CNC lathe iintlobo kunye neempawu

umatshini wokuguqula i-cnc

Kukho iintlobo ezininzi zoomatshini be-CNC ngokuxhomekeke kumsebenzi wabo. Kwenye yezi ntlobo kungena icnc lathe. Oomatshini abaphambili kakhulu kunye nabachanekileyo kuneeleyile eziqhelekileyo, apho isiqwenga sajika sajika kwaye umsebenzisi wayephethe izixhobo ezahlukeneyo zokukrola okanye ukwenza umzobo oyimfuneko kwisiqwenga. Ngoku wonke lo msebenzi ulawulwa ngendlela eneenkcukacha kakhulu ngekhompyuter, evumela zonke iindawo ukuba zifane kwimveliso yobuninzi, ukuphucula imveliso, kunye nokuvumela umsebenzi onzima ngakumbi ukuba wenziwe.

Kweli nqaku uya kufunda konke malunga ne-cnc lathes, kunye nokufikelela kwisikhokelo sokwazi ukuba yeyiphi imodeli yokukhetha kunye noluhlu lweemodeli ezicetyiswayo ukwenzela ukuba uthenge kakuhle ukuyisebenzisa kwiiprojekthi zakho ze-DIY okanye ukusetyenziswa kobuchule.

Iimodeli ezilungileyo zeCNC lathes

Ukuba ujonge oomatshini abalungileyo, nazi ezinye cnc lathe iingcebiso onokuthi uzithengele ukusetyenziswa kobuchwephesha okanye ezinye ezinexabiso eliphantsi kusetyenziso lwabucala ukuba ungumntu othanda i-DIY:

Kukho ezinye iimpawu ezilungileyo zeCNC lathes, ezifana neSherline, TAIG, Proxxon, Grizzly Industrial, Haas, Z Zelus, Shop Fox, Baileigh, Genos, Hardinge, Tormach, Okuma, Doosan, Mazak, DMG Mori, njl. Nangona kunjalo, ezi mpawu zokusetyenziswa kwimizi-mveliso okanye kubuchwephesha azidli ngokuthengiswa kumaqonga e-intanethi. Ngesi sizathu sikhethe ezinye iindlela ezizezinye ezithengiswayo kwi-intanethi.
Ukuba ujonge into elungileyo, enexabiso eliphantsi, kunye nobukhulu obuncinci bokusetyenziswa ngasese okanye kwikhaya lakho, unokubona iimodeli zeSherline, ezinazo nesoftware ehambelana no-Ubuntu Linux. I-Proxxon, iZ Zelus, i-Shop Fox, kunye ne-TAIG nazo zineemodeli ezincinci. Kwelinye icala, ukusetyenziswa kwiindibano zocweyo zobuchwephesha, iTormach okanye iGrizzly inokulunga ngokwexabiso lokusebenza. Kwishishini kunye nezinga elikhulu, ungaya kwiMazak, Genos, Okuma, Doosan, DMG, Haas, njl.

I-210 mini lathe

i-lathe elula

I-compact lathe, enobunzima obuyi-83 Kg, kunye neempawu ezifana ne-chuck ububanzi ukuya kwi-125 mm, i-spindle edlulayo ukusuka kwi-38 mm, isantya esiguquguqukayo phakathi kwe-50 kunye ne-2250 RPM, inkxaso yokuqinisekisa ukuba ukungcangcazela kuyancitshiswa, Umboniso we-LCD obonisa iinkcukacha zesantya, kunye nokusetyenziswa okusisiseko. Yilathe elula kakhulu yabaqalayo, kwaye ibandakanya phantse yonke into oyifunayo, njengentsimbi yentsimbi, umpu weoyile wokulungisa, ubugwenxa, kunye nezinye izincedisi.

Thenga ngoku

L-Ityuwa Multipurpose CNC Lathe

cnc lathe l-tyiwa

Le yi-lathe ye-CNC yobuchwephesha, imodeli ye-LSL1530 evela kwi-L-Salt. Ubunzima balo matshini woshishino yi-1.7 yeetoni, kwaye inemilinganiselo ebalulekileyo, ngoko kufuneka ube nendawo ebanzi yokubekwa kwayo. Ngokumalunga neenkcukacha zobuchwepheshe, inokusebenzisa iziqwenga ukuya kwi-200 mm ububanzi, ivumela ubude beqhekeza phakathi kwe-100 kunye ne-1500 mm, isebenze ngesantya sokutya ukuya kwi-40 mm / s, ngokuchaneka okuphezulu kwe-0.00125 mm, kunye ne-motor enamandla ye-5.5 I-Kw spindle, inokudibaniswa ne-220v yesigaba esisodwa okanye i-380v inethiwekhi yesigaba sesithathu, kwaye iyahambelana ne-AutoCAD, i-Type3, i-ArtCam, njl. Inokusebenza nazo zonke iintlobo zokhuni.

Thenga ngoku

GoldenCNC iG-1516

lathecnc

Enye i-lathe ye-CNC yokusetyenziswa kwimizi-mveliso ekuqhutywe ngayo iziqwenga ezinobuninzi be-1500 mm, kunye nobubanzi obufikelela kwi-160 mm ukuba ngamaqhekeza amabini ngexesha elinye okanye ukuya kuma-300 mm ukuba yinto enye. Ngenkqubo yokulawula iNkqubo ye-GXK, ibhedi eqinile, ukuchaneka okuphezulu, isantya ukuya kwi-2800 RPM, kwaye iyahambelana ne-380v uthungelwano lombane lwesigaba sesithathu.

Thenga ngoku

CNC iintlobo lathe

cnc lathe

Zininzi iintlobo ze-cnc lathe ngokwezinto eziphathekayo enokusebenza, ngokweezembe, njl. Ezinye iileyile zinokusebenza izinto ezahlukeneyo ngaphandle kokuguqulwa, ngokutshintsha isixhobo. Nangona kunjalo, ezinye zithe ngqo kuhlobo oluthile lwezinto kwaye aziyi kukwazi ukuguqula ezinye.

Izixhobo zeLathe zinokwahluka, ukusuka kubasiki bemilling ukwenza uhlobo oluthile lomzobo, ukuya kwiincakuba zokususa imathiriyeli, kunye namasuntswana okubhola kunye nokuvula iqhekeza.

Ngokwento ebhaliweyo

I-CNC lathe yentsimbi

Enye yezinto ezinokusetyenzwa ngenye yezi matshini yintsimbi. Enyanisweni, i-lathe yensimbi ye-CNC yenye yezona zixhobo zisetyenziswa kakhulu kwinqanaba lezoshishino kunye nakwiiworkshops ezininzi. Ngokuphathelele isinyithi, izinto ezifana intsimbi, i-aluminiyam, okanye ubhedu. Ezo zezona zixhaphakileyo, nangona kusenokubakho ezinye iintsimbi okanye ialloys.

Ezi ntambo zentsimbi kufuneka zibe neempawu ezimbini ezibalulekileyo. Kwelinye icala abanye herramientas nzima ngokwaneleyo ukuba ukwazi ukusebenza ezi zinto zinzima kakhulu. Ngokuxhomekeke kwiipropati zezinto eziza kusetyenzwa kuzo, ezinye izinto kufuneka zithathelwe ingqalelo:

  • Isixhobo kufuneka sibe nayo ubunzima obuyimfuneko ukusebenza ngentsimbi ekhethiweyo.
  • Ezinye iintsimbi, ezifana ne-aluminiyam, ziyafuneka Ukutya okuphezulu ngokuluma (Fz)Ke ngoko, izixhobo ezineefluti ezimbalwa kufuneka zisetyenziswe ukushiya indawo esimahla kwi-cutter ukukhupha iitshiphusi ezinkulu eziya kuveliswa.
  • Kwiimathiriyeli ezinzima kakhulu, ububanzi bokusika (Wc) ngesantya esisezantsi sinokusetyenziswa ukuya kuthi ga kwi-6-8 imilebe.
  • Hlala uhlonipha i iingcebiso zomenzi yeCNC lathe, elungelelaniswe kuhlobo lwemathiriyeli oza kuyisebenzisa.

Phakathi izinto ezisetyenziselwa izixhobo ezinokusebenza iintsimbi, ezona zixhaphakileyo zezi:

  • tungsten carbide- Zisike kakhulu, zomelele, kwaye zifanelekile kwiilathe ze-aluminium zeCNC.
  • HSS okanye isantya esiphezulu sentsimbi: Zenziwe ngezinto ezifanayo njengezixhobo eziqhelekileyo zokugaya kwaye azibizi. Zithambile kunezo zangaphambili, ngoko ke kufuneka zisetyenziselwe iintsimbi ezithambileyo okanye ialloys.
  • Idayimani (PCD): ziphakathi kwezona zinzima, zilungele ukusebenza ngezinto ezingenakusetyenzwa ngezinye izixhobo ezithambileyo.
  • Okunye: zingafumaneka nakwezinye izinyithi kunye ne-alloys, i-metal-ceramics, njl.

Kwelinye icala, enye inkcukacha ibalulekile. Ekubeni isinyithi siyinto enzima, ingxabano ngesixhobo inokuvelisa amaqondo obushushu aphezulu. Ngesi sizathu, aba matshini be-CNC bahlala benenkqubo yokupholisa amanzi okanye i-oyile ukupholisa indawo yomatshini.

Kwaye andifuni ukulibala malunga ukhuseleko. Hlala kude nomatshini ngelixa usebenza ukuphepha iingozi, ngaphandle kokuba ngumatshini ovaliweyo, oya kuthintela iingozi ukuba zenzeke. Ukongeza koko, kolu hlobo lwe-CNC yentsimbi yentsimbi, iitshiphusi ziveliswa ezinokusika kancinci. Kwaye kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo xa kususwa inxalenye okanye ukucoca chips wathi. Hlala unxibe iiglavu zokukhusela, kunye neeglasi ezikhuselayo ukuthintela ukutsiba emehlweni.

Ilathe ye-CNC yokhuni

I-CNC lathe yamaplanga inokwenza i-cylindrical okanye i-prism-shaped piece of wood ezifana iinkuni ezilukhuni, iiplywood, kunye nesoftwood. Kwaye ngaphakathi komthi onzima kunye othambileyo kunokubakho iintlobo ezininzi: i-oki, ipineyini, i-cherry, i-walnut, i-olive, njl.

Iileyile zokhuni ze-CNC zohluke kancinane kwiileyile zentsimbi ngeendlela ezithile. Kwisandle esinye, ayifuni friji ulwelo njengakuqala. Enyanisweni, ukuba isiqwenga somthi siba manzi sinokonakala, sidumbe, okanye sibe namabala. Ngoko ke, aba matshini abanaloo nkqubo. Noko ke, oku akuthethi ukuba azivelisi bushushu ngenxa yokukhuhlana. Enyanisweni, kufuneka lawula isantya kunye nenkqubela phambili kakhulu ukuze ungatshisi okanye ucande isiqwenga.

Ezinye izinto ezinokujikwa

Ilathe ye-CNC inokuphinda isebenze izinto zeplastiki, nangona ingaxhaphakanga kangako. Ngokuqhelekileyo, ezi polymers zihlala ziphathwa ngokusetyenziswa kweenkqubo ze-extrusion, ukubumba, njl. Kodwa banokusebenzisa iileyile ze-CNC ukuvelisa indawo efunekayo. Babelana ngezinto ezifanayo nezo zenziwe ngamaplanga, ekubeni iyinto ethambileyo ekulula ukusebenza ngayo, kwaye ayifuni kufakwa efrijini.

Phakathi kwezixhobo iiplastiki ezininzi eziqhelekileyo ngesiqhelo:

  • IAcetal (POM)
  • I-Akriliki (PMMA)
  • Polycarbonate (PC)
  • Ipolypropylene (PP)

Ndiqinisekile uninzi lwenu luqhelene nesihloko malunga Abashicileli be-3D, apho iimpawu zabo kunye neempawu zabo zaxoxwa.

Ngokweezembe

Ukuba ubeke ingqalelo kwinani leentsimbi ze-CNC lathe, ngoko unokwahlula phakathi koomatshini abalula, kunye ne-axes ezi-2 kuphela, okanye eziyinkimbinkimbi ezivumela iqondo elikhulu lokuhamba kwesixhobo ngokudibanisa ii-axes ezininzi. Ezona zisetyenziswa kakhulu zezi:

  • 2 i-axis: Lolona qwalaselo olusisiseko, kunye neentsimbi ezimbini ezinqamlekileyo ezikwazi ukusebenza ngaphakathi nangaphandle kwe-diameter yecandelo, oko kukuthi, i-cylindrical machining, ijongene, ukugaya kunye nokucofa kumbindi wenxalenye. Kodwa abayi kuvumela ukusila.
  • 3 i-axis: kule meko i-axis yesithathu yongezwa, ivumela ukugaya, ukudika kunye nokuthunga. Inokuba luncedo kwi-helical milling.
  • 4 i-axis: kwezi zintathu zangaphambili zongezwa enye ukuze ikwazi ukwenza imisebenzi yomatshini ongekho embindini, oko kukuthi, ukuvelisa iimilo ezingaqhelekanga nezintsonkothileyo.
  • 5 i-axis: i-turret yesibini yongezwa kwi-lathe ye-CNC, oko kukuthi, iya kuba neentsimbi ezi-2 kwi-turret nganye (phezulu nangaphantsi) kunye ne-axis eyongezelelweyo ye-rotary. Oko kuvumela izixhobo ezibini ukuba zisetyenziswe kwinxalenye ngexesha elinye, elinokwenza umatshini ngokukhawuleza.
  • Ngakumbi: Kukwakho ne-lathes ye-CNC ephucukileyo nebiza kakhulu enamazembe angaphezulu, kubandakanywa i-axes ezi-6 (i-axis e-spindle engundoqo, i-sub spindle axis, i-turret ephezulu nasezantsi ene-axes ezi-2 nganye, i-axis eyongezelelweyo kwi-turret ephezulu, kunye ne-spindle yesibini ekwazi ukuhamba. ukuya kwindawo yokusonta engundoqo ukuchola indawo). Kukho kwakhona i-8-axis, njl., kodwa ayiqhelekanga.

Iimpawu zeeleyile

umatshini we-cnc lathe

Kubalulekile ukwazi ezinye Iimpawu malunga ne-cnc lathe, zombini ukuqonda ukuphathwa kwayo, kunye nokuphatha ngokufanelekileyo isixhobo ngasinye, njl.

Inkcazo

Iileyile bezikwishishini ukusukela ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX. Nangona kunjalo, i iileyile zanamhlanje ze-CNC ziphucukile ngakumbi kwaye zizenzekela. Bangoomatshini abaqhutywa lulawulo lwamanani ekhompyuter kwaye babonelelwe ngokuchaneka okukhulu ukusebenza iziqwenga. Umahluko kunye nabanye oomatshini be-CNC kukuba, kule meko, izinto eziphathekayo ziboshwe kumatshini kwaye zijikelezwe yi-spindle engundoqo. Njengoko ijikeleza i-radially, isixhobo sokusika okanye sokugaya siya kusondela kwinxalenye yokususa izinto eziyimfuneko ukufezekisa iphethini elindelekileyo. Amalungu adla ngokusetyenzwa kusetyenziswa olu hlobo lomatshini adla ngokuba ngamazembe, iityhubhu, izikrufu, njl.

Oomatshini bokujika be-CNC banokusebenza ngeezembe ezi-2 ezona zisisiseko, ukuya kwezo zintsonkothe ​​ngakumbi ezinomlinganiselo omkhulu wenkululeko. Ngokubhekiselele kwizixhobo ezisondela kwinxalenye ngokujika, ngokuqhelekileyo ziyi-milling cutters, izixhobo ezithandekayo, izixhobo zokudibanisa, njl.

Iinxalenye ze CNC lathe

Las iindawo ezahlukeneyo ukuba inokufumaneka kwi CNC lathe zezi:

  • Ibhedi: yibhentshi, isiseko esiphambili somatshini. Amacandelo ahlukeneyo omatshini, afana ne-spindle, njl., ahlanganiswe apho. Zingenziwa ngezinto ezahlukeneyo ngokuxhomekeke kumatshini. Iimveliso ezinje ngeHwacheon zenza iibhedi zentsimbi ezikumgangatho ophezulu ezihlala ixesha elide kwaye zizinzile.
  • Izikhonkwane: iqulethe i-spindle ngokwayo, inkqubo yokuqhuba, iimoto, iigiya, i-chuck, njl. Ngomnye weendawo ezihambayo zomatshini we-CNC. Ngokuqinisekileyo, umnini wesixhobo uya kufakwa kwi-spindle yesixhobo, apho izixhobo zokutshiza zingatshintshwa.
  • UMandrel: Ulwakhiwo olufana ne-vise eya kubamba iinxalenye ukuba zitshintshwe ukuze zingahambi ngexesha lenkqubo. I-spindle ephambili iya kuguqula zombini i-apron kunye ne-workpiece. Le nxalenye inokunciphisa ukuzinza kunye nokugqiba kwenxalenye ukuba ayizinzile kakhulu, kunye nobukhulu beengxenye ezinokunyanzeliswa.
  • Isikhokelo: Yi-axis okanye isikhokelo apho isixhobo siya kuhamba kwiindlela ezivunyelweyo, ngokwenani lee-axes zomshini wokujika we-CNC.
  • Intloko: Yenziwe yimoto ephambili kunye ne-axis ephakamisa i-chuck. Ezi zinokuba zesantya esiphezulu okanye esisezantsi sokujikeleza, okubalulekileyo ukuba kuthathelwe ingqalelo ukusebenza ngokweziphi iintlobo zezinto. Ukongeza, kufuneka babe neenkqubo zokunciphisa ukungcangcazela kwimotor, zibathintele ukuba bangadluleli kwindawo kunye nokuguqula iziphumo.
  • Indawo yokulwa: Kusekupheleni kwentloko, njengenkxaso eyongezelelweyo yenxalenye. Kuyimfuneko xa usebenza iindawo ezinde, ezifana neetyhubhu, i-shafts, njl. Abanye oomatshini bavumela ukuba itailstock icwangciswe ukuze kuphuculwe ukomelela nokuchaneka koomatshini.
  • isixhobo turret: inika ithuba lokutshintsha izixhobo zomatshini. Ubungakanani bayo buya kumiselwa ngenani kunye nobukhulu bezixhobo ezinokuthi zifakwe ngumatshini.

Usetyenziso lwelathe ye-CNC

Umatshini we-lathe we-CNC unokusetyenziselwa iimilo ezingqukuva, kunye needayamitha zangaphakathi nangaphandle, kwaye unokuvelisa iipatheni zomatshini ezahlukeneyo kulo lonke inxalenye. Abanye imizekelo yokusetyenziswa Zizo:

  • Yenza imibhobho
  • yenza izikrufu
  • Iinxalenye ezijikiweyo zemihombiso
  • Izembe
  • Iindawo ezithile zonyango okanye izifakelo
  • kwizinto zombane
  • Yenza izikhongozeli okanye izitya ezingenanto

izixhobo zelathe

cnc lathe drill bit

Las Izixhobo zoomatshini be-CNC zinokuhluka kakhulu, kuthathelwa ingqalelo uhlobo lwencakuba, okanye into eyenziwe ngayo.

Ngokwento ebhaliweyo

Las herramientas ukusika umatshini we-CNC unokwenziwa ngezinto ezinje:

  • Isantya esiphezulu sentsimbi okanye iHSS: Banokusebenza kwimisebenzi yokusika ngokubanzi ukurhaxa okanye ukugqibezela.
  • Ikhabhayithi: Zilukhuni kakhulu, kwaye zingasetyenziselwa i-ferrous, i-metals non-ferrous, iiplastiki, iifibers, igraphite, iglasi, ilitye okanye i-marble, intsimbi eqhelekileyo, njl. Ziyakwazi ukumelana nobushushu, azivuthi, kwaye zomelele.
  • amante: Ezi zixhobo zinobunzima obuphezulu kakhulu kunye nokumelana nokugqoka, ngaphezu kokuba ne-coefficient ephantsi ye-friction, i-modulus ephezulu ye-elastic, i-high conductivity ye-thermal, i-coefficient ephantsi yokwandiswa kwe-thermal, kunye nokudibanisa okuphantsi kunye neensimbi ezingenayo i-ferrous. Ke ngoko, ihlala isetyenziselwa umatshini wezinto ezinzima kakhulu, izinto ezinqabileyo ezifana negraphite, iglasi, i-silicon-aluminiyam alloys, iiseramics, kunye neentsimbi ezingezizo ezoni.
  • abanye: Kukho nezinye ezenziwe nge-ceramic, cubic boron nitride, njl.

Ngokokusetyenziswa kwayo

Kuxhomekeke ekusebenziseni isixhobo, ingahlelwa njenge:

  • Ukujika: Isetyenziselwa ukurhabaxa iqhekeza, ukuze uyilungiselele ukugqiba okuchanekileyo.
  • intonga yokubhola: ibar enesithukuthezi enokwandisa umngxuma okhoyo (owenziwe ngaphambili), oko kukuthi, indlela yokwandisa ububanzi beemingxuma, ukukhupha iqhekeza, okanye ukudala ityhubhu.
  • isixhobo chamfering: Unokwenza i-chamfers, oko kukuthi, i-chamfer kumgca wenguqu phakathi kobuso obubini, okanye i-groove. Ingasetyenziselwa ukususa imiphetho ebukhali eyingozi kwindawo.
  • isixhobo knurling: Isetyenziselwa ukuprinta ipateni kumphezulu ongqukuva kunye nothotho lwemingxuma okanye iziqeshana. Umzekelo, ezo ndawo zirhabaxa okanye ezinamachokoza ozibona kwiziphatho zezinye izixhobo ezinemiqheba yentsimbi, okanye ukubamba amandongomane okanye amaqhekeza, njl.
  • Imela: iya kwahlula isiqwenga kubini, ngaphezu kokusetyenziswa ukujika okanye ukucwangcisa isiqwenga. Kukho iindlela ezininzi.
  • ukusika intambo: Isetyenziselwa ukukrola umsonto kwindawo ethile.
  • yokujongana: isetyenziselwa ukusika i-flat surface perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the part, iqhubela phambili nge-perpendicularly ngokusebenzisa i-axis yokujikeleza kwenxalenye.
  • ukukroba: Oku ngokuqhelekileyo kufakwe i-carbide efakwe kwisixhobo esikhethekileyo somphathi. Yenzelwe ukugaya idimension okanye i-slot forming kunye neminye imisebenzi enzima.
  • isixhobo soqeqesho: Inemilo ecaba okanye esazinge, enencam esikiweyo ukwenza intambo, i-undercut, okanye igroove.

cnc lathe ixabiso

iintlobo zoomatshini be-CNC

Andikwazi ukuthetha malunga ixabiso cnc lathe, ekubeni kuya kuxhomekeka kwi-brand, imodeli, inani leezembe, inani lezixhobo onokuzisebenzisa, izixhobo, ubungakanani, njl. Ungafumana kumakhulu eeuro ukuya kwamanye amawaka eeuro. Ukongeza, ezinye izinto ezichaphazela ixabiso lokugqibela kufuneka zithathelwe ingqalelo:

  • Ilizwe lemveli: Kukho abavelisi bomatshini be-CNC eJamani, eJapan, eTaiwan, eMzantsi Korea, eChina, njl. Ngokuxhomekeke kwimvelaphi, inokuba nempembelelo enkulu kwixabiso, ukuba ingabizi kakhulu abo baseMpuma.
  • inkqubo yokuvelisa: Ngokuxhomekeke kumgangatho kunye nokusebenza komatshini, kunokubiza ngaphezulu okanye ngaphantsi. Umatshini olula onotyalo-mali kwi-R&D luphantsi alufani nokuba kusetyenziswa izixhobo zokwenziwa ngexabiso eliphantsi, okanye ukuba ziveliswe ngobuninzi okanye zilungiselelwe ngokweenkcukacha zabathengi. Konke oku kuya kwenza ixabiso elinye okanye elinye.
  • Ubungakanani bomatshini we-CNC: ezincinci zihlala zingabizi kakhulu kunezinkulu.
  • Uyilo: Zingaba ngoomatshini abaqhelekileyo okanye abanzima, abangaphambili kunye namaxabiso aphantsi xa kuthelekiswa nokugqibela. Ukongeza ekubizeni ngaphezulu kwezo zongezelelo, ukulungiswa nokulungiswa nako kunokubiza kakhulu.
  • Iindidi: inani leezembe, isantya esiphezulu sokujikeleza, uhlobo lwenkqubo yesikhokelo, nokuba zisebenzisa inkqubo yokupholisa okanye ayisebenzisi inkqubo yokupholisa, iisistim zothutho lwe-chip, ukusetwa kwesixhobo esizenzekelayo, ukusetyenziswa kwee-chucks eziqhelekileyo okanye ze-hydraulic, utshintsho oluzenzekelayo okanye oluzenzekelayo, njl. ixabiso lokugqibela.
  • Zothutho: kwaye kufuneka kwakhona uqwalasele ixabiso lokuthutha umatshini, kuba zininzi kwaye zinzima. Ngamanye amaxesha kunokuba nexabiso elikhuphisanayo, kodwa ukuba iindleko zokuthumela ziphezulu kakhulu kwilizwe lakho lemvelaphi, akunakufaneleka. Umthwalo uya kubandakanya ukuthuthwa ngayo nayiphi na indlela, ukupakisha, ukuba kukho imfuneko yesikhongozeli okanye i-flat rack, njl.

Olunye ulwazi


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

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