, ndipo ndiwothandiza pakusintha magwiritsidwe ofikira pafupifupi ma 100 Mhz pafupipafupi ndi nthawi yobwezeretsanso yomwe siimadutsa 4ns.

historia

Zida za Texas idapangidwa mu 1960 diode ya 1n914. Pambuyo polembetsa chaka chimodzi pambuyo pake, opanga oposa khumi ndi awiri adalandira ufulu kuti apange. Mu 1968 1N4148 ifika ku registry ya JEDEC, kuyamba kugwiritsidwa ntchito pazankhondo ndi mafakitale panthawiyo. Pakadali pano pali ambiri omwe amapanga ndikugulitsa zidazi pansi pa dzina 1N4148 komanso pansi pa 1N914. Kusiyana pakati pa ziwirizi ndi dzina ndi zina zochepa. Amangosiyana pakufotokozera kwawo kwaposachedwa.

Pinout ndi ma CD a 1n4148

1n4148 diode nthawi zambiri imabwera phukusi pansi pa DO-35, yokhala ndi emvulopu yamagalasi ofananira. Mutha kupezanso pamitundu ina monga SOD yokwera pamwamba, ndi zina zambiri.

Kwenikweni pepala, ili ndi zikhomo kapena malo awiri okha. Ngati mungayang'ane mzere wakuda pa diode iyi, malekezero oyandikira kwambiri mzere wakudawo ndi cathode, pomwe malekezero ena adzakhala anode.

Zambiri - tsamba lazambiri

Matchulidwe

Kwenikweni zizindikiro kuchokera 1n4148, nthawi zambiri amakhala:

  • Zolemba malire patsogolo voteji: 1v mpaka 10mA
  • Kuchepetsa kwakanthawi kwamagetsi ndikusintha kutayikira kwamakono: 75v pa 5 μA; 100 V pa 100 μA
  • Zolemba malire kusintha nthawi kuchira:4ns ndi
  • Kutaya kwakukulu kwamphamvuMphamvu: 500mW

Komwe mungagule 1n4148

Ngati mukufuna gulani diode 1n4148 Muyenera kudziwa kuti ndichida chotchipa kwambiri, ndipo mutha kuchipeza m'masitolo apadera a zamagetsi kapena pa intaneti m'malo monga Amazon. Mwachitsanzo, nazi malangizo:


Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

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