Nthawi zonse Faraday: chilichonse chomwe muyenera kudziwa chokhudza magetsi

Nthawi zonse a Faraday

Monga nthawi zina tafotokozapo mafunso ena ofunikira pamagetsi ndi zamagetsi, monga Lamulo la Ohm, mafunde Malamulo a Kirchoff, ndipo ngakhale mitundu yamagetsi oyambira, zingakhale zosangalatsa kudziwa kuti ndi chiyani Nthawi zonse a Faraday, momwe zingakuthandizireni kudziwa zambiri zazotengera.

Munkhaniyi mumvetsetsa pang'ono chisangalalo chosatha, ingagwiritsidwe ntchito bwanji, ndipo amawerengedwa bwanji ...

Kodi nthawi zonse Faraday ndi chiyani?

Michael Faraday

La Nthawi zonse a Faraday ndimagwiritsidwe ntchito kosagwiritsidwa ntchito nthawi zonse mu fizikiya ndi chemistry. Amatanthauzidwa ngati kuchuluka kwamagetsi pamagetsi amtundu uliwonse wama elekitironi. Dzinali limachokera kwa wasayansi waku Britain a Michael Faraday. Izi zimatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito pamagetsi amagetsi kuti awerengere kuchuluka kwa zinthu zomwe zimapanga ma elekitirodi.

Itha kuyimiriridwa ndi kalatayo F, ndipo amatanthauzidwa kuti molar elemental charge, kukhala wokhoza kuwerengetsa monga:

chilinganizo

Kukhala F zotsatira zake wa Farday nthawi zonse, e magetsi oyambira, ndipo Na ndi Avogadro nthawi zonse:

  • e = 1.602176634 × 10-19 C
  • Na = 6.02214076 × 1023  mol-1

Malinga ndi SI, nthawi zonse za Faraday ndizolondola, monga zovuta zina, ndipo kufunikira kwake ndi: 96485,3321233100184 C / mol. Monga mukuwonera, imafotokozedwa mu unit C / mol, ndiye kuti, coulombs pa mole. Ndipo kuti mumvetse izi, ngati simukudziwa, mutha kupitiliza kuwerenga magawo awiri otsatirawa ...

Kodi mole ndi chiyani?

atomu ya mole

Un mol ndi gawo lomwe limayeza kuchuluka kwa zinthu. Mkati mwa SI ya mayunitsi, ndi imodzi mwazinthu 7 zofunika kwambiri. M'chinthu chilichonse, kaya ndi chinthu kapena mankhwala, pali zigawo zingapo zomwe zimapanga. Mole imodzi imafanana ndi 6,022 140 76 × 1023 mabungwe oyambira, omwe ndi manambala okhazikika a nthawi zonse a Avogadro.

Zinthu zoyambira izi zitha kukhala atomu, molekyulu, ion, ma elekitironi, ma photon, kapena mtundu wina uliwonse wazinthu zoyambira. Mwachitsanzo, ndi izi mutha werengani kuchuluka kwa ma atomu zomwe zili mu gramu yazinthu zopatsidwa.

Mu umagwirira, mole ndiyofunikira, chifukwa imalola kuwerengera kambiri pakupanga, kusintha kwa mankhwala, ndi zina zambiri. Mwachitsanzo, zamadzi (H2O), mumayankha 2 H2 + O2 → 2H2Ondiye kuti timadontho tiwiri ta haidrojeni (H2) ndi mole imodzi ya oxygen (O2) chitani ndi mapangidwe awiri amadzi. Kuphatikiza apo, atha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito kufotokoza malingaliro (onani molarity).

Kodi mtengo wamagetsi ndi wotani?

magetsi

Kumbali inayi, kuchokera pa magetsi Takhala tikulankhula kale nthawi zina, ndichinthu chamtundu winawake wa tinthu tina tating'ono ta subatomic tomwe timawonetsa kukopa ndi kunyansitsa pakati pawo chifukwa chamagetsi amagetsi. Kuyanjana kwamagetsi, pakati pa zolipiritsa ndi magetsi, ndiimodzi mwazinthu 4 zofunikira kwambiri mu fizikiki, limodzi ndi mphamvu yamphamvu ya nyukiliya, mphamvu yofooka ya nyukiliya, ndi mphamvu yokoka.

Kuti muyese ndalama zamagetsi izi, Coulomb (C) kapena Coulomb, ndipo amatanthauzidwa kuti kuchuluka kwa ndalama zomwe zimachitika pakamphindi kamodzi ndi mphamvu yamagetsi yamphamvu imodzi ampere.

Kugwiritsa ntchito nthawi zonse kwa Faraday

Nthawi zonse a Faraday

Ngati mukuganiza kuti kugwiritsa ntchito Mutha kukhala ndi izi nthawi zonse za Faraday, chowonadi ndichakuti muli ndi ochepa, zitsanzo zina ndi izi:

  • Kusindikiza / anodizing: pazomwe zimachitika pamakampani azitsulo pomwe chitsulo chimodzi chimaphimbidwa ndi china ndi electrolysis. Mwachitsanzo, chitsulo chikakulungidwa ndi nthaka kuti ichepetse kutentha kwa dzimbiri. Pochita izi, chitsulo chomwe chimaphimbidwa chimagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati anode ndipo electrolyte ndi mchere wosungunuka wazinthu za anode.
  • Zitsulo kuyeretsedwa: itha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito pazinthu zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pokonzanso zitsulo monga mkuwa, zinc, malata, ndi zina zambiri. Komanso pogwiritsa ntchito njira zamagetsi.
  • Kupanga mankhwala: kutulutsa mankhwala amtunduwu amagwiritsidwanso ntchito.
  • Kusanthula kwamankhwala: mwa electrolysis mankhwalawa amatha kudziwikanso.
  • Kupanga gasi: mipweya monga oxygen kapena haidrojeni yomwe imapezeka m'madzi ndi electrolysis imagwiritsanso ntchito chiwerengerochi powerengera.
  • Mankhwala ndi zokongoletsaElectrolysis itha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito kutulutsa mitsempha kapena kuthana ndi mavuto ena, kuphatikiza pakuchotsa tsitsi losafunikira. Popanda okhazikika, zida zambiri zamtunduwu sizikanatheka kupangidwa.
  • Ntchito zosindikiza: Kwa osindikiza, njira zamagetsi zimagwiritsidwanso ntchito pazinthu zina.
  • Ma capacitors a Electrolytic: gawo lodziwika bwino lamagetsi lomwe limakhala ndi filimu yopyapyala ya aluminium oxide ndi aluminium anode pakati pamaelekitirodi. Electrolyte ndi chisakanizo cha boric acid, glycerin, ndi ammonium hydroxide. Umu ndi m'mene zimakwaniritsidwira ...

Kodi electrolysis ndi chiyani?

zamagetsi

Ndipo popeza nthawi zonse Faraday imagwirizana kwambiri ndi kusanthula kwamagetsiTiyeni tiwone chomwe mawu enawa ndi omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pamsika. Chifukwa cha izi, zinthu zamagulu zimatha kupatulidwa ndi magetsi. Izi zimachitika ndikutulutsa ma elekitironi ndi anode anion (makutidwe ndi okosijeni) ndikugwira ma electron ndi cathode cations (kuchepetsa).

Anazipeza mwangozi ndi William Nicholson, mu 1800, akuphunzira momwe mabatire am'madzi amagwirira ntchito. Mu 1834, Michael Faraday adapanga ndikusindikiza malamulo a electrolysis.

Mwachitsanzo, electrolysis ya madzi H2O, Amalola kupanga oxygen ndi hydrogen. Ngati mphamvu yachindunji imagwiritsidwa ntchito kudzera maelekitirodi, omwe amalekanitsa mpweya ndi hydrogen, ndikutha kupatula mpweya wonsewo (sungalumikizane, chifukwa umatulutsa zowopsa kwambiri).


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