Mhando dzese dze CNC michina zvinoenderana nekushandiswa uye maitiro

mhando dze cnc michina

Zvinyorwa zvenguva yemberi zvichatsanangura mhando dze cnc michina izvo zviripo zvinoenderana nebasa razvo, senge lathes, milling muchina, router kana kucheka, kunyora, kuchera, nezvimwe. Zvisinei, munyaya ino tichaisa pfungwa pakuziva mhando maererano nezvinhu zvavanogona kushanda nazvo, uyewo maererano nerusununguko rwekufamba rwavanarwo, kureva, maererano nematemo. Izvi zvakakosha kuti uzive mashandisirwo uye mikana iyo mamwe ese emhando dzemichina achapa zvinoenderana nebasa rawo.

Mhando dze CNC michina

mhando dze CNC michina

Sezvandambotaura, zvikwata izvi zvinogona kuiswa zvichienderana nezvakawanda zvinhu. Tichasiya kuongororwa kwemhando maererano nemabasa avo ezvinyorwa zvenguva yemberi, sezvo pachange paine chinyorwa chakanyanya kutsaurirwa kune imwe neimwe mhando zvakadzama. Pano tiri kutarisa nzira mbiri dzekugadzirisa mhando dze CNC michina iyo yakajairika kune ese marudzi zvinoenderana nebasa rawo.

Zvinoenderana nezvinhu

Zvinoenderana nezvinhu iyo CNC muchina unogona kushandisa inogona kuiswa mumapoka akati wandei. Asi zvinofanirwa kucherechedzwa kuti mashandiro emagetsi esimbi anogona kunge akasiyana zvakanyanya, uye haasi ese anobvumira marudzi ese ekugadzira kana nenzira imwecheteyo.

Rangarira izvozvo mechanical properties yechinhu chinogona kuva: elasticity, plasticity, malleability, ductility, kuoma, kuoma uye brittleness. Chishandiso chinoshandiswa, mutengo uye nguva yekugadzira zvinoenderana navo. Zvakare, vanhu vazhinji vanovhiringa kuoma uye fragility nezvinhu zvinopesana uye hazvisi zvechokwadi. Chinhu chinogona kunge chakaoma uye chakaoma zvakanyanya panguva imwe chete. Semuyenzaniso, girazi rakaomarara sezvo risiri nyore kukwenya sezvingave huni, zvisinei huni hahuna brittle pane girazi sezvo uchigona kuidonhedza uye haizotsemuke kuita zvidimbu asi girazi richaita.

CNC muchina wesimbi

La cnc muchina wesimbi Ndiyo iyo iyo maturusi anogona kushanda nemhando iyi yezvinhu uye alloys avo. Kuwanda kwezvinhu zvesimbi zvinogona kushandiswa nemuchina zvinoenderana nemuenzaniso uye maturusi aunokwanisa kubata. Asi kazhinji zvinhu zvinonyanya kushandiswa kugadzira marudzi ese ezvikamu nekuda kwemakanika maitiro. Simbi uye masimbi alloys akakodzera CNC machining anofanirwa kuve neakananga macheni zvinhu zvinosanganisira simba, kuchinjika, kuoma, nezvimwe.

Pindai simbi dzinonyanya kufarirwa nezve CNC inomira pachena:

  • Aluminium: isimbi inobatsira kwazvo yeCNC machining. Iyo yakareruka, iri nyore kumichina, yakasimba, uye inogona kushandiswa mumhando dzakasiyana siyana dzekushandisa, kubva kumahwindo, magonhi, zvimiro zvemotokari, masingi ekupisa, nezvimwe. Pakati peanonyanya kushandiswa marudzi ealuminium ndeaya:
    • Aluminium 6061: kupikisa kwakanaka kumamiriro ekunze, kunyange zvazvo kwete zvakanyanya kumakemikari nemvura yemunyu. Inoshandiswa zvakanyanya pakuvhara, magonhi, windows, nezvimwe.
    • Aluminium 7075: yakanyanyisa ductile, inopikisa, uye inopesana nekuneta, ndicho chikonzero inowanzoshandiswa kumotokari uye indasitiri yezvemhepo, kunyange zvazvo yakanyanya kuoma kumuchina (hazvisi nyore kugadzira zvikamu zvakaoma zvakadaro).
  • Simbi isina ngura: haisi nyore kuita muchina, asi inosanganisa hunhu hunoshamisa senge mutengo wayo wakaderera, kuramba kwayo, uye kusakwana kwayo kwekushandisa. Zvechokwadi takakomberedzwa nezvidimbu zvesimbi kana tikatarisa zvakatipoteredza. MuCNC, marudzi anonyanya kuzivikanwa ndeaya:
    • 304: yakajairika, uye inogona kushandiswa mumashandisirwo akawanda emumba, kubva pakuvhara uye zvimiro zvemidziyo yemagetsi, kumidziyo yemukicheni, kuburikidza nemapombi, nezvimwe. Iyo ine yakanaka weldability uye formability.
    • 303: Nekuda kwehunhu hwayo hwekupokana nekuora, kuoma uye kusimba, iyi simbi yakashongedzwa nesarufa inoshandiswa kugadzira maekisi, magiya, midziyo yemotokari yemarudzi ese, nezvimwe.
    • 316: Isimbi yakasimba zvinoshamisa uye isingaite ngura, saka inobatsira kune mamwe maimplants ekurapa, kune indasitiri yemuchadenga, nezvimwe.
  • Simbi: Iyi iron-carbon alloy yakachipa zvakanyanya, kutonyanya kupfuura simbi isina tsvina. Iyo haipe iyo yakafanana corrosion resistance, asi ine zvinhu zvakafanana mune mamwe maitiro. Pakati peanonyanya kushandiswa marudzi eCNC machining ndeaya:
    • 4140 simbi: simbi ine yakaderera kabhoni yemukati, asi yakasanganiswa nemanganese, chromium uye molybdenum. Iyo inomira kunze kwekupokana kwayo kwepamusoro kuneta, kuomarara, uye kuramba kukanganiswa. Nechikonzero ichi, inokwezva zvakanyanya kune akawanda maindasitiri ekushandisa, senge chikamu chekuvaka.
  • titanium: isimbi inodhura zvikuru, asi ine zvinhu zvakanakisa, zvakadai sekuderera kwayo kwekushisa kwekushisa, kupikisa kwayo kwepamusoro, uye kureruka kwayo, kunyange zvazvo isingabvumiri machining nyore nyore seaya apfuura. Semuyenzaniso:
    • Ti6AI4V Grade 5: Iyi alloy ine yakanakisa simba-ku-huremu reshiyo, kumira kwakanaka kumakemikari uye tembiricha. Ndokusaka ichishandiswa kune maapplication akafumurwa kune akanyanya mamiriro, ekurapa anodyara, mune yeaerospace chikamu, uye mune yepamusoro-yekupedzisira kana motorsport mota.
  • Brass: Iyi mhangura uye zinc alloy inobvumira kuti nyore machining, kunyangwe isiri imwe yemasimbi akachipa. Iine kuomarara kwepakati uye kusimba kwakanyanya, ichiita kuti ive yakanaka kune magetsi, ekurapa, uye emotokari maapplication.
  • Copper: isimbi inobvumira kugadzira kwakanakisa, asi ine mutengo wakakwira. Zvimiro zvayo zvinoita kuti inakidze kune emagetsi, emagetsi uye anopisa maindasitiri, sezvo iri hombe magetsi uye anopisa conductor. Semuyenzaniso, mativi emagetsi emagetsi kana masingi ekupisa anogona kugadzirwa, sezvaiitwa nealuminium.
  • Magnesio: Ndiyo imwe yesimbi iri nyore kuita muchina nekuda kweiyo michina zvinhu. Iyo zvakare ine yakakwira yekupisa conductivity, uye haina huremu (35% yakareruka kupfuura aluminium), ichiita kuti ive yakanaka kune mota uye aerospace zvikamu. Dambudziko guru nderokuti isimbi inopisa, saka guruva, machipisi, nezvimwewo, zvinogona kubatidza uye kukonzera moto. Magnesium inogona kupiswa pasi pemvura, CO2 uye nitrogen. Muenzaniso unoshandiswa kuCNC ndewekuti:
    • AZ31: yakanakira machining uye aerospace giredhi.
  • vamwe: Ehe, kune mamwe akawanda masimbi akachena uye alloys anogona kuve CNC muchina, kunyangwe aya ari anonyanya kufarirwa.

Munguva yeCAD dhizaini yezvikamu zvesimbi izvi, hunhu hwesimbi idzi hunofanirwa kuverengerwa. Pamusoro pezvo, michina yeCNC yekuvashanda inofanirwa kunge iine maturusi akakodzera uye simba rinodiwa kuita kudaro. Ukuwo, kana machining simbi kubudikidza CNC zvimwe zvinhu zvinofanira kufungwa nezvazvo: chinangwa chekushandisa / chinodiwa zvivakwa uye mutengo wakazara (mutengo wezvinhu + mutengo wekugadzira). Nekune rimwe divi, chinangwa chemichina yakawanda yeCNC kugadzira huwandu hwezvikamu nemutengo wakaderera unobvira uye munguva pfupi inobvira. Iyo iri nyore iyo simbi ndeye muchina, iyo shoma nguva uye mutengo wauchatora, kunyangwe izvi zvinoenderanawo nekuoma kwechikamu.

Pakupedzisira, ndinoda kusimbisa kuti zvakakoshawo kupedza uye post-processing iyo inogona kupihwa kune simbi mushure meCNC machining. Semuyenzaniso, zvimwe zvikamu zvinoda kukwenenzverwa kubvisa mavanga anogadzirwa neCNC maturusi, kubvisa maburrs mushure mekucheka, kurapwa kwepamusoro (galvanized, painted,...) kudzivirira ngura kana nekuda kwezvikonzero zvekunaka, nezvimwe.

CNC muchina wehuni

Iko kune huni dzakawanda inowanikwa mumusika, kusanganisira particle board, MDF, plywood, nezvimwe. Huni, kazhinji, inobvumira kugadzira nyore nyore, saka inoshandiswa zvakanyanya pakugaya, kucheka uye kutendeuka. Mukuwedzera, iyo inenge yakachipa zvinhu, uye yakawanda. Kune rimwe divi, inowanzova imwe yeanonyanya kushandiswa zvinhu zvakare zvemumba CNC michina inoshandiswa nevamwe vanogadzira uye DIY vanofarira.

Vamwe mienzaniso yehuni kushanda neCNC ndezvi:

  • matanda akaoma: anowanzo matanda ekunze ane kusimba kukuru uye kunaka. Iwo anodhura, asi zviyo zvawo zvakasimba zvinoita kuti zvirambe zvakanyanya kune akawanda maapplication. Izvi zvinoda mamwe maturusi akaomesesa uye akaomarara kuti zvishande, uye zvinogona kutora nguva yakareba. Zvisinei, zvinogona kuva nani pane zvinyoro kana zvasvika kune zvakaoma zvakavezwa kana zvimiro zvakaoma. Mimwe mienzaniso yakajairika ndeiyi:
    • Fresno: Chiedza-ruvara, huni inorema ine yakanakisa michina zvinhu senge kuoma uye kuoma. Inogona kushandiswa kune zvigaro, matafura, hockey tsvimbo, baseball bats, tennis rackets, nezvimwe.
    • they at: yakafanana neyo yapfuura maererano nekupikisa, asi inonyanya kushanduka. Naizvozvo, iwe unogona kuvaka zvidimbu zvefenicha zvine curved zvimiro pasina kutsemuka. Sezvo isina kunhuhwirira, inogona zvakare kushandiswa kune zvipunu, mahwendefa, magirazi, mapuranga ekucheka, nezvimwe. Zvechokwadi, danda iri harikurudzirwi kuveza.
    • Birch: yakaoma kwazvo, yakafanana neyeoki kana walnut. Ruvara rwayo rwakajeka, haibvi nyore nyore, ine simba rakanaka, uye inobata masiruu zvakanaka. Naizvozvo, inogona kushandiswa pakusimbisa zvimiro zvefenicha.
    • Cherry: Iine chiedza chakatsvukuruka cheruvara rwebrown, simba rakanaka, haisi nyore kuremara, iri nyore kuveza, uye yakaoma. Nokudaro, inogona kushandiswa kune zvakavezwa zvishongo, fenicha, zviridzwa zvemimhanzi, nezvimwe. Asi kungwarira kunofanirwa kutorwa paunenge uchishanda nemidziyo yakagomara, sezvo ichigona kuburitsa mavanga ekutsva nekuda kwekukweshana.
    • Olmo: Chiedza kusvika pakati nepakati dzvuku dzvuku, kuomarara kwepamusoro, uye yakakura yekucheka mapuranga, fenicha, ekushongedza mapaneru, hockey bats uye tsvimbo, nezvimwe. Ehe, inogona kukuvadzwa kana yakaderera simba yekuruka ikashandiswa kuicheka neshinda dzayo.
    • Mahogany: Inonyanya kufarirwa nekuonekwa kwayo uye kusimba, ine yakadzika tsvuku-tsvuku hue. Inopesana zvakanyanya nekukuvara kwemvura uye inokodzera kuvaka zvikepe, makapu, fenicha, zviridzwa zvemimhanzi, pasi (parquet), nezvimwe.
    • Maple: ndeimwe yakaoma uye yakasimba, uye haidi kurapwa kwakanyanya mushure mekugadzira. Yakanakira madhesiki, matafura ebasa, pasi, mapuranga ekucheka bhucha, uye zvimwe zviridzwa zvinoda kutsungirira "kurapwa kwakashata."
    • Oak: huni inopesana nekuputsika, inopesana nehunyoro uye mamiriro ekunze, uye inorema, pamwe chete inonakidza kubva kune aesthetic point of view. Ndokusaka inogona kushandiswa fenicha yekunze, kuvaka ngarava, nezvimwe. Nekuda kwemaitiro ayo emuchinjiko-zviyo, iwe unozoda kuita mapasi mashoma ekucheka kwayo, uye zvirinani shandisa carbide-tipped cutters.
    • Walnut: Ihuni inodhura, ine ruvara rwebrown yakasimba. Asi inodzivirira kuvhunduka, yakaoma, haitsva nyore nyore panguva yekugadzira, kunyange zvazvo nzira dzisina kudzika dzinofanira kuitwa kuitira kuti zvichemo zvisatyoke. Zvishandiso zvechinhu ichi zvinogona kubva mumatanda epfuti, zvivezwa uye kuveza zvekuyamura, kuburikidza nembiya dzakashandurwa, fenicha uye zviridzwa zvemimhanzi.
  • Matanda akapfava: Iwo isarudzo yakanaka kune vanotanga kana mhando dze CNC michina isina kunyanyosimba. Mukuwedzera, kuva yakachipa uye nyore kuwana, inogona kukurudzirwa nokuda kwekuveza kunodhura. Ivo vanotova nechimwe chimiro chakanaka, uye ndechekuti ivo havakonzeresa kupfeka zvakanyanya pamaturusi. Zvisinei, havana zvinhu zvakafanana nevakaoma. Mimwe mienzaniso yakajairika ndeiyi:
    • Misidhari: Iine hwema hunofadza, uye nenzwi rakanaka chaizvo dzvuku-ruvara, ine mapfundo anogona kuita kuti kugaya kunetse. Iyo inopesana nemamiriro ekunze, saka iwe unozogona kugadzira fenicha yekunze, mabhoti, fenzi, matanda, nezvimwe. Haitsva nyore nyore painononoka machining kumhanya seyakaoma.
    • Cypress: ine kumira kwakanaka kwekuora, yakapfava, iri nyore kushanda nayo, kunyange ine mapfundo anogona kuita kuti zviome kushanda nemabhuroko makuru. Inogona kushandiswa kugadzira makabati, fenicha, windows, trim, uye mapanera.
    • Musipiresi: nyore kushanda huni, ine pateni inowirirana, yakapfava, uye yakasimba. Kunyangwe kusave pakati pehuni dzakaoma, inogona zvakare kushandiswa pasi.
    • Pino: Ihuni yakachipa, ine ruvara rwakacheneruka uye huremu hwakareruka. Inobata chimiro chayo zvakanaka uye hainyanyi kuderera. Zvakaoma zvakakwana kuita kuti kugadzira machining kuome. Kucheka kureba kunofanirwa kuderedzwa kudzivirira kupfava, uye kukurumidza kumhanyisa kumhanya kunofanirwa kushandiswa kudzivirira kukuvara.
    • Redwood: huni ine ruvara rutsvuku, inopesana zvikuru nekuora uye chiedza chezuva. Zviri nyore kuita muchina uye mhedzisiro yacho yakanyanya kutsetseka. Inogona kuva sarudzo yakanaka yekuveza, kugadzira zvinhu zvakaoma kunzwisisa, kana zvinhu zvinenge zviri kunze. Ehe, maturusi akapinza kwazvo anofanirwa kushandiswa kudzivirira kucheka nekubvarura.
    • Musipiresi: Ndiyo imwe yeakaomesesa mukati mechikamu chesoftwoods. Chine chiedza, asi chinokwanisa kuora. Zviri nyore kushanda nazvo, uye zvinokwanisika. Inogona kunge yakanaka semapanera, zviridzwa zvemimhanzi, fenicha, nezvimwe.
    • WDC: Iyi acronym inoreva yepakati-density fiberboard, mhando yehuni yakagadzirwa (yakagadzirwa nevanhu) inoshandiswa fenicha, magonhi, nezvimwe. Yakachipa zvikuru sezvo ichigadzirwa nemarara ematanda akaoma uye akapfava akasanganiswa nenamo nemarezeni. Iyo yakaoma kupfuura plywood uye inoshanda nyore nyore, isina kutsemuka kana kutsemuka nyore (yekudya uye kumhanya kwespindle kunofanirwa kunge kwakakwana, sezvo ichipisa nekukurumidza uye inogona kupisa), uye ichava nekupera kwakanaka. Nekudaro, inogona kuve nekupikisa zvirinani mune imwe nzira pane imwe, chimwe chinhu chisina kunaka kune zvikamu zvinofanirwa kuve zvakasimba kana kune zvimiro. Imwe tsanangudzo yakakosha ndeyekushongedza, sezvo isingapi zviyo zvehuni hwepanyama, saka inoda kupenda, kana kushandiswa kwemashizha ekushongedza. Sekuchengetedza, taura kuti zvimedu zvakanaka zvinoputirwa panguva yemaitiro neMDF zvinokuvadza kune hutano, sezvo haisi huni chete. Pfeka mask.
    • plywood: Inogadzirwa nematanda akawanda matete anonamirwa pamwechete. Inorema zvishoma pane mamwe matanda akasimba, uye inogona kunge yakakodzera kusungirira makabati, uye zvimwe zvinodhura, zvinhu zvakaderera. Iwe unofanirwa kutora matanho ekuzvidzivirira paunenge uchiishandisa nemhando ipi neipi yeCNC michina, sezvo ichiita chip

Unofanirawo funga zvimwe zvinhu zvakakosha pakusarudza huni hwakakodzera purojekiti yako:

  • Saizi yezviyo: zviyo zvakatsetseka ndezvematanda manyoro, zviyo zvakakora kune matanda akaomarara. Iyo yakatsetseka-yakatsetseka iri nyore kukuya, asi yakakasha-iyo inopa kutsetseka kukuru uye kupera kuri nani.
  • mwando: Inokanganisa kushanduka uye kusimba kwehuni, pamwe nekupedzisa panguva yekuveza uye mazinga ekudya iwe unogona kuwana. Yakanakira kuveza huni pakati pe6-8% humidity. Humidity ichaonawo tembiricha yechishandiso panguva yekuitwa, uye kune yega yega humidity ye1% inokwira, tembiricha ichawedzera ne21ºC. Zvakare, hunyoro hushoma hunogona kukonzera kuti pasi kubvaruke zvakanyanya uye hunyoro hwakawandisa hunogona kukonzera mamwe mafuzzy nzvimbo.
  • Mafundo: idzi inzvimbo iyo matavi anobatana ne trunk, uye inowanzove ine fiber mumativi akasiyana uye yakaoma uye yakasviba. Paunenge uchishanda nemuchina weCNC, kungoerekana kushanduka mukuoma kunogona kukonzera kuvhunduka, saka unofanirwa kushandisa maparamita akakodzera kana kushandisa nzira dzinodzivirira mapfundo aya.
  • advance rate: ndiyo feedrate apo chishandiso chinopfuura pamusoro pechikamu chepamusoro. Kana yakanyanya kuderera inogona kukonzera kupisa pamusoro pehuni, uye kana yakakwirira kwazvo inogona kukonzera kuputika. Mazhinji emuchina modhi anowanzo aine akasiyana marongero ekushanda neakawanda zvinhu, mamwe anozoda kuti iwe uzvigadzirise nemaoko.
  • ToolsOngorora: Pamusoro pekusarudza michina yeCNC ine maspindle akaverengerwa kanenge 1 kusvika 1.5 hp (0.75 kusvika 1.11 kW) kuti uwane kumhanyisa kwakaringana kwehuni, chishandiso chinoshandiswa (uye kutsiva kana chakasakara kana kugomara) chakakoshawo:
    • achisimuka akacheka: Vanobvisa machipisi munzira inokwira kumusoro, uye vanogona kubvarura mupendero wepamusoro weworkpiece.
    • kucheka pasi: Vanosundira huni hwakachekwa pasi, vachipa mupendero wakatsetseka, asi unogona kukonzera kubvaruka pamucheto wepasi.
    • yakatemwa yakatemwa: Havasi pakona kune yekucheka pamusoro, saka vanopa chiyero pakati pezviviri zvakapfuura. Pane zvinopesana, vane kuti kukurumidza kwekubviswa kwezvinhu hakusi kukurumidza uye vanowanzopisa kupisa.
    • Kudzvinyirira: Imhando yechishandiso chine hurefu hwemamirimita mashoma uye inogona kuwana kucheka kumusoro kana pasi nekudzora kudzika kwekucheka. Izvi zvinobvumira kutsetseka kwepamusoro uye kumucheto kumucheto.

Zvimwe zvinhu

Ehe, kune CNC michina inogona kushanda nezvinhu zvakawanda nekuchinjanisa maturusi. Uyewo mamwe marudzi CNC michina kubva kupfuura huni nesimbi. Mimwe mimwe mienzaniso yezvinhu zvakakodzera CNC ndeiyi:

  • Zvinhu zvenaironi: A low-friction thermoplastic polymer inogona kushandiswa seimwe nzira kune simbi mune dzimwe nguva. Iyo yakaoma, yakasimba, inokanganisa inodzivirira zvinhu ine yakanaka makemikari kuramba uye zvinoshamisa elastic. Inogona kushandiswa kumatangi, zvikamu zvemagetsi, magiya, nezvimwe.
  • furo: chinhu chinogona kuve nekuoma kwakasiyana hunhu uye chakareruka uye chakasimba.
  • mamwe mapurasitiki: zvakadai sePOM, PMMA, acrylic, ABS, polycarbonate kana PC, uye polypropylene kana PP, polyurethane, PVC, rabha, vinyl, rabha ...
  • ceramics uye girazi: alumina, SiO2, girazi rakadzikama, ivhu, feldspar, porcelain, matombo ematombo, nezvimwe.
  • Fibers: fiberglass, kabhoni faibha…
  • zvinhu zvakawanda: ACM kana sandwich panels.
  • Mapepa uye mapepa
  • marble, granite, dombo, silicon...
  • Leather nemamwe machira

Maererano nematemo avo

Idzo mhando dzeCNC michina zvinoenderana nematemo avo anozotarisa huwandu hwemadhigirii e rusununguko rwekufamba uye kuoma kwezvidimbu izvo zvinogona kushanda Zvinonyanya kuzivikanwa ndezvi:

3-axis CNC muchina

xyz

Machining 3 axis, kana 3-axis CNC michina, inobvumira chishandiso chebasa kushanda mumativi matatu kana nzira dzinodanwa. X, Y uye Z. Aya marudzi emichina anowanzo shandiswa kugadzira 2D, 2.5D, uye 3D geometry. Mazhinji emichina yakachipa yeCNC inowanzo kuve neiyi axis configuration, uye zvakare akawanda maindasitiri, sezvo iri imwe yeakajairika magadzirirwo.

  • X uye Y axis: matemo maviri aya achashanda chikamu chakachinjika.
  • Z akabatana: Inobvumira chishandiso chakatwasuka madhigirii erusununguko.

3-axis CNC machining yaive shanduko kubva kutenderera kutenderera. The chikamu chichava nechinzvimbo chakamira apo mudziyo wekucheka unofamba uchitevedza matemo matatu aya. Yakanakira zvikamu zvisina ruzivo rwakaoma kana kudzika.

4-axis CNC muchina

cnc michina 4 axis iwo akafanana neaya apfuura, asi imwe axis yakawedzerwa inowedzerwa kutenderera kwechidimbu. Axis yechina inonzi axis A uye inotenderera nepo muchina usiri kushanda izvo. Kana chikamu chacho chiri panzvimbo chaiyo, bhureki rinoiswa kune iyo axis uye ma XYZ axes anoramba achigadzira chikamu. Kune mimwe michina inobvumira XYZA kutamiswa panguva imwe chete, uye inozivikanwa sekuenderera mberi machining CNC michina.

Idzi mhando dze CNC michina inogona kugadzira yakakura dhigirii yeruzivo kupfuura yapfuura, uye inogona kukodzera zvikamu zvine cavities, arches, silinda, nezvimwe.. Aya marudzi emakina anowanzo ane matambudziko maviri, sekupfekwa kwegiya rehonye kana ikashandiswa zvakanyanya, uye panogona kunge paine kutamba mugomba kunogona kukanganisa iko kana kuvimbika kwemuchina nekuda kwekudengenyeka.

5-axis CNC muchina

5 axis cnc

cnc muchina 5 axis yakavakirwa pachishandiswa chine 5 madhigirii erusununguko kana nzira dzakasiyana. Mukuwedzera kune X, Y, uye Z, unofanira kuwedzera kutenderera neA axis semuakisi mana, uye imwezve axis inonzi B axis. kushanda, pasina chikonzero chekuisazve chikamu pakati pekushanda. The a uye b akisi ivo vanozoitirwa kuunza workpiece padhuze nechombo chinozofamba muXYZ.

Aya marudzi emichina akaunzwa muzana remakore rechiXNUMX, achibvumira dhigirii repamusoro rekuomarara uye kurongeka kwepamusoro. Ivo vanowanzo shandiswa zvakanyanya mukurapa zvikumbiro, kutsvagisa nekusimudzira, zvivakwa, indasitiri yemauto, muchikamu chemotokari, nezvimwe. Chinhu chikuru chinodzosera kumashure ndechekuti dhizaini yeCAD/CAM inogona kunetsa, uyezve kazhinji inodhura michina uye inoda vane hunyanzvi hwekuita.

Vamwe (kusvika gumi nemaviri axes)

12 axis CNC, marudzi eCNC michina

Kunobva: www.engineering.com

Pamusoro pe3, 4 uye 5 axis, kune mhando dzeCNC michina ine mamwe mademo, kutosvika ku12. Iyi ndiyo michina yepamusoro uye inodhura, kunyange zvazvo isina kufanana. Mimwe mienzaniso ndeiyi:

  • 7 axis: Inokutendera iwe kuti ugadzire yakareba, yakatetepa zvikamu zvine zvakawanda zvakadzama. Mumhando idzi dzemichina yeCNC tine mbezo yekuruboshwe-kuruboshwe, kumusoro-pasi, kumashure-kumberi kufamba, kutenderera kwechishandiso, kutenderera kwechishandiso, kutenderedza musoro kwechishandiso, uye kufamba kwechivharo chebasa.
  • 9 axis: Mhando iyi inosanganisa lathe ine 5-axis machining. Mhedzisiro yacho ndeyekuti iwe unogona kutendeuka nekugaya pamwe nendege dzakawanda neseti imwe chete, uye nekunyatsojeka. Mukuwedzera, haidi zvishongedzo zvechipiri kana kurodha nemaoko.
  • 12 axis: vane misoro miviri yeVMC neHMC, mumwe nomumwe wavo achibvumira kufamba mumatemo X, Y, Z, A, B uye C. Aya marudzi emichina anopa budiriro yakavandudzwa uye nemazvo.

Zvichienderana nechishandiso

Zvichienderana nechishandiso iyo inokwidza CNC muchina, tinogona kusiyanisa pakati:

  • mudziyo chete: ndeaya anongoisa turusi rimwe chete, ingave chidimbu chekuchera, chinocheka chigayo, blade, nezvimwe. Mimwe yemichina iyi inogona kungoita rudzi rumwe chete rwebasa, uye haigone kuchinjirwa chishandiso kune imwe. Vamwe zvinogoneka kushandura chishandiso, asi chinofanira kuitwa nemaoko.
  • otomatiki multitool: vane musoro une maturusi akati wandei, uye ivo pachavo vanogona kushandura kubva kune imwe kuenda kune imwe otomatiki sezvinodiwa.

Chii chinonzi CNC router kana CNC router

cnc router

Un router kana cnc router inoshandisa musoro wemudziyo wakafanana neCNC milling machine. Zvisinei, vane zvimwe zvakasiyana kubva kune izvi. Izvi dzimwe nguva zvinounza nyonganiso huru, uye vazhinji vanovavhiringa nemichina yekucheka yeCNC ivo pachavo, kana kushandisa izwi iri serinofananidzira CNC milling.

Kusiyana nemamwe CNC michina

A CNC router inoshanda zvakachengeteka zvakanyanya.zvakafanana nemuchina weCNC senge lathe kana muchina wekugaya. Routers anoshandiswa zvakanyanya pakugadzira magonhi muindasitiri yehuni, pakati pevamwe. Vanogona kuita zvinhu zvakawanda, kubva pakuveza kwegonhi, kushongedzwa kwemapuranga, zvinyorwa zvakadai sezviratidzo, moldings, cabinetry, nezvimwe. Mimwe yemisiyano inonyanya kuzivikanwa nemichina yekugaya ndeiyi:

  • Router yakanakira kugadzira maprofile uye mashiti nekumhanya kwakanyanya. Uyu mumwe mutsauko wakakosha, sezvo CNC milling michina haina kugadzirwa kuti ishande nekukurumidza.
  • Kazhinji, CNC milling michina inoshandiswa kukuya/kucheka zvinhu zvakaomarara (titanium, simbi,…), uye CNC routers zvezvinhu zvakapfava (huni, furo, plastiki,…).
  • CNC routers kazhinji haanyanyi kujeka pane CNC milling michina, asi ichakubvumidza iwe kugadzira zvimwe zvikamu munguva shoma.
  • A CNC routing muchina wakachipa zvakanyanya pane muchina wekugaya. Mimwe michina yekufambisa yemhando yepamusoro inogona kuita mari inosvika zviuru zviviri zvemadhora, ukuwo CNC muchina wekugaya wemhando imwe chete ungangoita zviuru gumi zvemaeuro.
  • CNC routers inowanzoshandiswa kugadzira uye kucheka zvikamu zvakakura (magonhi, mahwendefa, ...).
  • Kana iri mutsauko pakati peCNC router yekucheka, uye kucheka neimwe mhando yeCNC yekucheka muchina, pane chokwadi chekuti router inoshandisa kutenderera kumhanya kwechombo chayo kugadzira kucheka.
  • Rimwe dambudziko nerouter yekucheka nderekuti inoparadza nzvimbo yakawanda kupfuura mamwe marudzi ekucheka, sezvo dhayamita yese ye drill bit kana milling cutter icharasika.
  • A CNC router inoita kuti zvive nyore kucheka mu 3D.

Kune rumwe rutivi, inewo zvimwe zvakafanana, semakucheka ekucheka anoshandiswa sezvishandiso, izvo zvinogonawo kuwanikwa nematemo akati wandei, kune akasiyana zvinhu (mafuro, huni, plastiki,...), nezvimwe.

Mhando dzezvishandiso zve CNC michina

CNC zvishandiso

Kunobva: Fictive

Kune zvakare marudzi akasiyana ezvishandiso zveCNC iyo inogona kuiswa pamisoro yebasa. Mhando yekugadzira iyo CNC muchina inogona kuita inotsamira pavari, pamwe nekudzika, radius yechiito, kumhanya kwekushanda, nezvimwe. Zvimwe zvezvinonyanya kukosha ndezvi:

  • Chiso kana goko sitirobheri: Yakajairika, uye yakanakira kubvisa zvinhu munzvimbo yakakura. Semuenzaniso, yekutanga roughing yechikamu.

flat end mill

  • flat end mill: chimwe chigadziro chechimiro chinogona kuonekwa muhukuru hwakasiyana (mamita), uye inogona kushandiswa kushanda kumativi uye pamusoro pechidimbu, pamwe nekucheka. Inogonawo kushandiswa kuchera makomba.

round end mill

  • Round end mill: ndiyo imwe mhando yekucheka ine chidimbu chakakomberedzwa, chakafanana nechapfuura, asi chine zvishoma, kune mamwe marudzi ezvinyorwa.

round bur

  • bhora bur: Yakatenderera zvachose pamuromo, yakafanana neyokupedzisira, asi ine chimiro chakakwana. Yakanakira 3D contoured surfaces, uye haizosiyi makona akapinza semakona emativi.

drill

  • Drill: Iwo akafanana nemadhiri, chishandiso chekuchera, kugadzira makomba akatemerwa, kugadzirisa chaiko, nezvimwe. Aya mabhurashi anogona kuve emhando dzakasiyana siyana.

murume neshinda

  • Vanhurume: kana iwe uchiziva zvinofa, kugadzira shinda kunze kwechidimbu, varume vanoita zvimwe chete asi mukati. Ndokunge, nepo inofa ichigona kushandiswa kugadzira screw, matepi anogona kugadzira nzungu.

chamfer milling cutter

  • chamfer milling cutter: yakafanana neyekucheka kwechiso, asi kazhinji ipfupi uye yakatipinza zvishoma (vane angled tip, zvichienderana neinoda chamfer, 30º, 45º, 60º, nezvimwewo). Iyi mhando yekucheka milling inoshandiswa kugadzira chamfers mumakona. Inogona zvakare kushandiswa kumichina countersinks.

toothed cutter

  • serrated blade: imhando yekucheka mumhando yekucheka disk inogona kushandiswa kugadzira undercuts kana grooves, kunyange T-shaped notches ichipfuura nepakati.

Sierra

  • Longitudinal saw: Yakafanana neyo yapfuura, asi ine mutsauko, uye ndiko kuti dhisiki inowanzoita mutete kutema grooves yakadzika kana kupatsanura zvidimbu. Ivowo kazhinji vane dhayamita yakakura.

reamer

  • Reamer: imhando yemudziyo unoshandiswa kukudza maburi aripo kuti ape dhayamita chairo. Mukuwedzera, vanosiya kupera kwakanaka, uye vane kushivirira kuri nani pane zvibooreso.

fly cutter

  • fly cutter: Imhando yekucheka milling inongove nebadza rekucheka rakaiswa pabhawa. Iyo bar inogona kutamiswa kugadzira yakakura kana diki yekucheka dhayamita.

radius cutter

  • External radius cutter: chimwe chishandiso chakakosha chekuwedzera radius pamupendero wekunze.

engraving tool

  • engraving tool: Iwo anoshandiswa kunyora mifananidzo, zvinyorwa kana zvinyorwa pamusoro pechikamu.

  • countersink tool: inoshandiswa pakunyura kana kunyura.

dovetail

  • dovetail cutter: chishandiso chine chimiro chakati chakakosha uye chinogona kugadzira undercut muchinhu.

CNC control parameters

cnc lathe

Pakupedzisira, zvakakoshawo cziva machining parameters izvo zvinokanganisa kutonga kweiyi CNC michina. Kana iwe uchida kuita masvomhu, iwe unofanirwa kuziva kuti kune zvakawanda zviwanikwa zvinogona kukubatsira, kubva kune maapplication enharembozha, kune software yePC, kuburikidza nemamwe macalculator epamhepo. Mimwe mienzaniso yaunogona kushandisa kumisikidzwa yakakodzera yeCNC yako maturusi ndeiyi:

Zvakakosha machining parameters

Kana zvakadaro maparameter aunofanirwa kuziva kana kudzora CNC muchina vari:

Parameter Tsanangudzo Units
n Nhamba yekuchinja, ndiko kuti, kutendeuka paminiti panguva yekugadzira machining. Mumichina yehunyanzvi kazhinji iri pakati pe6000 ne24000 RPM. Inoverengerwa neformula:

n = (Vc 1000) / (π D)

RPM
D Kucheka dhayamita, ndiko kuti, iyo yakakura dhayamita yechishandiso chiri kusangana nechikamu panguva yekucheka. mm
Vc Cutting speed. Ndiyo kumhanya uko muchina (lathe, drill, milling...) inocheka chip panguva yekugadzira (yakakwirira D, chikuru Vc) Inoverengerwa uchishandisa formula:

vc = (π D n) / 1000

Iyo yakanyanya kumhanya inotsanangurwa nemugadziri wemidziyo haifanirwe kudarika. Kunze kwezvo:

  • Speed ​​​​yakanyanya kukwirira:
    • Kuwedzerwa kwezvishandiso zvekushandisa
    • Hunhu husina kunaka hwekugadzira
    • Kukanganisa mune zvimwe zvinhu
  • Speed ​​​​yakanyanya kuderera:
    • Kusaita chip evacuation
    • Kupisa zvakanyanya kana kupisa kwebur
    • Kubudirira kwakaderera uye kuwedzera kwemutengo
    • Kukanganisa mune zvimwe zvinhu

Somuenzaniso, zvichienderana nezvinhu zvinogona kuva:

  • Aluminium: 350
  • Hardwood: 400
  • Softwood uye plywood: mazana matanhatu
  • Purasitiki: 250 - 600
m / min

(WHO)

Fz Kudyisa pazino kana Chip Load (inozivikanwawo se cl kana Chip load). Ndiko kuti, ihwo huwandu kana ukobvu hwezvinhu izvo zino rega rega, mupendero kana muromo wechishandiso chinotanga.
  • Kuti uwedzere Fz, Vc inofanira kuwedzerwa, RPM inofanira kuderedzwa kana mucheki wekugaya ane mazino mashoma anofanira kushandiswa.
  • Kuti uderedze Fz unofanirwa kuderedza Vf, kuwedzera RPM kana kushandisa mamwe mazino.

Kuti uverenge Fz, unogona kushandisa fomula:

Fz = Vf / (z n)

Uye kana iwe uchida kuverenga iyo feed per revolution:

F = Fz z

mm
Vf Forward speed. Ndihwo hurefu hunofambwa nechishandiso pachikamu pachikamu chenguva. Formula ndeiyi:

Vf = F n

Feedrate inofanira kudzorwa kune:

  • Kunyanya kumhanya:
    • Zvirinani chip control
    • Nguva yekucheka diki
    • Kupfeka kushoma kwemidziyo
    • Kuwedzera njodzi yekuputsika kwechishandiso
    • Rougher machined surface
  • Speed ​​​​yakanyanya kunonoka:
    • machipisi ekare
    • Zvirinani machining pamusoro pemhando
    • Yakareba machining nguva uye mutengo wakakwira
    • Kuwedzerwa kwezvishandiso zvekushandisa
mm / min

(om/miniti)

Z Nhamba yemazino emucheki kana mudziyo. -
ap
Kudzika kwekucheka, kudzika kweaxial, kana kudzika kwepasi (kunogonawo kuoneka sewc). Inoreva kudzika kunowanikwa nechombo nekupfuura kwega kwega. Kudzika kusina kudzika kunomanikidza mamwe anopfuura.

Izvo zvinoenderana nehupamhi hwepamusoro hwekucheka (LC kana I), iyo dhayamita yekucheka (S kana D). Uye inogona kudzorwa, semuenzaniso, kuwedzera kaviri kudzika kwekucheka unofanirwa kudzikisa chip mutoro ne25%.

mm
ae Upamhi hwekuchekwa, kana kudzika kwe radial cut. Zvakafanana nepamusoro. mm

Izvi ndizvo tsika iyo iwe yaunogona kuwana kubva kuCNC muchina wekugadzira manyorero, software, kana Calculator, kuti ugadzirise iyo paramita yerudzi rwemachining (maererano nemiganhu yemuenzaniso uye hunyanzvi hunhu), zvinhu zvechishandiso pachacho (vanogona kutyora. , bend , overheating,... kana zvisina kukodzera), uye zvinhu zvinoshandiswa (zvinogona kuunza machining asina kunaka, kukanganisa muchikamu, ...). Uye ese aya ma paramita anosanganisirwa muG-Code, senge S mirairo yekushandura RPM, kumberi kumhanya uchishandisa G-Code F mirairo, nezvimwe.

Mugadziri ruzivo

Vagadziri vemichina yeCNC vanopa data pamusoro pekucheka kumhanya, chip load, nezvimwewo, zvese zvinowanzo mugwaro rakauya nemuchina, mune yedhijitari vhezheni yebhuku raunogona kuwana pawebhusaiti yepamutemo yemuchina weCNC. , kana zvakare mapepa ako data. Ita shuwa kuti ndeye yako chaiyo modhi, sezvo inogona kusiyana pakati pemhando, kunyangwe ichibva kumuchina mumwe chete.

Kubva pane idzi data zvinogoneka kuverenga pamaoko, uchishandisa mafomula ari patafura iri pamusoro, kana kushandisa online calculator, apps, kana software. Kana iwe usina data yemugadziri, saka une akati wandei sarudzo:

  • Shandisa ruzivo kuti utungamirire iwe, uchigara uchitanga neakawanda anochengetedza parameter tsika kuti usamanikidza. Ndiko kuti, rudzi rwekuedza uye kukanganisa. Muchikwata chinowanzonzi nzira yekuteerera uye yekuyera, ndiko kuti, kutarisa kuti muchina uri kuita basa nemazvo maererano nekucheka nekupedza, nekugadzirisa zvigadziro kuti zvigadziriswe zvakakodzera.
  • Shandisa iro bhuku kana tafura yezvakakosha kubva kune mumwe mugadziri ane akafanana maitiro (D, nhamba yemeno, zvinhu, ...).

Mamwe mashoko


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