Iisekethe ezidityanisiweyo: yintoni na, umahluko kunye neziprintiweyo kunye nokunye

iisekethe ezidibeneyo

Los iisekethe ezidibeneyo, iitshiphusi, ii-microchips, i-IC (i-Integrated Circuit) okanye i-CI (iSekethe eDityanisiweyo), okanye nantoni na ofuna ukuyibiza, luhlobo lweesekethe ze-elektroniki eziye zenza ukuqhubela phambili kobuchwepheshe kumanqanaba angoku. Ngaphandle kolu lwakhiwo, i-computing kunye nonxibelelwano ngefowuni ngekhe ibe yile nto iyiyo, kwaye izixhobo zombane nezombane ziya kwahluka kakhulu.

Ngaphandle kobukhulu bawo buncinci, kwaye zikho kuyo yonke indawo, ezi sekethe ezidibeneyo zifihla izinto ezimangalisayo eziza kufunyanwa. Apha unokufunda okuninzi malunga nezi Izinto zombane...

Ziziphi iisekethe ezidibeneyo?

iisekethe ezidibeneyo

Los iisekethe ezidibeneyo ziyipads ze-semiconductor ifakwe kwaye iqulethe isekethe ye-elektroniki erekhodiweyo. Ngokuxhomekeke kusapho olunengqiqo ekukuko, ezi sekethe ziya kwenziwa ngamacandelo ahlukeneyo e-elektroniki amancinci. Ngokomzekelo, banokuba yi-diodes, i-transistors, i-resistors, i-capacitors, njl.

Ndiyabulela kubo kuye kwenzeka ukuphuhlisa i-elektroniki yanamhlanje kwaye baqale ixesha elitsha banikwe umanyano olukhulu abaluvumelayo. Ngapha koko, ezinye zezona chips zanamhlanje eziphambili zinokudityaniswa ukuya kuthi ga kwiibhiliyoni zeetransistors kwifa elizimilimitha ezimbalwa zesikwere.

Imbali yeetshiphusi

Ekuqaleni, i-elektroniki yaqala ukusetyenziswa kakubi iivelufa ezincamathelayo zifana neebhalbhu eziqhelekileyo. Ezi zivalo zazinkulu, zingasebenzi kakuhle, zaye zatshisa kakhulu, kwaye zaphuka lula, ngoko ke kwafuneka ukuba kutshintshe ezo zivuthelweyo ukuze iikhompyutha kunye nezinye izixhobo ezinazo ziqhubeke nokusebenza.

En Ngo-1947 kwakuza kuvela ukuveliswa kwe-transistor, iqhekeza eliza kuthatha indawo yeevalvu ezindala kwaye oko kuya kutshintsha kwakhona izinto zombane. Ngombulelo kuye, kwakunokwenzeka ukuba ube nesixhobo esiqinileyo, esixhathisa kakhulu, esisebenzayo, kwaye sikhawuleza kuneevalvu. Nangona kunjalo, abanye bacinga ukuba banokudibanisa ezininzi zezi zinto kwi-silicon chip enye. Yile ndlela iisekethe zokuqala ezidibeneyo kwimbali zenziwe ngayo.

Ngokuhamba kwexesha, i-electronic state eyomeleleyo yavela kwaye yanciphisa ubungakanani bamacandelo, kunye nokunciphisa iindleko. Ngasekupheleni kwee-50s, umqambi we-Texas Instruments ogama lakhe lingu UJack Kilby, kwafika kuye ukuba enze itshiphu ye-semiconductor kunye nocingo oluthile olulukiweyo kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo. Le yaba yitshiphu yokuqala kwimbali, kwaye uya kuphumelela iBhaso leNobel ngayo.

Phantse ngokuhambelana, URobert NoyceNgelo xesha, umqeshwa we-Fairchild Semiconductor (kamva omnye wabaseki be-Intel), naye waphuhlisa isixhobo esifanayo, kodwa ngeenzuzo ezinkulu ngaphezu kwe-Kilby. UNoyce wenze imbono eya kunika indawo kwiisekethe ezidibeneyo zanamhlanje. Le teknoloji yayibizwa ngokuba yiplani, kwaye yayineenzuzo ngaphezu kweteknoloji ye-mesa ye-Kilby.

Ukususela ngoko, ayizange ime indalo kunye nokuphuculwa kwala macandelo. Iindleko ziye zehla, njengoko kuqoqosho lwepetroli kunye nobukhulu, ngelixa ukusebenza kunye nokusebenza kuphuculwe kakhulu. Alikho elinye icandelo eliye lavela kakhulu, kwaye alikho elinye icandelo eliye laba nefuthe elikhulu kangaka eluntwini ...

Zenziwa njani?

Inkqubo ye ukwenziwa kweesekethe ezidibeneyo intsonkothe ​​kakhulu. Nangona kunjalo, njengoko kubonwa kwividiyo, inokushwankathelwa ngamanyathelo ambalwa alula ukuze abantu baqonde ukuba kwenziwa njani.

Apha ndiza kuzama shwankathela amanyathelo oyilo eyona ingcono kakhulu, ngaphandle kokungena nzulu kakhulu, kuba iya kunika amawaka amanqaku:

  1. Yiba yinxalenye yesidingo, isicelo osidingayo ukwenza isekethe ye-elektroniki.
  2. Iqela loyilo lijongene nokuchaza iimpawu kunye neenkcukacha ekufuneka itshiphu ibe nayo.
  3. Emva koko, uyilo luya kuqalisa ukusebenzisa amasango e-logic kunye nezinye izinto zememori, njl., de kube uyilo lwengqiqo luphunyeziwe oluphuhlisa umsebenzi owenziwe ngawo le chip.
  4. Emva koku, iya kudlula kuthotho lwamanyathelo phakathi kweemvavanyo kunye nokulinganisa kwenziwa ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuba isebenza ngokuchanekileyo kwinqanaba lengqiqo, kwaye iichips zovavanyo zenziwe ukuze zibone ukuba ziyayenza ngokwasemzimbeni.
  5. Emva kokuba isigaba sokuyila sigqityiwe, uchungechunge lweemaski zokuvelisa zenziwe ukusuka kwisakhiwo sesekethe eyiliweyo. Ipateni ibhalwe kuzo ukuze ibhalwe kwi-silicon.
  6. Lo mzekelo usetyenziswa yi-Foundry okanye i-factory, ukudala iisekethe ezidibeneyo kwi-wafer semiconductor. Ezi ziqwenga zidla ngokuqulatha ukuya kutsho kwiitshiphusi ezingama-200 okanye ezingama-300 kwezinye iimeko.

Oku kude kwinqanaba loyilo, ukusuka icala lokuvelisa, si:

  1. Iminerali ye-silicon ifumaneka kwisanti okanye kwiquartz.
  2. Emva kokuba ihlanjululwe ukuba ibe yi-ultra-pure, okanye i-EGS (i-Electronic-Grade Silicon), enezinga lokuhlanjululwa okuphezulu kune-silicon esetyenziswa kwamanye amashishini.
  3. Le EGS ifika ngendlela yeengqungquthela kwi-Foundry, apho inyibilika kwi-crucible kwaye nge-crystal yembewu yenziwa ukuba ikhule ngokusebenzisa indlela yeCzochralski. Ukuze kube lula ukuyiqonda, kufana nendlela i-candy ye-cotton eqhelekileyo eyenziwa ngayo kwii-fairs, uzisa intonga (i-crystal yembewu) kunye nekotoni (i-silicon etyhidiweyo) kunye nokunyuka kwevolumu.
  4. Ekupheleni kweso sinyathelo, umphumo uyi-ingot, iqhekeza elikhulu le-monocrystalline silicon crystal ngendlela ye-cylinder. Le bar inqunyulwa ibe ngamaqhekeza amancinci.
  5. Ezi ziqwenga zihamba ngothotho lweenkqubo zokupolisha umphezulu ukuze zihlale zingangcolisekanga xa kuqalwa imveliso.
  6. Emva koko, ezi wafers ziya kudlula kwiinkqubo ezininzi eziphindaphindayo ukwenza iichips kuzo. Ezi nkqubo ziluhlobo oluthile lwekhemikhali, njenge-photolithography, i-etching okanye i-etching, ukukhula kwe-epitaxial, i-oxidation, i-ion implantation, njl.
  7. Ingcamango yokugqibela kukudala amacandelo elektroniki, transistors ngokubanzi, kwi substrate esisicaba, uze wongeze umaleko ukudibanisa amacandelo wathi ukwenza amasango logic kwi umaleko usezantsi, ke kula maleko zilandelayo la masango ziqhagamshelwe ukwenza iiyunithi eziziiyunithi eziziiprayimari (aders). iirejista, ...), kwiiyunithi ezilandelayo ezisebenzayo (inkumbulo, i-ALU, i-FPU, ...), kwaye ekugqibeleni zonke zixhunyiwe ukudala isiphaluka esipheleleyo, umzekelo, i-CPU. Kwi-chip ephezulu kunokubakho ukuya kuma-20 umaleko.
  8. Emva kwazo zonke ezi nkqubo, ezinokuthatha iinyanga ezininzi ukugqiba, amakhulu eesekethe ezilinganayo ziya kufumaneka kwiwafa nganye. Into elandelayo kukuvavanya kunye nokusika, oko kukuthi, ukwahlula kwiitshiphu ze-silicon.
  9. Ngoku ukuba zifile, siqhubela phambili kwi-encapsulate (i-DIP, i-SOIC, i-PGA, i-QFP, ...) apho i-chip ikhuselwe kwaye i-pads ixhunyiwe, eyimizila eqhubayo ebusweni, kunye nezikhonkwane zesekethe edibeneyo. .

Kuyabonakala, ayizizo zonke iisekethe ezidibeneyo ezifanayo. Apha ndithethe malunga neeyunithi ezisebenzayo kunye nezinto ezinzima ngakumbi njenge-CPU, kodwa kukho iisekethe ezilula kakhulu njenge-555 timer okanye i-IC enamasango ama-4 alula kakhulu. Ziya kuba neshumi elinesibini lamacandelo kwaye ziya kudityaniswa nenye okanye iileya ezimbalwa zoqhagamshelo lwentsimbi ...

Iintlobo zee-ICs

I-RISC-V chip

Akukho uhlobo olunye kuphela, kodwa ezininzi iintlobo zeesekethe ezidibeneyo. Ezona zibalaseleyo unokuzifumana zezi:

  • Iisekethe ezidibeneyo zedijithali: zithandwa kakhulu, kwaye zisetyenziswa kwizixhobo ezininzi zangoku, ukusuka kwiikhompyuter ukuya kwizixhobo eziphathwayo, ii-Smart TV, njl. Zibonakaliswa ngokusebenza ngokusekelwe kwinkqubo yedijithali, oko kukuthi, kunye ne-0 kunye ne-1, kunye ne-0 ibe ngumqondiso we-voltage ephantsi kunye ne-1 ibe ngumqondiso ophezulu. Yile ndlela bafaka ngayo ulwazi kunye nokusebenza. Imizekelo inokuba zii-PLC, iiFPGA, iinkumbulo, i-CPU, i-GPU, i-MCU, njl.
  • Analog: endaweni yokuba isekelwe kwiimpawu zokubini, kulo mzekelo ziyimiqondiso eqhubekayo iinguqu kwi-voltage. Ndiyabulela kule nto, banokufezekisa imisebenzi efana nokucoca, ukwandiswa komqondiso, ukuchithwa, ukumodareyitha, njl. Ewe kunjalo, iinkqubo ezininzi zisebenza kunye neesekethe ze-analog kunye nedijithali, zisebenzisa AD / DA converters. Zinokwahlulwa zibe ngamaqela amabini amakhulu, iisekethe ezidibeneyo ezihambelanayo kunye nefrikhwensi yerediyo (RF). Imizekelo inokuba yitshiphu yohluzo lwe-audio, izikhulisi zesandi, ukukhutshwa okanye iinkqubo zokwamkela amaza ombane, izinzwa, njl.njl.
  • Iimpawu ezixubeneyo ze-ICs: njengoko igama libonisa, zingumxube wazo zombini. Eminye imizekelo inokuba yi-analog-digital okanye i-analog-analog converters ngokwabo, iitshiphusi ezithile zeewotshi, izibali-xesha, ii-encoders/decoders, njl.

Umahluko kunye neesekethe eziprintiweyo

PCB eziprintiweyo iisekethe

Iisekethe ezidibeneyo akufanele zidideke kunye neesekethe eziprintiweyo. Zombini zizinto ezahlukeneyo. Ngelixa yangaphambili ibhekisa kwi-microchips, njengoko ubonile, iisekethe eziprintiweyo, okanye i-PCBOlunye uhlobo lweesekethe ze-elektroniki eziprintwa kwiipleyiti ezinkulu.

Las mahluko eyona nto ibalulekileyo zezi:

  • Iisekethe eziprintiweyo: zenziwe ngepleyiti enepateni yemigca yokuqhuba, njengemizila yobhedu yokudibanisa amacandelo afakiweyo ahlukeneyo (i-capacitors, i-transistors, i-resistors, i-microchips, ...), ithengiswa nge-tin soldering, ngaphezu kwe-dielectric. izinto eziphathekayo ( i-substrate) eyahlula iileya zokudibanisa ukudibanisa. Bakwanemingxuma, okanye nge-vias, kwizinto ezingengomphezulu wentaba (SMD). Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ngokuqhelekileyo banentsomi, uluhlu lwamanqaku, iileta kunye namanani ukuchonga amacandelo kunye nokuququzelela ukugcinwa. Ukukhusela ubhedu, oxidizes ngokulula, ngokuqhelekileyo banonyango olungaphezulu. Kwaye, ngokungafaniyo neesekethe ezidibeneyo, ziyakwazi ukulungiswa, zitshintshe amacandelo awonakalisiweyo okanye ukubuyisela ukudibanisa.
  • Iisekethe ezidibeneyoZincinci kakhulu ngobukhulu, isimo esiqinileyo, kwaye zinexabiso eliphantsi lokuvelisa ngobuninzi. Ngokungafaniyo ne-PCB, ezi azinakulungiswa njengoko amalungu azo kunye noqhagamshelo zincinci kakhulu kangangokuba akunakwenzeka.

Azikho iisekethe ezidibeneyo ezithatha indawo yeesekethe eziprintiweyo okanye ngokuphambeneyo. Zombini zinosetyenziso lwazo kwaye kwiimeko ezininzi zihamba kunye kwizicelo ezisebenzayo ...

Uninzi lweesekethe ezidibeneyo ezidumileyo

microchips, iisekethe ezidibeneyo

Ekugqibeleni, kukho inani elikhulu iisekethe ezidibeneyo ezidumileyo abasebenzi kwiiprojekthi zombane, ezifana nezo ze iingqondo ezinengqiqo. Amaxabiso aphantsi, kwaye anokufumaneka lula kwiivenkile ezifana neAmazon okanye ii-elektroniki ezikhethekileyo. Umzekelo, nazi ezinye zezona zidumileyo:


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