Inokurumidza mota: kusangana neArduino

Inokurumidza mota

Magetsi emagetsi ari kuramba achidikanwa, pakati pavo pamwe iwo anoshanda neazvino kumira kunze, anozivikanwa kwazvo mukati mezvirongwa zvevagadziri neArduino, sezvo vachipa kufamba. Pakati pavo, simbisa stepper mota ayo anoshandiswa pamashandisirwo akawanda, kunyanya marobhoti, akadai seanogadzira, nezvimwe.

Magetsi emagetsi, marobhoti madiki anozvimiririra, maficha eindasitiri ekushandisa otomatiki, anodzokorodza maficha ekufamba, nezvimwe. Icho chikonzero servo motors uye stepper motors zvakanakira izvi zvinoshandiswa ndezvekuti vanogona ita zvinononoka kana kukurumidza kufamba, asi pamusoro pezvose zvinodzorwa. Uye zvakare, iwo madhiraivhu ari kuenderera kune ekushandisa uko akawanda anomira uye anotanga anodikanwa nemhando yepamusoro.

Mhando dzemagetsi emagetsi

Mukati magetsi emota mhando dzinotevera dzinogona kusimbiswa:

  • DC kana DC mota: DC mota dzinoshanda nerudzi urwu rwezvino, sekuratidzwa kwezita. Vanogona kubva pane mashoma mW emagetsi kuenda kune mashoma MW mune akasimba uye makuru iwo, ayo anoshandiswa kumashandisirwo emabhizimusi, mota, maelevhe, mafambisi, mafeni, nezvimwe. Kutendeuka kwaro kumhanya (RPM) uye torque yakashandiswa inogona kudzorwa zvinoenderana neyekudya.
  • AC kana AC mota (asynchronous uye ronda rotor): vanoshanda nekuchinjisa zvazvino, iine rotor chaiyo inoshanda nekuda kwezvikamu izvo rudzi irworwu rwazvino rwunobatsira kuburitsa kutenderera nenzira yemagineti inodzora yemagetsi nenzira yakafanana neiyo iyo maDDC anoita. Izvo zvakachipa kwazvo uye zvinokwira kune akati wandei kW. Dzinogona kudzorwa nekumhanyisa kutenderera, asi zvinhu zvemutemo zvinodhura kupfuura zveDC. Izvi zvinowanzo shandiswa kumidziyo yemumba.
  • Inokurumidza mota- Inozivikanwawo sevamhanyi, ivo vakafanana munzira dzakawanda kuDC, asi iine yakaderera kuruka kumhanya nemasimba. Pano chinomira kunze ndiko kumisikidzwa kweiyo axis, ndiko kuti, iko kunyatso kuisa mune yakatarwa chinzvimbo. Kutenderera kwavo kona uye kumhanya kunogona kudzorwa kwakawanda, ndosaka vaimbo shandiswa mu floppy drives, hard drives (HDD), marobhoti, process automation, nezvimwe.
  • Servomotor: zvinogona kunzi iko kushanduka kweanotsika mota, kushanda nemasimba mashoma uye kumhanya kunokwira kusvika ku7000 RPM mune dzimwe nguva. Iyi mota inosanganisira gear yekudzikisa bhokisi uye redunhu redhiyo. Ivo vane imwecheteyo yekumira chaiyo sevatsigiri uye vakagadzikana kwazvo maererano neyakaiswa torque, ichivaita akakodzera kune mamwe marobhoti uye ekushandisa kwemaindasitiri.

Stepper motors uye servo motors

rotor uye stator

Iwe unotoziva kuti ndedzipi mbiri idzi mhando dzemagetsi mota, asi ndinoda kutaura chimwe chinhu zvimwe nezvevatambi. Kutendeuka kwavanoita hakuitwe nekuenderera, asi nematanho madiki, saka zita ravo. Iyo rotor (chikamu chinotenderera) iri muchimiro chevhiri rine mazino, nepo stator (chikamu chisingatenderedze) inoumbwa nemagetsi akabatanidzwa akaparadzaniswa nemagetsi. Nenzira iyi, kana mumwe "akaitwa" iwo ari pamativi ayo asina kuvhurwa, izvo zvinokwezva zino rinotenderera kwariri, zvichibvumira kufambiswa chaiko kwavanozivikanwa.

Nyaya inoenderana:
DRV8825: mutyairi wema stepper motors

Zvichienderana neiyo rotor mazino, zvichave zvichikwanisa kufambira mberi zvakanyanya kana zvishoma mukukwirana. Kana uine mamwe mazino, mamwe matanho anodiwa kuti upedze kutendeuka, asi matanho acho anenge ari mapfupi, saka ichave iri mota chaiyo. Kana uine meno mashoma, matanho acho anowedzera kusvetuka kusvetuka, pasina kunyatso kujeka. Naizvozvo, nhanho idzo dzinofanira kutorwa nemotokari yekukwirisa kupedzisa shanduko inoenderana nematanho eangular.

Matanho iwayo angular akaenzana, kunyangwe iwe uchigona kutsvaga mamwe mota ane asina-muyero pombi. Angles anowanzo kuve: 1.8º, 5.625º, 7.5º, 11.25º, 18º, 45º, uye 90º. Kuti uverenge kuti mangani matanho anotsika mota inoda kupedzisa yakazara kutendeuka kana kutendeuka (360º), iwe unongoda kupatsanura. Semuenzaniso, kana iwe uine 45º stepper mota, iwe unenge uine matanho masere (8/360 = 45).

tenderera nekusarura (chikamu)

Mukati meaya motori iwe une unipolar (inonyanya kufarirwa), ine tambo shanu kana nhanhatu, kana bipolar, iine tambo ina. Zvinoenderana neizvi, chimwe kana chimwe chichaitwa polarization akateedzana ichipfuura yazvino kuburikidza nemakoiri ayo:

  • Polarization ye bipolar:
Paso Terminal A Chiteshi B Chiteshi C Chiteshi D
1 +V -V +V -V
2 +V -V -V +V
3 -V +V -V +V
4 -V +V +V -V
  • For the unipolar:
Paso Coil A Coil B Coil C Coil D
1 +V +V 0 0
2 0 +V +V 0
3 0 0 +V +V
4 +V 0 0 +V

Iko mashandiro mune ese ari maviri mamiriro akafanana, kumonyanisa iwo makoiri kukwezva rotor kune iwe kwaunoda kuti axis iiswe. Kana uchida chengeta icho munzvimbo imwechete, iwe unofanirwa kuchengetedza polarization yeiyo chinzvimbo uye voila. Uye kana iwe uchida kuti ienderere mberi, iwe polarize inotevera magineti uye inotora rimwe danho, zvichingodaro ...

Kana uchishandisa a servomotor, iwe unotoziva kuti inyaya inotsika mota saka zvese zvataurwa zvinoshanda kwavari zvakare. Chinhu chega chinosanganisira iwo ekudzikisa magiya kuti awane mamwe matanho mazhinji paimwe nguva uye nekudaro ave neyakajeka kwazvo Semuenzaniso, unogona kuwana mota ine nhanho nhanhatu pakureba kuti dai yaive ne8: 1 gearbox, nekuti zvinoreva kuti nhanho imwe yeaya masere akapatsanurwa kuita nhanho diki makumi matanhatu nenhanhatu, iyo yaizopa yakakwira nhanho makumi mashanu neshanu nemashanu pakureba. Ndokunge, nhanho imwe neimwe ingangoita 64º.

Nyaya inoenderana:
L298N: module yekudzivirira mota dzeArduino

Uyezve wedzera kuti iwe unofanirwa kushandisa zvimwe mutongi yekudzora polarization, kumhanya, nezvimwe, iine, semuenzaniso, H-Bridge. Mimwe mienzaniso ndeye L293, ULN2003, ULQ2003, nezvimwe.

Kwatenga

Unogona chitenge pane akasiyana masosi epamhepo kana muzvitoro zvine hunyanzvi zvemagetsi. Zvakare, kana iwe uri wekutanga, unogona kushandisa makiti anosanganisira zvese zvaunoda uye kunyangwe ndiro Arduino UNO uye bhuku rekutanga kutanga nekugadzira mapurojekiti ako. Aya makiti anosanganisira zvese zvaunoda, kubva kumota pachayo, madhairekita, mabhodhi, bhodhi rechingwa, nezvimwe.

Stepper mota muenzaniso naArduino

Arduino ine inotsika mota uye controller

Pakupedzisira, ratidza a muenzaniso unoshanda naArduino, uchishandisa ULN2003 controller uye 28BYJ-48 inotsika mota. Zviri nyore kwazvo, asi zvichave zvakakwana kuti iwe utange kuzviziva iwe kuti zvinoshanda sei kuti utange kuita mimwe bvunzo uye uone maitiro ayo ...

Sezvinoonekwa mu chirongwa chekubatanidza, iwo mota coils A (IN1), B (IN2), C (IN3) uye D (IN4) akapihwa kubatana 8, 9, 10, uye 11 zvichiteerana pane iyo Arduino bhodhi. Kune rimwe divi, mutyairi kana bhodhi rinodzora rinofanirwa kupihwa pini dzayo 5-12V (kune iyo GND uye 5V yeArduino) nemagetsi akakodzera kuitira kuti ipewo mota inosunganidzwa nechena epurasitiki yekubatanidza iyo ine mutyairi uyu. kana mutongi.

Este 28BYJ-48 injini Iyo unipolar mhando inotsika mota ine mairi mana. Naizvozvo, kuti ndikupe zano rekuti rinoshanda sei, unogona kutumira yepamusoro (1) kana YEMAHARA (0) kukosha kubva kuArduino bhodhi kuenda kumakoiri seanotevera matanho.

Paso Coil A Coil B Coil C Coil D
1 HIGH HIGH LOW LOW
2 LOW HIGH HIGH LOW
3 LOW LOW HIGH HIGH
4 HIGH LOW LOW HIGH

Kana ari sketch kana kodhi inodiwa kuronga kufamba kwako, sezvo zvingave zvinotevera kushandisa Arduino IDE (shandura uye edza kuyedza mafambiro anoitwa):

// Definir pines conectados a las bobinas del driver
#define IN1  8
#define IN2  9
#define IN3  10
#define IN4  11

// Secuencia de pasos a par máximo del motor. Realmente es una matriz que representa la tabla del unipolar que he mostrado antes
int paso [4][4] =
{
  {1, 1, 0, 0},
  {0, 1, 1, 0},
  {0, 0, 1, 1},
  {1, 0, 0, 1}
};

void setup()
{
  // Todos los pines se configuran como salida, ya que el motor no enviará señal a Arduino
  pinMode(IN1, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(IN2, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(IN3, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(IN4, OUTPUT);
}

// Bucle para hacerlo girar
void loop()
{ 
    for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
    {
      digitalWrite(IN1, paso[i][0]);
      digitalWrite(IN2, paso[i][1]);
      digitalWrite(IN3, paso[i][2]);
      digitalWrite(IN4, paso[i][3]);
      delay(10);
    }
}


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