1n4148: zvese nezve zvakajairwa chinangwa diode

diode 1n4148

Kune akawanda marudzi emasemiconductor diode, ane akasiyana akasiyana mafomu. Kubva pane inogadzirisa ma diode, kuburikidza neZener, kune maLED anoburitsa mwenje. Muchikamu chino isu tinofarira chinhu chemagetsi kongiri, iyo 1n4148 general chinangwa diode. Ichave iyo yatinoongorora maererano nehunhu hwayo uye isu ticharatidza zvimwe zvekushandisa zvinogona.

1n4148 ndeye diki yesilicon unit izvo zvinovanza zvakavanzika zvikuru zvaunofanira kuziva. Chinhu chinokwanisa kupa zvakawanda kumabasa ako kana uchida zvemagetsi DIY kana uri mugadziri ...

Chii chinonzi semiconductor diode?

diode 1n4148

Un diode mudziyo we semiconductor Inoita seyakaomarara-mamiriro switch uye imwe-nzira yezvazvino. Kunyangwe paine zvisaririra, senge iyo LED kana IR diode, iyo inoburitsa magetsi emagetsi. Muchiitiko chekutanga, mwenje unooneka weimwe ruvara, kana infrared radiation. Kune rimwe divi, muchinyorwa chino, sezvo tichazotaura nezve 1n4148, isu tinongofarira kune avo vanoita sevavhiringidzi varipo.

Izwi rekuti diode rinobva muchiGiriki, uye rinoreva "nzira mbiri". Kunyangwe izvi, izvo zvazvinoita chaizvo zvinopesana, ndiko kuti, zvinodzivirira kuyerera kwazvino kuenda kune imwe nzira. Nekudaro, kana hunhu hwe IV hwedhizaini yedhodhi ikakosheswa, zvinogona kuoneka kuti inoumbwa nematunhu maviri akasiyana. Pazasi pemumwe mutsauko ungangoita sedunhu rakavhurika (kwete kuitisa), uye pamusoro payo sedunhu pfupi riine kushomeka kwemagetsi kushoma.

Aya ma diode ane kubatana yemhando mbiri dze semiconductor P na N. Uye zvakare vane maviri ma terminals ekubatanidza, anode (yakanaka terminal) uye cathode (negative terminal). Zvichienderana nenzira iyo yazvino inoshandiswa, maitiro maviri anogona kusiyaniswa:

  • Tungamira polarization: kana kuyerera kwazvino kwapfuura. Iyo yakaipa pole yebhatiri kana magetsi inodzosera maerekitironi emahara kubva kuN kristaro uye maerekitironi anonangiswa akananga kuPN junction. Iyo yakanaka pole yebhatiri kana sosi inokwezva valence maerekitironi kubva kuP kristaro (inosundira maburi akananga kuPN junction). Kana mutsauko uripo pakati pematerminals wakakura kupfuura musiyano ungangodaro wenzvimbo yekuchaja nzvimbo, maerekitironi emahara muNikristini anowana simba rakakwana kuti asvetukire mumakomba ari P kristaro uye kuyerera kwazvino.
  • Reverse polarization: painoshanda seyakavhara uye isingatenderi yazvino kuyerera. Mune ino kesi, iyo polarization ichave yakapesana, ndiko kuti, sosi yacho ichave ichiendesa kune yakatarisana nedivi, zvichikonzera iyezvino maerekitironi kupinda kuburikidza neP zone uye kusundira maerekitironi mumazai. Iyo yakanaka terminal yebhatiri inokwezva maerekitironi kubva kuN zone, uye izvi zvinogadzira tambo inozoita seyakavhara pakati pemasangano.
Pano isu tiri kutarisa kune imwe mhando yemadhiodhi. Chinhu chacho chinosiyana nemaphotoodhi kana maLED, nezvimwe.

Izvi zvinhu zvakagadzirwa zvichibva pachimiro cheiyo Lee De Masango anoedza. Iwo ekutanga kuoneka aive mavhavha makuru ekutsvaira kana machubhu emuchina. Thermionic magirazi ampoules ane akateedzana emagetsi akashanda semidziyo iyi, asi akaburitsa kupisa kwakawanda, achidya zvakanyanya, aive akakura, uye aigona kukuvara semagetsi emagetsi. Saka zvakatemwa kutsiva iyo neyakaoma mamiriro ezvinhu (semiconductors).

Applications

Diode, senge 1n4148, vane kuwanda kwekushandisa. Iwo mashandisirwo anozivikanwa kwazvo mune akananga azvino magetsi maseketi uyezve mune zvimwe zvinoshandura zvazvino. Muchokwadi, isu takatoona kuti sei mu magetsi ivo vakazadzisa rakakosha basa kana uchibva ku AC kuenda kuDC. Ndicho chimiro chavo sevanogadzirisa, sezvo ivo vachichinja sinusoidal yazvino chiratidzo kune inoenderera iri muchimiro chemapundu nekuvharira yazvino munzira yakatarisana.

Ivo vanogona zvakare kushanda se magetsi anodzorwa switch, sevadziviriri vematunhu, semajenareta eruzha, nezvimwe.

Mhando dzedhiode

MaDiode anogona kuverengerwa zvinoenderana nemagetsi avanotsungirira, iko kusimba, izvo zvinhu (semuenzaniso: silicon), uye mamwe maitiro. Zvimwe zve mhando dzakakosha kwazvo Ndizvo:

  • Detector diode: dzinozivikanwa sechiratidzo chakaderera kana kunongedzera poindi. Izvo zvakagadzirirwa kushandiswa neakanyanya mafirita uye akaderera azvino. Unogona kuzviwana zvese zvakagadzirwa negermanium (chikumbaridzo 0.2 kusvika 0.3 volts) uye nesilicon (chikumbaridzo 0.6 kusvika 0-7 volts). Zvichienderana nedoping yeZ uye nzvimbo dzeN uye ivo vanozove neakasiyana kuramba uye kuora hunhu.
  • Anogadzirisa diode: Ivo vanodhiraivha chete mukutungamira kurongedza, sekutsanangura kwandamboita. Izvo zvinoshandiswa kushandura voltages kana kugadzirisa zviratidzo. Iwe unogona zvakare kuwana dzakasiyana mhando, iine akasiyana mamonance maererano neazvino uye akatsigirwa voltage.
  • Zener diode: ndeimwe mhando inozivikanwa kwazvo. Vanobvumidza kuyerera kwazvino mukudzoka uye kunowanzo shandiswa semidziyo yekudzora. Kana ivo vakaomeswa zvakananga ivo vanogona kuzvibata senge zvakajairwa diode.
  • akatungamirira: mwenje inoburitsa diode yakasiyana neiya yapfuura, nekuti zvazvinoita kushandura simba remagetsi kuita chiedza. Izvi ndezvekutenda kune yeelectroluminescence maitiro umo maburi nemaerekitironi anodzokororazve kuburitsa ichi mwenje kana wakakwenenzverwa zvakananga.
  • Schottky diodeIvo vanozivikanwa sekukurumidza kupora kana kupisa vanopisa. Iwo anowanzo gadzirwa nesilicon uye anoonekwa neadiki kwazvo voltage donhwe (<0.25v approx). Ndokunge, nguva yekuchinja ichave ipfupi.
  • Schockley diode: Kunyangwe kufanana kwezita iri, kwakasiyana neiyo yapfuura. Iyo ine PNPN miganho uye ine maviri anogona kugadzikana matunhu (anovharira kana akakwirira impedance uye kuitisa kana yakaderera impedance).
  • Nhanho Kudzorera Diode (SRD): inozivikanwa seyechaji yekuchengetera, uye ine hunyanzvi hwekuchengetedza chaji yeiyo yakanaka pulse uye kushandisa isina kunaka kupomba kwezviratidzo zve sinusoidal.
  • Tunnel diode: Iyo inonzi zvakare saEsaki, ivo vanoshandiswa seyekumhanyisa solid solid switch switch sezvavanogona kushanda muma nanoseconds. Izvo zvinodaro nekuda kwenzvimbo yakatetepa yekuparara uye rakakombama panoshoreka kuramba nzvimbo kunodzikira sezvo magetsi achiwedzera.
  • Varactor diode: haina kuzivikanwa kupfuura yapfuura, asi inoshandiswa zvakare mune mamwe mapurojekiti. Iyo varicap inoshandiswa semagetsi anodzorwa akasiyana capacitor. Inoshanda zvisina kukodzera.
  • Laser uye vaIri Photodiode: Iwo madhodhi akafanana nemaLED, asi pachinzvimbo chekuburitsa mwenje, anoburitsa yakatarisana nemagetsi emagetsi. Sezvo inogona kuve monochromatic mwenje (laser) kana infrared (IR).
  • Inononoka Voltage Kubvisa Diode (TVS)- Yakagadzirirwa kupfuudza kana kudzikisira magetsi spikes uye kuchengetedza maseketi kubva padambudziko iri. Ivo vanogona zvakare kudzivirira kubva kune electrostatic kubuda (ESD).
  • Ndarama dhodhi dhodhi: iwo ma diode anoshandiswa kushandisa maatomu egoridhe. Izvo zvinovapa mukana, uye ndiko kuti vane mhinduro inokurumidza.
  • Peltier diode: iyi mhando yemaseru inobvumira mubatanidzwa unokwanisa kugadzira kupisa uye kutonhora zvichienderana nedivi. Mamwe mashoko.
  • Avalanche diode: Ivo vakafanana neZener, asi vanoshanda pasi pechimwe chiitiko chinozivikanwa seye avalanche athari.
  • vamwe: kune vamwe vakaita seGUNN, akasiyana eakamboita seOLEDs ezvikwiriso, nezvimwe.

1n4148 general chinangwa diode

chiratidzo uye pinout yedhiode 1n4148

El diode 1N4148 Iko rudzi rweyakajairika silicon switching diode. Iyo ndeimwe yeakakurumbira anoshandiswa munyika yemagetsi. Iyo zvakare yakasimba chaizvo, sezvo iine yakanaka kwazvo maratidziro kunyangwe iri yakaderera mutengo.

Zita rinotevera iyo JEDEC zita remazita, uye inobatsira pakushandura maficha anosvika kungangoita zana maMhz mafirizheni ane nguva yekudzosa isingadzore kupfuura 100ns.

Historia

Texas Instruments yakagadzirwa muna 1960 di 1n914 diode. Mushure mekunyorwa kwaro gore rakatevera, vanopfuura gumi nevaviri vagadziri vakawana kodzero kwariri kuti riigadzire. Muna 1968 iyo 1N4148 yaizosvika kunzvimbo yeJEDEC, ichitanga kushandiswa muchiuto nemaindasitiri panguva iyoyo. Parizvino kune vazhinji vanogadzira nekutengesa michina iyi zvese pasi pezita 1N4148 uye pasi pe1N914. Musiyano uripo pakati pezviviri izita uye zvimwe zvacho. Ivo vanosiyana chete mune yavo yekudonha rondedzero yazvino.

Pinout uye kurongedza kweiyo 1n4148

1n4148 diode kazhinji inouya yakarongedzwa pasi peDO-35, ine axial yegirazi hamvuropu. Iwe unogona zvakare kuiwana mune mamwe mafomati senge SOD yekusimudza pamusoro, nezvimwe.

Kana ari pinout, inongova nemapini maviri kana zviteshi. Kana iwe ukatarisa mutsetse mutema pane ino diode, magumo ari padyo nemutsara mutema iwoyo ndiwo cathode, nepo mumwe mugumo uchave unode.

Mamwe mashoko - datasheet

tsananguro

Kana ari zvinyorwa kubva 1n4148, ivo vanowanzo kuve:

  • Kunonyanyisa mberi voltage: 1v kusvika 10mA
  • Minimum kuputsa voltage uye inodzosera leakage yazvino: 75v pa5 μA; 100 V pa100 μA
  • Maximum reverse yekudzosa nguva:4ns
  • Simba rakanyanya kupera: 500mW

Kwokutenga 1n4148

Kana iwe uchida tenga diode 1n4148 Iwe unofanirwa kuziva kuti icho chakachipa kwazvo chishandiso, uye iwe unogona kuchiwana mune akasarudzika emagetsi ezvitoro kana paInternet munzvimbo dzakadai seAmazon. Semuenzaniso, heano mamwe mazano:


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