Ultimate Guide to 3D Printers

Makina osindikiza a 3D

Kupanga kowonjezera kumakhala ndi magawo ambiri ogwiritsira ntchito, m'gawo lazachisangalalo komanso m'makampani ndiukadaulo. Osindikiza a 3D abwera kudzasintha momwe mumasindikizira ndipo amamanga nyumba zatsopano, zomwe zimatha kuchokera kuzinthu zazing'ono kupita ku minofu yamoyo ngakhalenso nyumba, kapena magawo a aerodynamic a motorsport.

Mpaka zaka zingapo zapitazo, kusindikiza kwa 2D kunali nkhani zopeka za sayansi. Ambiri amalota kuti athe kusindikiza zinthu m'malo mwa zithunzi kapena zolemba pamapepala osavuta a XNUMXD. Tsopano luso ndi okhwima kuti alipo osawerengeka matekinoloje, zopangidwa, zitsanzo, ndi zina. Mu bukhuli mutha kuphunzira zambiri za osindikiza achilendowa.

Kodi voxel ndi chiyani?

voxel

Ngati simunadziwebe voxel, ndikofunika kuti mumvetse chomwe chiri, popeza kusindikiza kwa 3D ndikofunikira. Ndichidule cha English «volumetric pixel», kiyubiki unit kuti amapanga atatu azithunzithunzi chinthu.

Palinso mayunitsi ena monga texel (texture element kapena texture pixel), yomwe ndi gawo lochepa la kapangidwe kamene kamayikidwa pamwamba pazithunzi zamakompyuta, kapena tixel (tactile pixel), yomwe ndi neologism yomwe imatanthawuza mtundu. ukadaulo wa haptic wokhudza zowonera, zomwe zimalola kutengera kukhudza kwamitundu yosiyanasiyana.

Mwa kuyankhula kwina, izo zikanakhala 2D yofanana ndi pixel. Ndipo, monga mukuwonera pachithunzi pamwambapa, ngati mtundu wa 3D ugawika kukhala ma cubes, iliyonse ingakhale voxel. Ndikofunikira kufotokoza chomwe chiri, popeza osindikiza ena apamwamba a 3D amalola kuwongolera kwa voxel iliyonse panthawi yosindikiza kuti akwaniritse zotsatira zabwino.

Kodi chosindikizira cha 3D ndi chiyani

Pulogalamu ya 3D

Makina osindikizira a 3D ndi makina omwe amatha kusindikiza zinthu ndi voliyumu kuchokera pamapangidwe apakompyuta. Ndiko kuti, ngati chosindikizira wamba, koma m'malo mosindikiza pamalo athyathyathya komanso mu 2D, zimatero ndi miyeso itatu (m'lifupi, kutalika ndi kutalika)). Zojambula zomwe zotsatirazi zingapezeke zimatha kuchokera ku chitsanzo cha 3D kapena CAD, komanso kuchokera ku chinthu chenichenicho chomwe chakhalapo. XNUMXD sikani.

Ndipo angathe sindikizani mitundu yonse ya zinthu, kuchokera ku zinthu zosavuta monga kapu ya khofi, kupita ku zovuta kwambiri monga minyewa yamoyo, nyumba, ndi zina. Mwa kuyankhula kwina, maloto a ambiri omwe ankafuna kuti zojambula zawo zosindikizidwa zikhale ndi moyo kuchokera pamapepala zili pano, ndipo ndizotsika mtengo kuti zigwiritsidwe ntchito kupyola mafakitale, komanso kunyumba.

Mbiri yakusindikiza kwa 3D

Mbiri yosindikiza ya 3D ikuwoneka yaposachedwa kwambiri, koma chowonadi ndi chakuti iyenera kubwereranso zaka makumi angapo. Zonse zimachokera chosindikizira cha inkjet kuyambira 1976, zomwe zakhala zikuyenda bwino m'malo mwa inki yosindikizira ndi zida zopangira zinthu ndi voliyumu, kuchitapo kanthu kofunikira ndikuyika chizindikiro pakukula kwaukadaulo mpaka pamakina apano:

  • Mu 1981 chipangizo choyamba chosindikizira cha 3D chinali chovomerezeka. iye anachita izo Dr Hideo Kodi, a Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute (Japan). Lingaliro linali logwiritsa ntchito njira ziwiri zomwe adapanga popanga zowonjezera pogwiritsa ntchito utomoni wosamva zithunzi, wofanana ndi momwe tchipisi chimapangidwira. Komabe, ntchito yake idzasiyidwa chifukwa chosowa chidwi komanso ndalama.
  • M'zaka khumi zomwezi, akatswiri a ku France Alain Le Méhauté, Olivier de Wittte ndi Jean-Claude André, anayamba kufufuza luso la kupanga ndi kulimba kwa utomoni wa photosensitive ndi machiritso a UV. A CNRS sakanavomereza ntchitoyi chifukwa cha kusowa kwa malo ofunsira. Ndipo, ngakhale adafunsira patent mu 1984, pamapeto pake idasiyidwa.
  • charles mutuMu 1984, adapezanso kampani ya 3D Systems, yopanga stereolithography (SLA). Ndi njira yomwe chinthu cha 3D chikhoza kusindikizidwa kuchokera ku chitsanzo cha digito.
  • La woyamba SLA mtundu 3D makina Inayamba kugulitsidwa mu 1992, koma mitengo yake inali yokwera kwambiri ndipo inali zida zofunika kwambiri.
  • Mu 1999 chochitika china chachikulu chinadziwika, ulendo uno akunena za bioprinting, kukhala wokhoza kupanga chiwalo cha munthu mu labotale, makamaka chikhodzodzo cha mkodzo pogwiritsa ntchito zokutira zopangira ndi tsinde maselo okha. Chochitika chachikulu ichi chidachokera ku Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, ndikutsegula zitseko zopanga ziwalo zopangira zowayika.
  • El Impso zosindikizidwa za 3D zikafika mu 2002. Inali chitsanzo chogwira ntchito bwino chokhoza kusefa magazi ndi kupanga mkodzo mu nyama. Chitukukochi chinapangidwanso mu bungwe lomwelo.
  • Adrian Bowyer adayambitsa RepRap ku yunivesite ya Bath mu 2005. Ndi njira yotseguka yopangira makina osindikizira a 3D otsika mtengo omwe amadzibwereza okha, ndiko kuti, amatha kusindikiza zigawo zawo ndi kugwiritsa ntchito zinthu monga Zithunzi za 3D.
  • Patapita chaka, in 2006, luso la SLS lifika ndi kuthekera kopanga zinthu zambiri chifukwa cha laser. Ndi izo, zitseko zogwiritsira ntchito mafakitale zimatsegulidwa.
  • 2008 chidzakhala chaka choyamba chosindikizira ndi luso lodzibwereza. Anali Darwin wa RepRap. M'chaka chomwechi, ntchito zopanga pamodzi zinayambanso, mawebusaiti omwe madera amatha kugawana mapangidwe awo a 3D kuti ena azisindikiza paosindikiza awo a 3D.
  • Kupita patsogolo kwakukulu kwachitikanso mu 3D prosthetics chilolezo. 2008 idzakhala chaka chomwe munthu woyamba azitha kuyenda chifukwa cha mwendo wosindikizira wosindikizidwa.
  • 2009 ndi chaka cha Makerbot ndi zida ya osindikiza a 3D, kotero kuti ogwiritsa ntchito ambiri amatha kuwagula otsika mtengo ndikupanga chosindikizira chawo. Ndiye kuti, zolunjika kwa opanga ndi DIY. Chaka chomwecho, Dr. Gabor Forgacs amapanga sitepe ina yaikulu mu bioprinting, kutha kupanga mitsempha ya magazi.
  • El ndege yoyamba yosindikizidwa mu 3D ifika mu 2011, yopangidwa ndi akatswiri ochokera ku yunivesite ya Southampton. Zinali zomangidwa mopanda munthu, koma zitha kupangidwa m'masiku 7 okha komanso bajeti ya € 7000. Izi zinatsegula chiletso cha kupanga zinthu zina zambiri. M'malo mwake, chaka chomwecho galimoto yoyamba yosindikizidwa idzafika, Kor Ecologic Urbee, yomwe ili pakati pa € ​​​​12.000 ndi € 60.000.
  • Nthawi yomweyo, kusindikiza kunayamba kugwiritsa ntchito zida zapamwamba monga siliva wokongola ndi 14kt golide, motero kutsegulira msika watsopano wa miyala yamtengo wapatali, kutha kupanga zidutswa zotsika mtengo pogwiritsa ntchito zinthu zenizeni.
  • Mu 2012 ikafika woyamba prosthetic nsagwada implant 3D idasindikizidwa chifukwa cha ofufuza aku Belgian ndi Dutch.
  • Ndipo panopa msika susiya kupeza mapulogalamu atsopano, kuwongolera magwiridwe antchito, ndi kupitiriza kukula ndi mabizinesi ndi nyumba.

Pakadali pano, ngati mukudabwa mtengo wosindikiza wa 3d ndi zingati, imatha kuchoka pa € ​​​​100 kapena € 200 ngati yotsika mtengo komanso yaying'ono kwambiri, kufika ku € 1000 kapena kuposerapo pazochitika zapamwamba kwambiri ndi zazikulu, ndipo ngakhale zina zomwe zimawononga masauzande a mayuro ku mafakitale a gawo.

Kodi zowonjezera kupanga kapena AM

kupanga zowonjezera, kusindikiza kwa 3d

Kusindikiza kwa 3D sikuli kanthu kupanga zowonjezera, ndiko kuti, njira yopangira yomwe, kuti ipange zitsanzo za 3D, imagwirizanitsa zigawo zakuthupi. Zosiyana kwambiri ndi kupanga subtractive, zomwe zimachokera ku chipika choyamba (tsamba, ingot, chipika, bar, ...) kuchokera kuzinthu zomwe zimachotsedwa pang'onopang'ono mpaka chinthu chomaliza chikwaniritsidwe. Mwachitsanzo, monga kupanga subtractive muli ndi chidutswa chosema pa lathe, amene amayamba ndi chipika matabwa.

Chifukwa cha izi njira yosinthira mutha kupeza zotsika mtengo zopangira zinthu kunyumba, zitsanzo zamainjiniya ndi omanga, pezani ma prototypes oyesa, ndi zina zambiri. Kuphatikiza apo, kupanga zowonjezera izi kwapangitsa kuti zitheke kupanga magawo omwe kale anali zosatheka ndi njira zina monga nkhungu, extrusion, etc.

Kodi bioprinting ndi chiyani

bioprinting

Bioprinting ndi mtundu wapadera wopanga zowonjezera, zomwe zimapangidwanso ndi osindikiza a 3D, koma zomwe zotsatira zake zimakhala zosiyana kwambiri ndi zipangizo za inert. Mayi kupanga minyewa yamoyo ndi ziwalo, kuchokera pakhungu la munthu kupita ku chiwalo chofunika kwambiri. Atha kupanganso zinthu zomwe zimagwirizana ndi biocompatible, monga za prostheses kapena implants.

Izi zitha kutheka kuchokera njira ziwiri:

  • Kapangidwe, mtundu wothandizira kapena scaffold amapangidwa ndi zophatikiza ma polima biocompatible kuti samakanidwa ndi thupi, ndi kuti maselo amawavomereza. Mapangidwewa amalowetsedwa mu bioreactor kuti athe kukhala ndi ma cell ndipo akangolowetsedwa m'thupi, pang'onopang'ono amapangira ma cell a chamoyo cholandirako.
  • Ndi mawonekedwe a ziwalo kapena minofu yosanjikiza ndi wosanjikiza, koma m'malo mogwiritsa ntchito zinthu monga mapulasitiki, kapena zina, moyo cell zikhalidwe ndi njira yomangira yotchedwa biopaper (biodegradable material) kuti ipangidwe.

Momwe osindikiza a 3D amagwirira ntchito

kupanga zowonjezera, momwe osindikiza a 3d amagwirira ntchito

El momwe chosindikizira cha 3d chimagwirira ntchito Ndizosavuta kuposa momwe zingawonekere:

  1. Mukhoza kuyamba ndi mapulogalamu kuti Zitsanzo za 3d kapena kapangidwe ka CAD kuti mupange mtundu womwe mukufuna, kapena tsitsani fayilo yomwe idapangidwa kale, komanso gwiritsani ntchito sikani ya 3D kuti mupeze mtundu wa 3D kuchokera ku chinthu chenicheni.
  2. Tsopano muli ndi Mtundu wa 3D wosungidwa mufayilo ya digito, ndiko kuti, kuchokera ku chidziwitso cha digito chokhala ndi miyeso ndi mawonekedwe a chinthucho.
  3. Otsatirawa ndi kudula, njira yomwe chitsanzo cha 3D "chadulidwa" mu mazana kapena masauzande a zigawo kapena magawo. Ndiko kuti, momwe mungadulire chitsanzo ndi mapulogalamu.
  4. Wogwiritsa akadina batani losindikiza, chosindikizira cha 3D cholumikizidwa ndi PC kudzera pa chingwe cha USB, kapena netiweki, kapena fayilo yoperekedwa pa SD khadi kapena cholembera, kutanthauziridwa ndi purosesa yosindikizira.
  5. Kuchokera pamenepo, chosindikizira chidzapita kuwongolera ma mota kusuntha mutu ndipo motero kupanga wosanjikiza ndi wosanjikiza mpaka chitsanzo chomaliza chikwaniritsidwe. Zofanana ndi chosindikizira wamba, koma voliyumu imakula wosanjikiza ndi wosanjikiza.
  6. Momwe zigawozo zimapangidwira zingasiyane ndi ukadaulo omwe ali ndi osindikiza a 3D. Mwachitsanzo, akhoza kukhala ndi extrusion kapena utomoni.

Mapangidwe a 3D ndi kusindikiza kwa 3D

3d design, 3d modeling

Mukadziwa chomwe chosindikizira cha 3D ndi momwe chimagwirira ntchito, chotsatira ndicho dziwani mapulogalamu ofunikira kapena zida za kusindikiza. Chinachake chofunikira ngati mukufuna kuchoka pachojambula kapena lingaliro kupita ku chinthu chenicheni cha 3D.

Muyenera kudziwa kuti pali mitundu ingapo ya mapulogalamu osindikiza a 3D:

  • Kumbali imodzi pali mapulogalamu a 3D modelling kapena 3D CAD design zomwe wogwiritsa ntchito amatha kupanga mapangidwewo kuchokera pachiyambi, kapena kusintha.
  • Kumbali ina pali chotchedwa slicer pulogalamu, yomwe imasintha chitsanzo cha 3D kukhala malangizo enieni oti asindikizidwe pa printer ya 3D.
  • Palinso mapulogalamu osintha ma mesh. Mapulogalamuwa, monga MeshLab, amagwiritsidwa ntchito kusintha ma meshes amitundu ya 3D akayambitsa zovuta powasindikiza, popeza mapulogalamu ena sangaganizire momwe osindikiza a 3D amagwirira ntchito.

Pulogalamu yosindikiza ya 3D

Nazi zina mwazo pulogalamu yabwino kwambiri yosindikizira ya 3d, zonse zolipiridwa ndi zaulere, za Zitsanzo za 3d y Mapangidwe a CAD, komanso pulogalamu yaulere kapena yotsegula:

Sketchup

sewero

Google ndi Mapulogalamu Omaliza adapangidwa SketchUp, ngakhale kuti pamapeto pake zidadutsa m'manja mwa kampani ya Trimble. Ndi pulogalamu yaumwini komanso yaulere (yokhala ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana yamalipiro) komanso ndi mwayi wosankha kugwiritsa ntchito pa Windows desktop kapena pa intaneti (njira iliyonse yogwiritsira ntchito ndi msakatuli wogwirizana).

Pulogalamu iyi ya graphic design ndi 3D modelling ndi imodzi mwazabwino kwambiri. Ndi izo mukhoza kupanga mitundu yonse ya zomangamanga, ngakhale kuti anapangidwa mwapadera kwa zomangamanga, mapangidwe mafakitale, etc.

Sakanizani

Cura Wopambana

machiritso omaliza

Ultimaker adapanga Cura, pulogalamu yopangidwira makina osindikiza a 3D zomwe magawo osindikizira angasinthidwe ndi kusinthidwa kukhala G code. Idapangidwa ndi David Raan pamene anali kugwira ntchito mu kampaniyi, ngakhale kuti kukonza kosavuta amatsegula code yake pansi pa chilolezo cha LGPLv3. Tsopano ndi gwero lotseguka, ndikupangitsa kuti igwirizane kwambiri ndi pulogalamu yachitatu ya CAD.

Masiku ano, ndi otchuka kwambiri kuti ndi mwa omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri padziko lapansi, ndi ogwiritsa ntchito oposa 1 miliyoni ochokera m'magawo osiyanasiyana.

Sakanizani

prusaslicer

PrusaSlicer

Kampani ya Prusa yafunanso kupanga pulogalamu yakeyake. Ndi chida chotseguka chotchedwa PrusaSlicer. Izi app ndi wolemera kwambiri mawu a ntchito ndi mbali, ndipo ali ndi chitukuko mwachilungamo yogwira.

Ndi pulogalamuyi mudzatha kutumiza zitsanzo za 3D ku mafayilo amtundu omwe angasinthidwe osindikiza oyambirira a Prusa.

Sakanizani

ideamaker

ideamaker

Pulogalamu ina iyi ndi yaulere, ndipo ikhoza kukhazikitsidwa pa onse awiri Microsoft Windows, macOS, ndi GNU/Linux. Ideamaker idapangidwira mwapadera zinthu za Raise3D, ndipo ndi slicer ina yomwe mutha kuyang'anira ma prototypes anu kuti musindikize mwachangu.

Sakanizani

freecad

FreeCAD

FreeCAD imafunikira mawu oyambira ochepa, ndi pulojekiti yotseguka komanso yaulere pakupanga 3D CAD. Ndi iyo mutha kupanga mtundu uliwonse, monga momwe mungachitire mu Autodesk AutoCAD, mtundu wolipidwa ndi kachidindo kaumwini.

Ndi yosavuta kugwiritsa ntchito, ndipo ili ndi mawonekedwe mwachilengedwe komanso zida zambiri zogwirira ntchito. Ndicho chifukwa chake ndi chimodzi mwa zogwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri. Zimakhazikitsidwa ndi OpenCASCADE ndipo yalembedwa mu C++ ndi Python, pansi pa chilolezo cha GNU GPL.

Sakanizani

Blender

Blender

Wodziwa wina wamkulu mdziko la mapulogalamu aulere. Pulogalamuyi yayikulu imagwiritsidwa ntchito ngakhale ndi akatswiri ambiri, kupatsidwa mphamvu ndi zotsatira imapereka. Imapezeka pamapulatifomu angapo, monga Windows ndi Linux, komanso pansi pa layisensi ya GPL.

Koma chinthu chofunika kwambiri za pulogalamuyo ndi kuti osati akutumikira kuyatsa, kupereka, makanema ojambula ndi kupanga zithunzi zamitundu itatu kwa makanema ojambula, masewera apakanema, zojambula, ndi zina zambiri, koma mutha kuyigwiritsanso ntchito pazithunzi za 3D ndikupanga zomwe mukufuna kuti musindikize.

Sakanizani

Autodesk AutoCAD

AutoCAD

Ndi nsanja yofanana ndi FreeCAD, koma ndi pulogalamu yolipira komanso yolipira. Malayisensi anu ali ndi a mtengo wapamwamba, koma ndi imodzi mwamapulogalamu omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri paukadaulo. Ndi pulogalamuyi mudzatha kupanga mapangidwe onse a 2D ndi 3D CAD, kuwonjezera kuyenda, mawonekedwe ambiri kuzinthu, ndi zina.

Imapezeka pa Microsoft Windows, ndipo imodzi mwazabwino zake ndikugwirizana nayo Zithunzi za DWF, yomwe ndi imodzi mwazofala kwambiri komanso zopangidwa ndi kampani ya Autodesk yomwe.

Sakanizani

Autodesk Fusion 360

Autodesk Fusion

Autodesk Fusion 360 Zili ndi zofanana zambiri ndi AutoCAD, koma zimachokera pamtambo wamtambo, kotero mutha kugwira ntchito kulikonse kumene mukufuna ndipo nthawi zonse mukhale ndi pulogalamu yapamwamba kwambiri ya pulogalamuyi. Pankhaniyi, mudzayeneranso kulipira zolembetsa, zomwe sizotsika mtengo kwenikweni.

Sakanizani

Tinkercad

Zithunzi za TinkerCad

TinkerCAD ndi pulogalamu ina yachitsanzo ya 3D yomwe angagwiritsidwe ntchito pa intaneti, kuchokera pa intaneti, yomwe imatsegula kwambiri mwayi wogwiritsa ntchito kuchokera kulikonse kumene mukufunikira. Kuyambira 2011 yakhala ikupeza ogwiritsa ntchito, ndipo yakhala nsanja yotchuka kwambiri pakati pa ogwiritsa ntchito osindikiza a 3D, komanso m'malo ophunzirira, popeza njira yake yophunzirira ndiyosavuta kuposa ya Autodesk.

Sakanizani

mesh lab

Zithunzi za MeshLab

Imapezeka pa Linux, Windows, ndi macOS, ndipo ndi yaulere komanso yotseguka. MeshLab ndi pulogalamu ya 3D mesh processing software. Cholinga cha pulogalamuyi ndikuwongolera zida izi kuti zisinthidwe, kukonza, kuyang'anira, kupereka, ndi zina.

Sakanizani

Zolimba

SolidWorks

Kampani yaku Europe ya Dassault Systèmes, yochokera ku kampani ina ya SolidWorks Corp., yapanga imodzi mwamapulogalamu apamwamba kwambiri a CAD opangira ma 2D ndi 3D. SolidWorks ikhoza kukhala njira ina ya Autodesk AutoCAD, koma ndi opangidwa mwapadera kuti azitengera makina amakina. Si yaulere, komanso sigwero lotseguka, ndipo imapezeka pa Windows.

Sakanizani

Creo

PTC ndikukhulupirira

Pomaliza, Creo ndi pulogalamu ina yabwino kwambiri ya CAD/CAM/CAE kwa osindikiza a 3D mungapeze. Ndi pulogalamu yopangidwa ndi PTC ndipo imakupatsani mwayi wopanga zinthu zambiri zapamwamba, mwachangu komanso ndi ntchito yochepa. Zonse chifukwa cha mawonekedwe ake mwachilengedwe opangidwa kuti apititse patsogolo kugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi zokolola. Mutha kupanga magawo opangira zowonjezera komanso zotsitsa, komanso zofananira, kapangidwe kazinthu, ndi zina zambiri. Imalipidwa, gwero lotsekedwa komanso la Windows yokha.

Sakanizani

3D kusindikiza

3D kusindikiza

Chotsatira chojambula pogwiritsa ntchito mapulogalamu apamwambawa ndi kusindikiza kwenikweni. Ndiko kuti, pamene kuchokera pa fayilo ndi chitsanzo chosindikizira cha 3D chimayamba kupanga zigawo mpaka kumaliza chitsanzo ndi kupeza mapangidwe enieni.

Este ndondomeko ikhoza kutenga zambiri kapena zochepa, malingana ndi liwiro losindikizira, zovuta za chidutswacho, ndi kukula kwake. Koma imatha kuchoka pa mphindi zingapo mpaka maola. Panthawi imeneyi, chosindikizira akhoza kusiyidwa mosasamala, ngakhale kuti nthawi zonse zabwino kuyang'anira ntchito nthawi ndi nthawi kuteteza mavuto kutha kukhudza zotsatira zomaliza.

pambuyo ndondomeko

Zithunzi za 3D, osindikiza a 3D

Zachidziwikire, gawo likamaliza kusindikiza pa chosindikizira cha 3D, ntchitoyo sithera pamenepo nthawi zambiri. Kenako ena nthawi zambiri amabwera zowonjezera zomwe zimadziwika kuti post-processing monga:

  • Chotsani mbali zina zomwe ziyenera kupangidwa komanso zomwe sizili gawo lachitsanzo chomaliza, monga maziko kapena chithandizo chomwe chimafunika kuti gawolo liyime.
  • Mchenga kapena pukuta pamwamba kuti mufike kumapeto kwabwinoko.
  • Kuchiza pamwamba pa chinthucho, monga varnishing, kujambula, kusamba, etc.
  • Zidutswa zina, monga zitsulo, zimatha kufunanso njira zina monga kuphika.
  • Pakachitika kuti chidutswa chinayenera kugawidwa m'zigawo chifukwa sikunali kotheka kumanga lonse chifukwa cha miyeso yake, zingakhale zofunikira kugwirizanitsa zigawozo (msonkhano, guluu, kuwotcherera ...).

Mafunso omwe amafunsidwa pafupipafupi

FAQ

Pomaliza, gawo pa FAQs kapena mafunso ndi mayankho omwe amafunsidwa pafupipafupi zomwe nthawi zambiri zimachitika mukamagwiritsa ntchito chosindikizira cha 3D. Zomwe zimafufuzidwa kwambiri ndi:

Momwe mungatsegule STL

STL, mtundu wa 3D

Limodzi mwa mafunso omwe amafunsidwa pafupipafupi ndi mungatsegule bwanji kapena kuwona fayilo ya .stl. Kukulaku kumatanthawuza mafayilo a stereolithography ndipo amatha kutsegulidwa komanso kusinthidwa ndi pulogalamu ya Dassault Systèmes CATIA pakati pa mapulogalamu ena a CAD monga AutoCAD etc.

Kuphatikiza pa ma STL, palinso mafayilo ena monga .obj, .dwg, .dxf, ndi zina. Onsewo otchuka kwambiri ndipo amatha kutsegulidwa ndi mapulogalamu ambiri osiyanasiyana komanso kusintha pakati pamitundu.

Zithunzi za 3D

Zithunzi za 3d

Muyenera kudziwa kuti nthawi zonse simuyenera kupanga zojambula za 3D nokha, mutha kupeza mitundu yopangidwa mokonzeka yamitundu yonse, kuyambira pamasewera apakanema kapena makanema, kupita kuzinthu zapakhomo, zoseweretsa, ma prosthetics, masks, foni. milandu, etc. Rasipiberi Pi, ndi zina zambiri. Pali mawebusayiti ochulukirachulukira okhala ndi malaibulale a izi ma tempuleti okonzeka kutsitsa ndi kusindikizidwa pa printer yanu ya 3D. Mawebusayiti ena ovomerezeka ndi awa:

Kuchokera ku mtundu weniweni (3D scanning)

Chithunzi cha Kaisara, 3D scan

Kuthekera kwina, ngati zomwe mukufuna ndikukonzanso choyerekeza chabwino kapena chofananira cha chinthu china cha 3D, ndi kugwiritsa ntchito a 3D sikana. Ndizida zomwe zimakulolani kuti muzitsatira mawonekedwe a chinthu, kusamutsa chitsanzo ku fayilo ya digito ndikulola kusindikiza.

Mapulogalamu ndi kugwiritsa ntchito chosindikizira cha 3D

Pulogalamu ya 3D

Pomaliza, osindikiza a 3D ali angagwiritsidwe ntchito zambiri. Zogwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri zomwe zingaperekedwe ndi:

ma prototypes a engineering

prototypes engineering, 3d osindikiza

Chimodzi mwazinthu zodziwika bwino za osindikiza a 3D pantchito yaukadaulo ndikusindikiza mwachangu, ndiye kuti, kusindikiza. prototyping mofulumira. Kapena kupeza magawo agalimoto yothamanga, monga Formula 1, kapena kupanga ma injini a injini kapena makina ovuta.

Mwanjira imeneyi, mainjiniya amaloledwa kupeza gawo mwachangu kwambiri kuposa ngati likanatumizidwa kufakitale kuti lipange, komanso kukapeza. mayeso prototypes kuti muwone ngati chitsanzo chomaliza chidzagwira ntchito monga momwe amayembekezera.

zomangamanga ndi zomangamanga

zomangamanga

chithunzi: © www.StefanoBorghi.com

Inde, komanso zogwirizana kwambiri ndi zomwe tafotokozazi, zikhoza kugwiritsidwanso ntchito kumanga zomanga ndi kuchita mayeso makina kwa omanga, kapena kumanga zidutswa zina zomwe sizingapangidwe ndi njira zina, kupanga ma prototypes a nyumba kapena zinthu zina monga zitsanzo kapena zitsanzo, ndi zina zotero.

Komanso, zikamera wa osindikiza konkire ndi zipangizo zina, zatsegulanso chitseko chokhoza kusindikiza nyumba mofulumira komanso mogwira mtima komanso mwaulemu ndi chilengedwe. Zapangidwanso kuti zitenge chosindikizira chamtunduwu kupita ku mapulaneti ena kumadera amtsogolo.

Kupanga ndi makonda a zodzikongoletsera ndi zina

Zodzikongoletsera za 3d zosindikizidwa

Chimodzi mwa zinthu zofala kwambiri ndi zodzikongoletsera zosindikizidwa. Njira yopezera zidutswa zapadera komanso zachangu, zokhala ndi makonda anu. Osindikiza ena a 3D amatha kusindikiza zithumwa ndi zina muzinthu monga nayiloni kapena pulasitiki yamitundu yosiyanasiyana, koma palinso ena omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga zodzikongoletsera zomwe zimatha kugwiritsa ntchito zitsulo zolemekezeka monga golide kapena siliva.

Apa mutha kuphatikizanso zinthu zina zomwe zikusindikizidwa posachedwapa, monga zovala, nsapato, zipangizo zamafashoni, Ndi zina zotero.

Kupumula: Zinthu zopangidwa ndi chosindikizira cha 3D

chosindikizira cha 3d chopumira

Tisaiwale nthawi yopuma, zomwe ndizomwe osindikiza ambiri apanyumba a 3D amagwiritsidwa ntchito. Izi zitha kukhala zosiyanasiyana, kuyambira pakupanga chithandizo chamunthu, kupanga zokongoletsa kapena zida zosinthira, mpaka kujambula zithunzi za anthu opeka omwe mumawakonda, ma projekiti a DIY, makapu amunthu, ndi zina zambiri. Ndiko kuti, zogwiritsa ntchito zopanda phindu.

Makampani opanga zinthu

mafakitale, chosindikizira chachitsulo cha 3d

Ambiri mafakitale opanga amagwiritsa kale osindikiza a 3D kupanga zinthu zawo. Osati kokha chifukwa cha ubwino wa mtundu uwu wa zowonjezera zowonjezera, komanso chifukwa chakuti nthawi zina, kupatsidwa zovuta zowonongeka, sizingatheke kuzipanga ndi njira zachikhalidwe monga extrusion, kugwiritsa ntchito nkhungu, ndi zina zotero. Kuphatikiza apo, osindikizawa asintha, atha kugwiritsa ntchito zida zosiyanasiyana, kuphatikiza zida zosindikizira zazitsulo.

Ndizofalanso kupanga magawo za magalimoto, ndipo ngakhale ndege, popeza zimalola kuti mbali zina zipezeke zomwe zimakhala zopepuka komanso zogwira mtima kwambiri. Akuluakulu monga AirBus, Boeing, Ferrari, McLaren, Mercedes, ndi ena, ali nawo kale.

3D osindikiza mankhwala: mano, prosthetics, bioprinting

Ma prosthetics osindikizidwa a 3d

Chimodzi mwazinthu zazikulu zogwiritsa ntchito osindikiza a 3D ndi munda wa thanzi. Zitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito pazifukwa zambiri:

  • Pangani ma prostheses a mano molondola kwambiri, komanso mabulaketi, ndi zina.
  • Bioprinting ya minyewa monga khungu kapena ziwalo zosinthira mtsogolo.
  • Mitundu ina ya ma prostheses yamavuto a mafupa, magalimoto kapena minofu.
  • Orthopaedics.
  • etc.

Chakudya chosindikizidwa / chakudya

3d chakudya chosindikizidwa

Osindikiza a 3D atha kugwiritsidwa ntchito kupanga zokongoletsa pama mbale, kapena kusindikiza maswiti ngati chokoleti mumpangidwe winawake, komanso pazakudya zina zambiri. Chifukwa chake, a makampani azakudya ikufunanso kugwiritsa ntchito ubwino wa makinawa.

Komanso, njira onjezerani zakudya zopatsa thanzi, monga kusindikiza kwa minofu ya nyama yopangidwa kuchokera ku mapuloteni obwezeretsedwa kapena kumene zinthu zina zovulaza zomwe zingakhale mu nyama zachilengedwe zachotsedwa. Palinso mapulojekiti opangira zinthu zamasamba kapena zamasamba zomwe zimatengera nyama yeniyeni, koma zopangidwa kuchokera ku mapuloteni amasamba.

maphunziro

maphunziro

Ndipo, zowona, osindikiza a 3D ndi chida chomwe chidzasefukira malo ophunzirira, popeza ali bwenzi wosangalatsa kwa makalasi. Ndi iwo, aphunzitsi amatha kupanga zitsanzo kuti ophunzira aphunzire m'njira yothandiza komanso yachidziwitso, kapena ophunzirawo amatha kukulitsa luso lawo lanzeru ndikupanga zinthu zamitundumitundu.

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