MOSFET: zonse zomwe muyenera kudziwa zamtunduwu wa transistor

transistor

Pali mitundu ingapo yama transistors. Zipangizo zamagetsizi ndizofunikira kwambiri pakompyuta zamasiku ano, ndipo zimayimira kusuntha kochokera pamagetsi azitsulo zamagetsi kupita kuzinthu zamagetsi zolimba, zomwe ndizodalirika komanso zowononga mphamvu. Pamenepo, Mosfet Amagwiritsidwa ntchito muma tchipisi ambiri kapena maseketi ophatikizika, ngakhale mutha kuwapeza pamabwalo osindikizira azinthu zina zambiri.

Zili bwanji? chida chofunikira semiconductor, Ndikukuwonetsani zonse zomwe mukufuna kudziwa pantchito iyi ya sayansi ndi zomangamanga zomwe zimatilola kupanga madera ambiri komanso zomwe zasintha miyoyo yathu m'njira zambiri.

Kodi transistor ndi chiyani?

Mawu transistor imachokera pakusunthira-wotsutsa, ndipo idapangidwa mu 1951, ngakhale ku Europe kunali kale zovomerezeka ndi zochitikachitika anthu aku America asanapange kapangidwe kake koyamba, ngakhale iyi ndi nkhani ina ... Nthawi imeneyo, chida chokhazikika, semiconductor, chidafunidwa chomwe chingathe m'malo mwa mavavu opanda pake osadalirika omwe anali makompyuta ndi zida zina zamagetsi za nthawiyo.

ndi mavavu kapena machubu opumira ili ndi zomangamanga zofanana ndi mababu wamba, motero nazonso zimawotchedwa. Amayenera kusinthidwa pafupipafupi kuti makina azigwira ntchito. Kuphatikiza apo, idatenthedwa, ndipo izi zikutanthauza kuti adawononga mphamvu zambiri mwa kutentha chifukwa cha kusachita bwino kwawo. Chifukwa chake, sizinali zothandiza konse ndipo zimafunikira kwambiri m'malo mwake.

Chabwino, mu AT & T Bell Labs, Williams Shockley, John Bardeen ndi Walter Brattain adayamba kugwira ntchito yopanga semiconductor. Chowonadi ndichakuti anali ndi zovuta kupeza kiyi. Ntchitoyi idasungidwa mwachinsinsi chifukwa zimadziwika kuti zomwezi zikuchitika ku Europe. Koma nkhondo yachiwiri yapadziko lonse idawoloka, ndipo otsogolerawo adayenera kupita kunkhondo. Pobwerera, anali atapeza kale yankho lachinsinsi.

El choyambirira adazipanga zinali zopanda pake, ndipo zimawonetsa zovuta zazikulu pakupanga. Pakati pawo, zinali zovuta komanso zovuta kupanga mndandanda. Kuphatikiza apo, imagwiritsa ntchito magawo agolide omwe amapangitsa kuti ikhale yotsika mtengo ndipo nsonga nthawi zina imasiya kulumikizana ndi semiconductor crystal, kotero imasiya kugwira ntchito ndipo imayenera kukankhidwanso kuti iyanjanenso. Chowonadi ndichakuti zochepa zidathetsedwa ndi izi, koma pang'ono ndi pang'ono zidasinthidwa ndipo mitundu yatsopano idayamba.

Iwo anali kale ndi gawo lamagetsi la olimba komanso ocheperako kuchepetsa kukula kwa mawailesi, ma alarm, magalimoto, makompyuta, ma TV, ndi zina zambiri.

Mbali ndi ntchito

mzira

Transistor imapangidwa ndi zikhomo zitatu kapena zolumikizana, zomwe zimalumikizana nazo madera atatu osiyana semiconductors. M'mabotolo malo awa amatchedwa emitter, base ndi osonkhanitsa. Kumbali inayi, m'ma unipolar, monga MOSFET, amatchedwa gwero, chipata ndi kukhetsa. Muyenera kuwerenga ma datasheets kapena ma catalog bwino kuti mudziwe momwe mungazindikirire zikhomo zawo osazisokoneza, chifukwa opareshoni itengera izi.

Nkhani yowonjezera:
2N2222 transistor: chilichonse chomwe muyenera kudziwa

La chitseko kapena poyambira Zimakhala ngati ndikusintha, kutsegula kapena kutseka gawo lamakono pakati pamapeto ena awiriwo. Umu ndi momwe zimagwirira ntchito. Kutengera izi, zitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito ziwiri:

  • Ntchito 1: Ikhoza kuchitapo kanthu kuti idutse kapena kudula zizindikiritso zamagetsi, ndiye kuti, monga switch yamagetsi amagetsi. Izi ndizofunikira pamakina a binary kapena digito, popeza poyang'anira chipata (ndi 0 kapena 1), mutha kupeza phindu lina (0/1). Mwanjira imeneyi zipata zomveka zimatha kupangidwa.
  • Ntchito 2: itha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito, pamagetsi yamagetsi, monga ma amplifiers amawu. Kukula pang'ono kukafika pamunsi, imatha kusandulika yayikulu pakati pa wokhometsa ndi emitter yomwe ingagwiritsidwe ntchito potulutsa.

Mitundu ya transistors

Zizindikiro za MOSFET

Zizindikiro za MOSFET N ndi P

 

Ntchito zoyambira ndi mbiri yake zikawonekera, popita nthawi zasinthidwa ndikupanga ma transistor oyendetsedwa ndi mtundu wina wa ntchito, ndikupatsa onse mabanja awiriwa omwe nawonso ali ndi mitundu ingapo:

Kumbukirani kuti dera la N ndi mtundu wa semiconductor wopangidwa ndi zosowa zaopereka, ndiye kuti, mankhwala opangira mphamvu (phosphorous, arsenic,…). Izi ziwathandiza kusiya ma electron (-), popeza onyamula ambiri ndi ma elekitironi, pomwe ochepa ndi mabowo (+). Pankhani ya P zone, ndizosiyana, ambiri adzakhala mabowo (+), ndichifukwa chake amatchedwa choncho. Ndiye kuti, adzakoka ma elekitironi. Kuti izi zitheke, imagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi zosavomerezeka zina, ndiye kuti, zotumphukira (aluminium, indium, gallium, ...) Nthawi zambiri semiconductor woyambira nthawi zambiri amakhala silicon kapena germanium, ngakhale pali mitundu ina. Mankhwalawa nthawi zambiri amakhala otsika kwambiri, malinga ndi atomu imodzi yonyansa yamaatomu 100.000.000 a semiconductor. Nthawi zina, malo olemera kapena okhala ndi doped kwambiri monga P + kapena N + amatha kupanga, omwe amakhala ndi atomu imodzi yosadetsedwa pa 1.

  • BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor): ndi bipolar transistor, wamba kwambiri. Mwa ichi muyenera kubaya maziko pompano kuti muwongolere omwe akusonkhanitsa pano. Mkati muli mitundu iwiri:
    • NPN: Monga momwe dzinalo likusonyezera, ili ndi malo oyendetsa semiconductor opangidwa kuti akhale amtundu wa N kuti azitulutsa, china chapakati P monga maziko, ndi china cha wokhometsa komanso amtundu wa N.
    • PNP: pamenepa ndi njira inayo, maziko ake adzakhala amtundu wa N, ndipo awiri otsala amtundu wa P. Zomwe zidzasinthe machitidwe ake amagetsi ndi momwe amagwiritsidwira ntchito.
  • FET (Field Zotsatira Transistor): the field effect transistor, ndipo kusiyana kwake kwakukulu kuchokera ku BJT ndi momwe imagwiritsidwira ntchito ndi malo ake owongolera. Poterepa, kuwongolera kumachitika pogwiritsa ntchito magetsi pakati pa chipata ndi gwero. Pakati pamtunduwu pali mitundu ingapo:
    • JFET: a mphambano ya FET akutha, ndipo ali ndi njira kapena semiconductor zone yomwe itha kukhala yamtundu wina. Malinga ndi izi, atha kukhala nawonso:
      • Channel N.
      • Kuchokera pa njira P.
    • Mosfet: chidule chake chimachokera ku Metal oxide Semiconductor FET, yotchedwa chifukwa cholumikizira chochepa cha silicon dioxide chimagwiritsidwa ntchito polumikizana ndi chitseko kuti apange gawo lofunikira lomwe njira yolowera pakanema kake ikhoza kuwongoleredwa kuti pakhale kuyenda pakati gwero ndi wopereka. Mseuwo ukhoza kukhala wamtundu wa P, chifukwa chake padzakhala zitsime ziwiri N zoyambira ndi gwero; kapena N-mtundu, wokhala ndi zitsime ziwiri zamtundu wa P zopezera ndi kukhetsa. Ndiosiyana pang'ono ndi omwe atchulidwa pamwambapa, mutha kukhala nawo:
      • Kutaya kapena kutopa:
        • Channel N.
        • Kuchokera pa njira P.
      • Kupititsa patsogolo kapena kusinthidwa:
        • Channel N.
        • Kuchokera pa njira P.
      • Zina: TFT, CMOS, ...
  • Zina.

ndi Kusiyanasiyana kumachokera pamapangidwe amkati amalo a semiconductor aliyense…

Mosfet

Un Mosfet imakupatsani mwayi wonyamula katundu wambiri, womwe ungakhale wothandiza pama circuits ena ndi Arduino yanu, monga muwonera mtsogolo. M'malo mwake, maubwino ake amapangitsa kukhala othandiza kwambiri pamagetsi amakono. Itha kukhala ngati amplifier kapena switch yamagetsi. Pa mtundu uliwonse wa MOSFET womwe mumagula, mukudziwa kale kuti muyenera kuwerenga zolembedwazo kuti muwone malowa, popeza sizofanana.

Kusiyana pakati pa imodzi mwa njira N ndi P Es:

  • Channel P: Kuti mutsegule njira P kuti ipitirire pano, magetsi oyipa amagwiritsidwa ntchito pachipata. Gwero liyenera kulumikizidwa ndi magetsi abwino. Dziwani kuti njira yomwe chipata chatsegulidwira ndiyabwino, pomwe zitsime zazitsulo ndi zoyambira sizabwino. Mwanjira imeneyi zamakono "zimakankhidwa" kudzera munjira.
  • N njira: Poterepa, magetsi abwino amagwiritsidwa ntchito pachipata.

Iwo ali zinthu zotsika mtengo kwambiri, kuti muthe kugula ochepa mwaulere. Mwachitsanzo, nazi zotsatsa zomwe mungagule m'masitolo apadera:

Ngati mukufuna kuigwiritsa ntchito pamphamvu zapamwamba zidzatentha, chifukwa chake ndibwino kugwiritsa ntchito heatsink kuti aziziziritsa pang'ono…

Kuphatikiza ndi Arduino

zamatsenga ndi Arduino

MOSFET itha kukhala yothandiza kuwongolera zizindikilo ndi yanu bolodi la arduino, chitha kugwiranso ntchito chimodzimodzi momwe kulandirana gawo, Ngati mukukumbukira. M'malo mwake, ma module a MOSFET amagulitsidwanso Arduino, monga momwe ziliri ndi Kufufuza, imodzi mwa yotchuka kwambiri. Ndi ma module awa muli ndi transistor wokwera pa PCB yaying'ono ndipo ndi yosavuta kugwiritsa ntchito.

Koma sizokhazo zomwe mungagwiritse ntchito ndi Arduino, palinso zina zodziwika bwino monga Zamgululi, zomwe zimalola ma maina apadera a 9.2 ndi 28A motsatana, poyerekeza ndi 14A ya IRF530.

Pali mitundu yambiri ya MOSFET yomwe ilipo koma si onse omwe amalimbikitsidwa kuti agwiritse ntchito mwachindunji ndi purosesa ngati Arduino chifukwa cha kuchepa kwa mphamvu yamagetsi ndi mphamvu pazotuluka zake.

Ngati mugwiritsa ntchito gawo la IRF530N, kuyika Mwachitsanzo, mutha kulumikiza cholumikizira chodziwika SIG pa bolodi ndi zikhomo zina pa bolodi Arduino UNO, monga D9. Kenako gwirizanitsani GND ndi Vcc ndi omwe ali pa bolodi la Arduino, monga GND ndi 5v pankhaniyi kuti muwapatse mphamvu.

Kwenikweni code Zosavuta zomwe zingayang'anire njirayi ndi izi, zomwe zimachita ndikulola kuti katunduyo azidutsa kapena osati masekondi 5 aliwonse (pankhani ya chiwembu chathu chikanakhala choyendetsa, koma zitha kukhala chilichonse chomwe mungafune .. .):

onst int pin = 9;    //Pin donde está conectado el MOSFET
 
void setup() {
  pinMode(pin, OUTPUT);  //Definir como salida para controlar el MOSFET
}
 
void loop(){
  digitalWrite(pin, HIGH);   // Lo pone en HIGH
  delay(5000);               // Espera 5 segundos o 5000ms
  digitalWrite(pin, LOW);    // Lo pone en LOW
  delay(5000);               // Espera otros 5s antes de repetir el bucle
}


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