Kusintha kwamakono motsutsana ndi zamakono: kusiyana ndi kufanana

panopo, nsanja yamagetsi

Muyenera kusiyanitsa pakasinthasintha pakali pano komanso pakadali pano. Zonsezi ndizofunikira kwambiri, ndipo zimagwiritsidwa ntchito m'makampani komanso pamudzi kupatsa zida zambiri. Kuchokera pamakina amafakitale, zida zapanyumba, kudzera pazida zam'manja, ndi ena zinthu zamagetsi.

Kuphatikiza apo, muphunziranso kufanana, popeza kulipo pakati pa DC ndi AC, komanso nkhani yosangalatsa komanso zovuta pakati pa opanga odziwika awiri zomwe zidadzetsa ziwawa zowalimbikitsa ...

Mtsinje ndi chiyani?

Nthawi zonse a Faraday

Una zamakono ndikutuluka kwa chinthu, kaya ndi mtsinje wamadzi, kapena mphamvu yamagetsi. Pankhani yamagetsi, zomwe zimachitikadi ndikuti pali maelekitironi oyenda mkatikati mwa wochititsa, ngakhale sakuwoneka.

Izi mphamvu yamagetsi Itha kukhala yamitundu iwiri ...

Kodi Direct Direct ndiyotani?

Thomas Alba Edison

Monga mukudziwa kale ngati muwerenga blog iyi pafupipafupi, fayilo ya DC, yomasulidwanso ngati CC (kapena DC mu Chingerezi), ndi yatsopano ndi mbali imodzi. Ndiye kuti, ma elekitironi amayenda molunjika kudzera mwa wochititsa pakati pa mfundo ziwiri zomwe zingathenso kutulutsa magetsi. Tikadakhala kuti tikujambula pano pa graph, zitha kuwoneka ngati mzere wopitilira.

Izi zachindunji zidapangidwa koyamba mu 1800, chifukwa cha batiri lomwe lidapangidwa ndi wasayansi waku Italiya Alessandro Volta. Chikhalidwe chakuyenda uku sikunamvetsetsedwe panthawiyo, koma chinali chinthu chofunikira. Mu 1870 ndi koyambirira kwa ma 1880, magetsi awa adayamba kupangidwa m'malo opangira magetsi, kuyatsa makampani ndi nyumba atapanga babu yoyatsa. Thomas Edison.

Pofuna kuteteza mtundu wamakonowu, Edison adabwera kudzapanga ziwonetsero zokongola, kuyesera amanyoza Nikola Tesla, ponena kuti ndalama zake zinali zowopsa kwambiri. Kuti achite izi, Edison adabwera kudzachita ziwonetsero zapagulu zogwiritsa ntchito nyama zosiyanasiyana. Kumayambiriro kwa chaka cha 1903, anthu chikwi adawona momwe adamenyera ndi kupha njovu ndi ma volts 6600. Komabe, njovu idadyetsedwa kale kaloti wothira poizoni kuti ife. Zochitika zonsezi zidatchedwa Nkhondo ya mafunde.

Mapulogalamu ndi kutembenuka

Izi mwachindunji zidasinthidwa pang'onopang'ono ndikusintha zina, zomwe zinali ndi maubwino monga tionere. Komabe, imagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri popanga zinthu zamagetsi, monga zida zowonera, makompyuta, ndi zina zambiri. Kuti onse agwire ntchito yamagetsi omwe akusinthana, zida zamagetsi zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pakusintha, monga ma adap kapena magetsi.

Polarity

Ngakhale mukusinthasintha kwamakono kuphulika sizofunikira kwenikweni, pakadali pano ndichinthu chofunikira kwambiri, ndipo chiyenera kulemekezedwa ngati dera likugwira ntchito moyenera osawonongeka. Kusintha polarity mu DC kungatanthauze kuwonongeka kosasinthika nthawi zina, chifukwa chake muyenera kusamala ndi izi.

Ndiye chifukwa chake zimakhala zachilendo kuwona malo kapena zingwe zodindidwa ndi mzati, kapena mitundu kusiyanitsa. Nthawi zambiri, zofiira zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pazitsulo zabwino (+), ndipo zakuda pazosalimbikitsa (-). Maseketi ena ovuta kwambiri a DC amathanso kuwonjezera mitundu ina.

AC ndi chiyani?

Nikola Tesla

La zosintha zamakono, chidule cha CA (kapena AC mu Chingerezi), ndi mtundu wamagetsi amagetsi omwe kukula kwake ndi mayendedwe amasiyanasiyana mosiyanasiyana, munthawi zake. Izi zikutanthauza kuti, mosiyana ndi CC, yomwe inali mzere wowongoka woyimiridwa mu graph, pankhani ya yomwe imasinthidwayo imayimiridwa ngati sinusoidal oscillation. Chiwerengero cha masekondi athunthu pamphindikati chimadalira pafupipafupi. Mwachitsanzo, ku Europe tili ndi 50 Hz, kapena maulendo 50 pamphindikati, pomwe ku US imagwira 60 Hz.

Izi zitha kupezeka mu 1832, pomwe Pixii akadapanga fayilo ya woyamba kusinthana, wopanga dynamoelectric, kutengera mfundo za Faraday. Pambuyo pake, Pixii adzawonjezeranso switch kuti apange zenizeni zamakono, zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri nthawi zakale. Mu 1855 adatsimikiza kuti AC idapambana DC ndipo adamaliza m'malo mwake.

Njira zamakono zamakono zinali ndi anayamba ku Ulaya, chifukwa cha ntchito ya Guillaume Duchenne m'ma 1850. Mu 1876, mainjiniya waku Russia amapanganso makina owunikira ofanana ndi a Edison, koma ndi ma voliyumu akulu AC. Kampani ya Ganz Works ku Budapest iyamba kupanga zida zowunikira kutengera izi, kuphatikiza zida zina kutengera pano.

Katswiri wa ku Serbia ndi wopanga Nikola Tesla, anali m'modzi womenyera ufulu wapano pakutsutsana ndi kupitiliza kwa Edison. Adapanga ndikupanga makina oyambitsirana oyamba, omwe amatha kusintha magetsi kukhala makina ozungulira. Kuphatikiza apo, luso ili lingathandizenso kukonza magawidwe amagetsi popanda kusintha mzere.

Kuphatikiza apo, Tesla adasanthula chida chopangidwa ndi akatswiri aku Europe chotchedwa chosinthira. Chifukwa chake, imatha kusandulika kukhala yamagetsi ochepa, ndikupangitsa kuti ikhale yotetezeka m'nyumba, osafunikira kuti ifike momwe imapangidwira, chifukwa chimodzi mwazowopsa kwambiri chinali kuwopsa kwake. Kufufuza uku ndikomwe kudali kuyambira kuyitanidwa Nkhondo ya mafunde.

Zovomerezeka zonse zokhudzana ndi CA ya Nikola Tesla zidaperekedwa ku kampaniyo Westinghouse Magetsi, Kupeza ndalama ndikupitiliza ndi ntchito kutengera izi. Pambuyo pake, kufalitsa koyamba kwa CA sikungatenge nthawi yayitali, kuchitika mu 1891. Izi zitha kuchitika ku Telluride (Colorado), miyezi ingapo pambuyo pake ku Europe, kuchokera ku Lauffen kupita ku Frankfurt (Germany).

Pomwe AC idapambana ndikufalikira padziko lonse lapansi, a Thomas Edison adapitilizabe kulimbikitsa zenizeni, zomwe zingamutayitse udindo wawo pakampani. Edison wamagetsi (tsopano amatchedwa General Electric), yomwe adayambitsa ...

ofunsira

Zosintha zamakono zikugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa mafakitale ndi kunyumba, ndi amene amayenda m'mizere yamagetsi kuti abweretse magetsi kumadera onse padziko lapansi. Imatha kuyendetsa zida zapanyumba, magalimoto, makina amakampani, mafiriji, ndi zina zambiri.

Polarity

Monga ndanenera poyamba, mukalumikiza fayilo ya pulagi, simusamala momwe mumayika momwe zingagwirire ntchito mulimonsemo. Izi ndichifukwa cha mawonekedwe amagetsi osinthika, chifukwa amasintha. Komabe, pazokhazikitsidwa wamba, palinso njira zosiyanitsira zingwe, ndi zina zambiri. Nthawi zambiri mumakhala ndi waya wachikaso / wobiriwira womwe umakhala pansi, waya wamtambo kapena woyera sulowerera ndale, ndipo bulauni kapena wakuda ndiye gawo.

DC vs AC: zabwino ndi zoyipa

cc vs ndi

Mitsinje yonseyi imagwiritsidwabe ntchito masiku ano, monga momwe amachitira zabwino zake ndi zovuta zake. Mwachitsanzo:

  • Kusintha kwazinthu zamakono ndikosavuta kusintha, zomwe sizimachitika ndi zenizeni zamakono.
  • Kuti musinthe magetsi, mukamasintha zina muyenera kugwiritsa ntchito chosinthira, pomwe mukufunika kulumikiza mphamvu kapena ma jenereta motsatira, zomwe sizothandiza.
  • Zina zomwe zitha kugawidwa zitha kugawidwa pamtunda wautali wokhala ndi mphamvu zochepa, kutaya pang'ono ngati kutentha chifukwa cha mphamvu ya Joule ndi zina monga eddy mafunde kapena hysteresis. Pomwe DC yatayika kwambiri, ndipo kungafunikire kukhala ndi magetsi ambiri pafupi ndi malo omwe amafunidwa.

Kutembenuka kwa AC / DC

Gwero la ATX

(onani magetsi)


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