Micrometer: chilichonse chomwe muyenera kudziwa za chida ichi

micrometer

Ngakhale zitha kuwoneka ngati gawo la kutalika, pa micrometer zomwe tikunena pano ndi chida chomwe chatchulidwa. Amadziwikanso kuti kuyeza kwa kanjedza, ndipo ikhoza kukhala chida chofunikira kwambiri kwa aliyense msonkhano wopanga kapena kwa iwo okonda DIY, chifukwa imalola kuyeza molondola kwambiri zomwe zida zina sizingatheke.

M'nkhaniyi muphunzira zambiri za ndi chiyani, ndi chiyani, imagwira ntchito bwanji, komanso mafungulo oti musankhe chabwino pazochita zanu zamtsogolo ...

Kodi micrometer ndi chiyani?

kuyeza kwa kanjedza

El micrometer, kapena Palmer caliper, ndi chida choyezera molondola kwambiri. Monga momwe dzina lake likusonyezera, imagwiritsidwa ntchito kuyeza zinthu zazing'ono kwambiri molondola kwambiri. Nthawi zambiri, amakhala ndi zolakwika zochepa, kutha kuyeza mpaka zana (0,01 mm) kapena masauzande (0,001 mm) a millimeter.

Maonekedwe ake akukumbutsani zambiri za caliper kapena gauge ochiritsira. M'malo mwake, momwe imagwirira ntchito ndimofanana. Gwiritsani ntchito cholembera chomaliza maphunziro omwe adzagwiritsidwe ntchito kudziwa muyeso. Zipangazi zimakhudza malekezero a chinthu choti chiyereke, ndikuyang'ana pamlingo wake mudzapeza zotsatira za muyesowo. Zachidziwikire, ili ndi zosachepera ndi zokulirapo, makamaka ndi 0-25 mm, ngakhale pali zina zazikulu.

historia

Con kutukukaMakamaka panthawi ya Revolution Yachuma, chidwi chachikulu pakuyeza zinthu chimayamba kukula. Zida zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito panthawiyo, monga ma gauges wamba, kapena mita, sizinali zokwanira.

Mndandanda wazinthu zam'mbuyomu, monga micrometer screw ya William Gascoigne za 1640, zidapangitsa kusintha kwa ma vernier kapena ma vernier omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito munthawiyo. Sayansi ya zakuthambo inali imodzi mwamagawo oyamba momwe angagwiritsidwire ntchito, kuyeza mtunda ndendende ndi telescope.

Pambuyo pake pakubwera zosintha zina ndi zida zina zamtunduwu. Monga achi French Jean-Laurent Palmer, yemwe mu 1848, adapanga chitukuko choyamba cha micrometer yonyamula m'manja. Kupangidwaku kunawonetsedwa ku Paris mu 1867, komwe kukakopa chidwi cha a Joseph Brown ndi a Lucius Sharpe (a BRown & Sharpe), omwe adayamba kupanga chida chachikulu mu 1868.

Mwambowu udathandizira kuti ogwira nawo ntchito pamisonkhanoyi azidalira chida chodziwikiratu kuposa omwe anali nawo kale. Koma sizingakhale mpaka 1890, pomwe wochita bizinesi waku America komanso wopanga zinthu Laroy Sunderland Starrett yasintha micrometer ndikukhala ndi mawonekedwe amtundu waposachedwa kwambiri. Kuphatikiza apo, adayambitsa kampani ya Starrett, imodzi mwazomwe zimapanga zida zoyezera masiku ano.

Mbali za micrometer

mbali micrometer

Pachifanizo pamwambapa mutha kuwona magawo ofunikira kwambiri a Palmer caliper kapena micrometer. Ali magawo Iwo ndi:

1. Thupi: ndi chidutswa chachitsulo chomwe chimapanga chimango. Amapangidwa kuchokera kuzinthu zomwe sizimasiyana mosiyanasiyana ndimatenthedwe, ndiye kuti, ndikukula ndikumapendekera, chifukwa izi zitha kuchititsa kuti miyezo yolakwika itengeke.
2. Chitani: ndiye amene adzadziwe 0 ya muyeso. Ndikofunika kuti ipangidwe ndi zinthu zolimba, monga chitsulo, kuti zisawonongeke komanso zisinthe muyeso.
3. Spike: ndichinthu choyenda m'manja chomwe chiziwunikira muyeso wa micrometer. Uwu ndi womwe umasunthira pomwe umatembenuza kagwere mpaka utalumikizana ndi gawolo. Ndiye kuti, mtunda pakati pa pamwamba ndi kukwera kwake ndiye muyeso. Chimodzimodzinso, nthawi zambiri imapangidwa ndi zinthu zomwezo monga pamwamba.
4. Kukonzekera lever: imakupatsani mwayi kuti muchepetse mayendedwe amtunduwo kuti akonze muyeso kuti usasunthe, ngakhale mutachotsa chidutswa kuti muyese.
5. Ratchet: Ndi gawo lomwe lingachepetse mphamvu zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pochita muyeso wolumikizana. Ikhoza kusintha mosavuta.
6. Ng'oma yam'manja: Apa ndipomwe muyeso wolondola kwambiri wa muyeso umalembedwa, mu makumi a mm. Omwe ali ndi vernier amakhalanso ndi gawo lina lachiwiri molondola kwambiri, ngakhale ma millimeter mamiliyoni.
7. Drum yokhazikika: ndipamene pamakhala muyeso wokhazikika. Mzere uliwonse ndi millimeter imodzi, ndipo kutengera komwe ngodya zokhazikika ndizomwezo muyeso.

Momwe micrometer ya caler kapena caliper imagwirira ntchito

Micrometer ili ndi mfundo yosavuta. Zimakhazikitsidwa ndi a wononga kuti musinthe magulu ang'onoang'ono osamukira kwawo moyenerera molingana ndi kukula kwake. Wogwiritsa ntchito chida chamtunduwu azitha kulumikiza ulusiwo mpaka maupangiri akuyeza atalumikizana ndi mawonekedwe a chinthucho kuti athe kuyeza.

Poyang'ana zolemba pa ng'oma yomaliza, mayesowo amatha kutsimikizika. Kuphatikiza apo, ma micrometer ambiri amakhala ndi chowonjezera, zomwe zingalolere kuwerengedwa kwamiyeso ndi tizigawo ting'onoting'ono chifukwa chophatikizira pang'ono.

Zachidziwikire, mosiyana ndi wamba kapena woperekera caliper, njira zokhazo za Palmer kutalika kwake kapena kutalika kwake. Mukudziwa kale kuti kuyeza kwachizolowezi kumatha kuyeza m'mimba mwake, ngakhale kuya ... Komabe, monga mudzaonera mu gawo lotsatirali, pali mitundu ina yomwe ingathetse izi.

Mitundu

Pali zingapo mitundu micrometer. Kutengera momwe amawerengera, atha kukhala:

  • Zimango: iwo ndi owerenga kwathunthu, ndipo kuwerenga kumachitika potanthauzira sikelo yolembedwa.
  • digito: ndi zamagetsi, zokhala ndi mawonekedwe a LCD pomwe kuwerenga kumawonetsedwa mosavuta.

Angathenso kugawidwa m'magulu awiri malinga ndi mtundu wa mayunitsi olemba ntchito:

  • Dongosolo labwino kwambiri: Amagwiritsa ntchito mayunitsi a SI, ndiye kuti ma metric, okhala ndi ma millimeter kapena ma submultiples ake.
  • Makina a Saxon: gwiritsani ntchito mainchesi monga maziko.

Malinga ndi momwe amayezaMutha kupezanso ma micrometer ngati:

  • Estándar: ndi omwe amayesa kutalika kapena kuchuluka kwa zidutswazo.
  • Zozama: ndi mtundu wapadera womwe umathandizidwa ndimayimidwe awiri kapena maziko omwe amakhala pansi. Pomwe tsambalo limatuluka mozungulira kumunsi kuti ligwire pansi motero kuyeza kuya molondola.
  • M'nyumba: Amasinthidwanso ndi zidutswa ziwiri zolumikizira kuyeza kutalika kapena kutalika kwa mkati molondola, monga mkati mwa chubu, ndi zina zambiri.

Palinso njira zina kuzilemba, koma izi ndizofunikira kwambiri.

Komwe mungagule micrometer

micrometer

Ngati mukufuna Gulani micrometer yabwino komanso yolondolaNawa malingaliro omwe angakusangalatseni:


Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

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