Arduino UNO- Kusanthula kwathunthu kwa bolodi ya Hardware

Basi ya Arduino I2C

Popeza idakhazikitsidwa pamsika mbale Arduino UNO, zambiri zasintha gululi ndi zotulutsa zake zaposachedwa. Kuphatikiza apo, opanga omwewo adathamanga kuti apange ma mbale ena ofanana m'njira zosiyanasiyana kuti akwaniritse zosowa zambiri kuposa zomwe UNO idachita poyamba. Ngakhale ena ambiri adalimba mtima kuti apange makina awo oyenerana nawo, ngakhale sanachite bwino chimodzimodzi.

Asanatuluke Arduino kale panali ntchito zina zofananira, monga matabwa otchuka a Parallax okhala ndi ma microcontroller a Microchip PIC omwe amatha kupangidwira mosavuta kugwiritsa ntchito zilankhulo monga PBASIC pakati pa ena. Chitsanzo cha izi ndi Parallax Basic Stamp 2. Koma popeza sanali maofesi aulere amatanthauza kuti analibe mizu yofanana pamsika monga projekiti ya Arduino idakhalira. Mbale yaku Italiya yasinthadi motere.

Kodi Arduino UNO Rev3?

Chizindikiro cha Arduino

Arduino UNO Rev3 ndiye ndikusintha kwatsopano zomwe zilipo panthawi ya mbale iyi. Ndi bolodi laling'ono lamagetsi lokhala ndi ma microcontroller osinthika pa PCB yake. Kuphatikiza pa chip iyi, imaphatikizaponso zikhomo zingapo monga zolowetsa ndi zotuluka zomwe zingagwiritsidwe ntchito pokonza chip kuti ichite zinthu zosiyanasiyana. Mwanjira iyi, ntchito zamagetsi zitha kupangidwa mosavuta.

Mbale iyi imachokera ku ntchito ya arduino, ntchito yaku Italiya idayamba ku 2005 yomwe idangoyang'ana pakupanga mapulogalamu ndi zida za ophunzira makamaka. Zojambula zoyamba zimayang'aniridwa ku bungwe ku Ivrea, ku Italy. Nthawi imeneyo ophunzira a malo ophunzitsirawa adagwiritsa ntchito masampampu odziwika bwino a BASIC omwe ndatchula kalewa. Izi zinali ndi mtengo wokwanira, ndipo sizinali zotseguka.

Zisanachitike zonsezi, Hernando Barragán adapanga nsanja yotsogola yotchedwa Wiring, ntchito yolimbikitsidwa ndi otchuka Kusintha chilankhulo chamapulogalamu. Ndi maziko awa, adapita kukagwira ntchito kuti apange zida zotsika mtengo komanso zosavuta kwa ophunzira. Chifukwa chake adayamba kupanga bolodi yazida ndi PCB ndi microcontroller yosavuta, komanso kupanga IDE (Integrated Development Environment).

Monga Wiring adagwiritsa ntchito bolodi yokhala ndi microcontroller ya ATmega168, zotsatirazi zidatsata mbali yomweyo. Massimo Banzi ndi David Mellis awonjezera thandizani ATmega8 kwa Wiring, yomwe inali yotsika mtengo kuposa mtundu wa 168. Ndipo kotero nyongolosi yoyamba ya zomwe zilipo lero zikuwuka Arduino UNO. Ntchito ya Wiring idasinthidwa Arduino.

Dzinalo la projekiti yotchuka idayambira mu bala ku Ivrea, komwe omwe adayambitsa ntchitoyi adakumana. Bala linali lotchedwa Bar di Re Arduino, lomwe limatchedwanso Arduino wochokera ku Ivrea, mfumu ya Italy mpaka 1014.

Popeza kuthekera kwa ma mbale amenewa, thandizo linawonjezedwa kuchokera kumudzi kuti lipite patsogolo ndikupanga mbale zambiri. Kuphatikiza apo, omwe amapereka zamagetsi ndi opanga anayamba kupanga zinthu zina yogwirizana ndi Arduino. Momwe ziliri ndi Adafruit Industries. Kuchokera apa padatuluka zishango zingapo ndi ma module owonjezera a mbale izi.

Pochita bwino kwambiri, zidapangidwanso Arduino Foundation, Kuti apitilize kulimbikitsa ndikukhazikitsa ntchito ya Arduino. Mtundu wofanana ndi mabungwe ena ofanana ndi Linux Foundation, Raspberry Pi Foundation, RISC-V Foundation, ndi zina zambiri.

Pakadali pano, mitundu yambiri ya Arduino idapangidwa, ndimitundu yosiyanasiyana komanso ma microcontroller osiyanasiyana, komanso Chalk zambiri zomwe takambirana mu blog iyi:

Zambiri za Arduino UNO

Izi mbale Arduino UNO Ili ndi mawonekedwe ena omwe amawapangitsa kukhala apadera, ndipo imakhala ndi kusiyana kosiyanasiyana pokhudzana ndi ma board ena a Arduino omwe tiwunikire.

Makhalidwe apamwamba, chiwembu ndi pini

Mphindi wa Arduino

El pinout ndi luso la bolodi Arduino UNO Rev3 Ndizofunikira kudziwa momwe mungagwiritsire ntchito moyenera, apo ayi simudziwa malire ndi njira yolondola yolumikizira zida zonse zamagetsi kuzikhomo zawo ndi mabasi.

Kuyambira koyamba ndi MAKHALIDWE ake, Kodi muli ndi:

  • Microcontroller wa Atmel ATmega328 pa 16 Mhz
  • Kukumbukira kwa SRAM: 2KB
  • Chikumbutso chophatikizidwa cha EEPROM: 1 KB
  • Kukumbukira kwa Flash: 32 KB, pomwe 0.5 KB imagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi bootloader, chifukwa chake sangathe kugwiritsidwa ntchito pazinthu zina.
  • Chip yogwira ntchito: 5v
  • Analimbikitsa magetsi okwanira: 7-12v (ngakhale imathandizira 6 mpaka 20v)
  • Kupitilira kwamphamvu kwamakono: 40mA ya I / O ndi 50mA ya pini ya 3.3V.
  • Zipini za I / O: zikhomo 14, momwe 6 zilili PWM.
  • Zikhomo Analog: 6 zikhomo
  • Bwezeretsani batani kuti muyambitsenso kukhazikitsidwa kwa pulogalamu yomwe idasungidwa kukumbukira.
  • Chip chojambulira cha USB.
  • Ola la Oscillator lazizindikiro zomwe zimafunikira nyimbo.
  • Mphamvu ya LED pa PCB.
  • Kuphatikiza kwamagetsi.
  • Mtengo wozungulira € 20.

Kwenikweni zikhomo ndi malumikizidwe likupezeka pa mbale Arduino UNO:

  • Mbiya Jack kapena DC Power Jack: ndi cholumikizira bolodi Arduino UNO kuti athe kuyigwiritsa ntchito pamagetsi. Khadilo limatha kuyendetsedwa ndi jack yoyenera komanso ndi adapter kuti ipereke ma volts 5-20. Ngati mukufuna kulumikiza zinthu zambiri m'mbale, zikuyenera kuti mudzayenera kuthana ndi chopinga cha 7v kuti chikwaniritse.
  • USB: doko la USB limagwiritsidwa ntchito kulumikiza bolodi la Arduino ku PC, mwanjira imeneyi mutha kuyikonza kapena kulandira chidziwitso kuchokera pa doko loyeserera. Ndiye kuti, zikuthandizani kuti musungire zojambula zanu za Arduino IDE mumakumbukidwe amkati mwa microcontroller kuti athe kuyigwiritsa ntchito. Ikhozanso kukwaniritsa ntchito yamphamvu ya hob ndi zinthu zolumikizidwa nayo.
  • Chithunzi cha VIN: mupezanso pini ya VIN yomwe imakulolani kuyambitsa bolodi Arduino UNO pogwiritsa ntchito magetsi akunja, ngati simukufuna kugwiritsa ntchito USB kapena Jack pamwambapa.
  • 5V: amapereka voteji a 5V. Mphamvu yomwe idzafike imachokera ku imodzi mwamilandu itatu yapitayi yomwe mungagwiritse ntchito mbale yanu.
  • 3V3: pini iyi imakupatsani mwayi wodyetsa 3.3v mpaka 50mA kuzinthu zanu.
  • GND: ili ndi zikhomo ziwiri zapansi, yolumikizira nthaka yazomwe mumagwiritsa ntchito pakompyuta.
  • Bwezerani: pini yoyikiranso potumiza chizindikiro CHotsika kudzera pamenepo.
  • Siriyo doko: Ili ndi mapini awiri 0 (RX) ndi 1 (TX) kuti alandire ndi kutumiza deta ya TTL motsatana. Amalumikizidwa ndi microcontroller pamakina awo a USB-to-TTL.
  • Zododometsa zakunja: 2 ndi 3, zikhomo zomwe zingakonzedwe kuti zitheke kusokonekera ndikukula, kutsika, kapena mtengo wokwera kapena wotsika.
  • SPI: basi ili pamapini olembedwa 10 (SS), 11 (MISOI), ndi 13 (SCK) omwe mungalumikizane nawo pogwiritsa ntchito laibulale ya SPI.
  • A0-A5: ndi zikhomo za analogi.
  • 0-13: ndizolembera zama digito kapena zotulutsa zomwe mutha kusintha. LED yaying'ono yolumikizidwa yolumikizidwa ndi pini 13 kuti ngati pini iyi ndiyokwera imawala.
  • TWI: zothandizirakulankhulana TWI pogwiritsa ntchito laibulale ya Wire. Mutha kugwiritsa ntchito pini A4 kapena SDA ndi pini A5 kapena SCL.
  • KUKHALA: penti yamagetsi yamagetsi yolowetsera analogi.

Datasheets

Kukhala gulu lotseguka, osati kokha mupeza datasheet monga zimachitikira ndi zinthu zina zambiri zamagetsi. Muthanso kutsitsa zikalata zina zambiri ndi zithunzi zamagetsi zomwe zingakuthandizeni kumvetsetsa momwe gululi limagwirira ntchito. Arduino UNO mkati mwinanso pangani kukhazikitsa kwanu kwa Arduino nokha. Mwachitsanzo, muli ndi chidziwitso chotsatirachi:

Kusiyanasiyana ndi ma board ena a Arduino

Mabungwe a Arduino

Arduino UNO Rev3 ndiye mbale woyenera kwa onse omwe ayamba kugwiritsa ntchito mbale zamtunduwu. Zowonjezera, pali zida zoyambira kuti muyambe ndi zonse zomwe mukufuna kuphatikiza. Chida ichi sichimangophatikiza zida zamagetsi zambiri kuti ziyambe kuyeserera, komanso buku latsatanetsatane lokuthandizani mu gawo lililonse.

Komabe, zilipo mitundu ina kapena mawonekedwe a Arduino board zomwe ndizothandiza pazinthu zina zotsogola kapena kukhazikitsa projekiti yomwe kukula kwake kuli kofunikira. Pulogalamu ya kusiyana kwakukulu pakati pa mbale Amakhala amtundu wama microcontroller ophatikizika, ena amakhala olimba kwambiri ndipo amakumbukirabe kuphatikiza zojambula kapena mapulogalamu apamwamba kwambiri, ndi zikhomo zomwe zilipo. Koma ngati tifananitsa matabwa atatu ogulitsa kwambiri, kusiyana kwake kuli motere:

  • Arduino UNO Rev3: onani gawo lokhala ndi luso.
  • Mega Arduino: mtengo umakwera pamwamba pa € ​​30, ndikukula kwakukulu kuposa mbale ya UNO. Kuphatikiza apo, imaphatikizapo microcontroller yamphamvu kwambiri ya ATmega2560 yomwe imagwiranso ntchito ku 16Mhz, koma ili ndi 256KB ya flash memory, 4KB ya EEPROM, ndi 8KB ya SRAM pazinthu zovuta kwambiri. Kuphatikiza apo, ilinso ndi zikhomo zambiri, zokhala ndi digito I / O 54, 15 PWM, ndi analog 16.
  • Arduino yaying'ono: amayimira kukula kwake kocheperako, kukhala wocheperako kuposa UNO, ngakhale kuli kofanana. Danga laling'ono ili, limaphatikizira yaying'ono yaying'ono ya ATmega32U4 microcontroller, komanso yomwe imagwiranso ntchito pa 16Mhz. Kukumbukiraku ndikofanana ndi UNO, kupatula SRAM, yomwe ili ndi 0.5KB yochulukirapo. Zikhomo zawonjezedwanso ngakhale zili zazing'ono, ndi 20 digito, 7 PWM ndi 12 analog. Kusiyananso kwina ndikuti imagwiritsa ntchito yaying'ono-USB polumikizira m'malo mwa USB. Kukhala yaying'ono kwambiri sikugwirizana ndi zikopa kapena zikopa monga ziwiri zam'mbuyomu ...

Arduino IDE ndi mapulogalamu

Chithunzi chojambula cha Arduino IDE

Kuti mupange pulogalamu ya Arduino, mumitundu iliyonse, muli ndi IDE kapena malo otukuka otchedwa Arduino IDE. Imagwirizana ndi ma MacOS, Windows ndi Linux. Ndi pulogalamu yaulere komanso yotseguka yomwe mungathe download kuchokera ulalowu. Ndicho mungathe kupanga ma code kuti mukonze pulogalamu ya microcontroller pa board ndikupangitsa kuti ntchito zanu zizigwira ntchito.

Pulatifomu imathandizidwa ndi chilankhulo chamapulogalamu a Arduino chomwe chimazikidwa pachilankhulo cham'mapulogalamu apamwamba processing, zomwezo ndizofanana ndi C ++ yodziwika bwino. Ichi ndichifukwa chake adzakhala ndi syntax yofananira komanso momwe amachitiramo.

Mutha kudziwa zambiri za momwe mungagwiritsire ntchito Arduino IDE ndi zolemba pa blog iyi zomwe zimafotokoza momwe mungaphatikizire gawo lililonse lamagetsi kapena gawo limodzi ndi bolodi, kapena kutsitsa mwachindunji pulogalamuyo Arduino IDE mu PDF kwaulere. Ndicho muphunzira malembedwe ndi chilankhulo chamapulogalamu kuyamba ndi ntchito zanu ...


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