Indlela yokujonga i-capacitor

Abaphathi

Los I-capacitors zizinto ze-elektroniki ezenziweyo ezikwaziyo ukugcina amandla ombane. Benza oko ngenxa yombane. Emva koko baya kukhupha amandla agciniweyo kancinci kancinci, oko kukuthi, ukuba siyayithelekisa nenkqubo yokubonisa ngesanti kubunzulu baphantsi baya kufana needipozithi ezingamanzi. Kuphela apha ayisiyinto engamanzi kodwa ihlawuliswa, ii-elektroni ...

Ukugcina amandla, imiphezulu ezimbini conductive Ezisongelwa ngokubanzi iimakhishithi, yiyo loo nto imilo yoovalo. Phakathi kwala macwecwe mabini kudityanisiwe iphepha le-dielectric okanye umaleko. Eli phepha lokugquma libaluleke kakhulu ukumisela intlawulo ye-capacitor kunye nomgangatho wayo, kuba ukuba ayonelanga inokubethelelwa kwaye ukuhamba ngoku ukusuka kwiphepha elinye ukuya kwelinye.

Kodwa kwenzeka ntoni xa sele ifakiwe okanye xa ufuna ukujonga ukuba isebenza kakuhle na?

Jonga i-capacitor

I-condenser edumbileyo

Nje ukuba ukhethe okanye usebenze kwisekethe, enye enye yezona zinto zibaluleke kakhulu kukwazi ukujonga. Ngenxa yoko kukho iindlela ezininzi zokwazi ukuba kukho into eyenzekayo kwi-capacitor:

  • Uvavanyo lwe-Olfactory / visual: Ngamanye amaxesha, xa unobuchwephesha be-elektroniki, ivumba elilula lokutsha okanye ukwenza uhlolo olubonakalayo lwanele ukwazi ukuba ngaba isekethe yonakele
    • Ukudumba: xa i-capacitor inengxaki ihlala ibonakala. I-capacitors iyadumba kwaye inokubonwa ngeliso lenyama njengoko ubona kumfanekiso ongentla. Ngamanye amaxesha kukudumba nje, ngamanye amaxesha kunokuba nokudumba okuhamba nokuvuza kwe-electrolyte. Ngayiphi na imeko, oko kubonisa ukuba i-capacitor ayilunganga.
    • Amabala amnyama kubafowunelwa okanye kwipleyiti- Indawo emnyama kufutshane nabafowunelwa okanye kwibhodi yesekethe eprintiweyo apho i-capacitor ithengisiweyo nayo inokubangela iingxaki.
  • Vavanya imultimeter okanye imultimeter: iimvavanyo ezininzi zinokwenziwa ...
    • Uvavanyo lokuvavanya amandlaUnokujonga amandla e-capacitor kwaye ubeke i-multimeter ekusebenzeni ukulinganisa amandla kwinqanaba elifanelekileyo. Emva koko beka uvavanyo lokukhokelela kwimultimeter kwizidibanisi ezibini ze-capacitor kwaye ubone ukuba ixabiso elifundwayo lisondele okanye lilingane nomthamo we-capacitor, iya kuba kwimeko entle. Olunye ufundo luya kubonisa ingxaki. Khumbula ukuba ucingo olubomvu kufuneka luye kwipini ende ye-capacitor kunye nocingo olumnyama ukuya kweyona imfutshane ukuba yipolar capacitor, ukuba ivela kwezinye ayikhathali nokuba injani.
    • Uvavanyo lwesekethe olufutshane: Ukwazi ukuba mfutshane, ungabeka i-multimeter kwimowudi yokulinganisa ukunganyangeki. Kuya kufuneka uyibeke kuluhlu lwe-1K okanye nangaphezulu. Uqhagamshela obomvu kwesona sigqeba side ukuba ngaba sisigcina-ndawo esimhlophe, kwaye mnyama kumfutshane. Uya kufumana ixabiso. Cima izikhokelo zovavanyo. Emva koko uyixhume kwakhona kwaye ubhale phantsi kwakhona okanye ukhumbule ixabiso. Yenza uvavanyo ngolu hlobo amatyeli aliqela. Kuya kufuneka ufumane amaxabiso alinganayo ukuba akwimeko entle.
    • Vavanya nge voltmeterukuseta umsebenzi wevolthi yokulinganisa. Shaja i-capacitor ngebhetri, umzekelo. Ayinamsebenzi ukuba ihlawuliswe ngombane ongezantsi. Umzekelo, i-25v capacitor inokuhlawuliswa ngebhetri ye-9v, kodwa ungagqithi kwinani eliphawuliweyo okanye uya kuyaphula. Nje ukuba uhlawuliswe, vavanya iingcebiso kwimowudi ye-voltmeter ukubona ukuba iyayibona na intlawulo. Ukuba kunjalo, kuya kulunga. Abanye benza uvavanyo ngaphandle kokusebenzisa i-multimeter, beka incam ye-screwdriver phakathi kweeterminal ezimbini ze-capacitor kwaye bajonge ukuba ivelisa intlantsi emva kokutshaja, nangona oku kungacetyiswanga ...
  • Iiceramic capacitors: kwezi meko kungangabonakali njengakwezinye xa kukho ingxaki. Ezi azidumbisi. Nangona kunjalo, iimvavanyo ziyafana.
    • IPolymeter ekusebenzeni ukulinganisa ukunganyangeki: Ungazama naziphi na iingcebiso nakweziphi na izikhonkwane ze-ceramic capacitor. Ngenxa yesikhundla esisezantsi kwezi capacitors kufanele ukuba kwisikali se-1m ohm okanye njalo. Ukuba ikwimeko entle, kufuneka iphawule ixabiso kwiscreen kwaye yehle ngokukhawuleza. Ukuvuza kungabonwa xa ixabiso lingawi yonke indlela ukuya kwi-zero okanye kufutshane ne-zero.
    • Umhloli weCapacitorUkuba unesixhobo solu hlobo okanye unokulinganisa amandla kwinqanaba le-picoFarads njengoko ezi capacitors zihlala zinjalo, ungazama ukuyihlawulisa kwaye ubone ukuba iyaqokelela na ukujonga imeko yezempilo. Ukuba ngumthamo osondeleyo okanye olingana nalowo uphawulwe kwi-capacitor, uya kulunga.

Tolika idatha efunyenweyo

Olu lolona vavanyo luqhelekileyo lunokwenziwa, kodwa ukuze ukwazi ukutolika oko uphilileyo, kuya kufuneka uyazi ifayile ye- iingxaki ezihlala zisokola ezi capacitors:

  • Ukuqhawula: kuxa kufutshane. I-capacitor iya kusokola kule ngxaki xa ixabiso le-voltage yokumisa libekiwe kwaye kugqithisile phakathi kwezixhobo zayo ezizidibanisa ngombane. Xa uxhathiso olulinganayo lulingana okanye lusondele ku-zero lubonisa ukuphuma. Ukuxhathisa kwe-capacitor eyonakeleyo phantse kungaze kudlule kwi-2 ohms.
  • ICorte: xa enye okanye zombini izikhonkwane okanye abafowunelwa banqanyuliwe kwizikrweqe. Kule meko, xa uzama ukulayisha kwaye ulinganise umthwalo, ixabiso liya kulingana no-zero. Icacile, kuba ayilayishwanga.
  • Ukungafezeki kwimigangatho ye-dielectric: Ukuba umthwalo awuphelele, awuyi kunqunyulwa, kunokubonisa ukonakala. Esinye isizathu sokukrokrela ukuba kukho ingxaki kumaleko okugquma kukulinganisa ixabiso lokunyuka kwemisinga yokukhupha. Ukulungiselela oko, xa utshaja i-capacitor kwaye ulinganise i-voltage, uya kubona ukuba iyancipha ngokuqhubekayo. Ukuba uyenza ngokukhawuleza okukhulu, ibonisa ukuba imisinga yokukhupha iphezulu.
  • abanye- Ngamanye amaxesha i-capacitor ibukeka intle, iphumelele zonke iimvavanyo ezilapha ngasentla, kodwa xa siyifaka kwisekethe ayisebenzi kakuhle. Ukuba siyazi ukuba ezinye izinto zilungile kunokuba yingxaki enzima ngakumbi ukuyifumana kwi-capacitor yethu. Kuya kuba kuhle ukuba ujonga amaqondo obushushu afikelelweyo ngexesha lokusebenza ...
Ndiyathemba ukuba ndikuncedile kwaye uyacaca ukhethe njani kwaye ujonge ii-capacitors zakho zexesha elizayo...

Iindidi zeCapacitor

Izahlulo zeKondensa

Kukho iintlobo ezahlukeneyo ze-capacitor. Ukubazi kufanelekile ukwazi ukuba yeyiphi na oyifunayo kwimeko nganye. Nangona kukho iintlobo ezininzi, ezona zinomdla kubenzi kunye ne-DIY zezi:

  • Mica ekondensaI-Mica sisixhobo esihle sokwambathisa, esilahlekileyo esisezantsi, esimelana namaqondo obushushu aphezulu kwaye asithobisi nge-oxidation okanye ukufuma. Ke ngoko, zilungile kwizicelo ezithile apho iimeko zokusingqongileyo zingezizo ezilungileyo.
  • Iphepha capacitor: zitshiphu, kuba zisebenzisa iphepha elijijelweyo okanye eliphekiweyo ukwenza ukogquma. Zihlala zigqobhozwa ngokulula, zisenza ibhulorho phakathi kweetrusses eziqhubayo. Kodwa namhlanje kukho ii-capacitor zokuziphilisa, oko kukuthi, zenziwe ngephepha kodwa ezinako ukulungiswa xa kugalelwe ityhefu. Ezi zilungele uninzi lwezicelo. Xa uhlatyiwe, uxinizelelo oluphezulu lwangoku phakathi kwezixhobo luya kunyibilika umaleko omncinci wealuminium ejikeleze indawo yesekethe emfutshane, ngaloo ndlela iphinda iphinde iseke ubushushu ...
  • Capacitor yombaneLuhlobo oluphambili lwezicelo ezininzi, nangona zingenakusetyenziswa ngokutshintsha okwangoku. Qhubeka ngokuqhubekayo kwaye ulumke ungazibuyisi umva, njengoko oku kutshabalalisa i-oxide ekhuselayo kwaye kuvelisa isekethe emfutshane. Oko kunokubangela ukunyuka kweqondo lobushushu, ukutshisa, kunye nokuqhuma. Ngaphakathi kolu hlobo lwee-capacitors unokufumana ii-subtypes ezininzi kuxhomekeke kwi-electrolyte esetyenzisiweyo, efana ne-aluminium kunye ne-boric acid yokuchithwa kwe-electrolyte (iluncedo kakhulu kumandla nakwizixhobo zomsindo); ezo ze-tantalum ezinezinga eliphezulu lomthamo / umthamo; kunye ne-bipolar ekhethekileyo yokutshintsha okwangoku (azikho rhoqo).
  • Ipholiyesta okanye iMylar capacitor: Basebenzisa amaphepha amancinci e-polyester apho i-aluminium ifakwe khona ukwenza izixhobo. La maxwebhu abekiwe ukuze enze isandwich. Ezinye iindidi zisebenzisa i-polycarbonate kunye ne-polypropylene.
  • Isikhuphisi sePolystyrene: eyaziwa ngokuba yiStyroflex evela kwaNokia. Zenziwe ngeplastiki kwaye zisetyenziswa kakhulu kwicandelo likanomathotholo.
  • Iiceramic capacitors: Basebenzisa iiseramikhi njenge dielectrics. Ilungele ukusetyenziswa kwee-microwaves kunye neendlela ezahlukeneyo.
  • Ii-capacitors eziguqukayo: Banendlela ephathekayo yesixhobo sokuhambisa i-dielectric, evumela ukwazisa ngaphezulu okanye kancinci kwintlawulo. Oko kukuthi, bajongeka njengokuxhathisa okungafaniyo okanye iipotentieter.

Umthamo:

Ikhowudi yombala weKondenser

Enye into eyahlula enye i-capacitor kwenye umthamo, oko kukuthi, ubungakanani bamandla abanokuwagcina ngaphakathi. Ilinganiswa kwiiFarads. Ngokwesiqhelo kwii-millifarads okanye ii-microfarads, kuba ezona zixa zamandla zigcinwayo zincinci. Nangona kunjalo, kuya kufuneka uyazi ukuba kukho ezinye i-capacitors ekusetyenzisweni kwemizi-mveliso ngobukhulu obukhulu kunye namandla.

Ukujonga umthamo, unezimbalwa umbala kunye / okanye iikhowudi zamanani, njengokuba kunjalo nabachasi. Kwiiwebhusayithi zabavelisi uya kufumana iidathasethi kunye nolwazi malunga ne-capacitor oyithengileyo. Kukho ezinye ii -apps ezisebenzayo zewebhu, ezinje nge le ilapha apho ubeka khona ikhowudi kwaye ubala amandla.

Kodwa umda wee-capacitors akufuneki umiselwe umda. Ndiyathetha ukuba banokufakwa ngaphakathi ukufana okanye uthotho njengezichasi. Njengabo, uya kufumana amandla omnye okanye omnye ngokudibanisa uninzi lwazo. Kukho kwakhona izixhobo zewebhu ukubala amandla apheleleyo azuzwe ngokufanayo nakuluhlu.

Xa zidityaniswe ngokudibeneyo, zongeza ngokuthe ngqo ixabiso lomthamo kwii-farads ze-capacitors. Ngelixa zidityanisiwe kuthotho umthamo opheleleyo ubalwa ngokudibanisa ukujika komthamo womthamo ngamnye. Oko kukuthi, i-1 / C1 + 1 / C2 +… yazo zonke ii-capacitors ezikhoyo, kunye no-C sisakhono sayo ngasinye. Oko kukuthi, njengoko ubona kukuchasana nezinto ezichasayo, ukuba zikwimixholo ziyadibanisa kwaye ukuba ziyahambelana kukuphikisana kwazo (1 / R1 + 1 / R2 +…).

Yeyiphi endifanele ukuyithenga?

Inkqubo nguFritzing kunye ne-capacitor kunye neArduino

Ukuba uthatha isigqibo soku yenza iprojekthi apho uza kusebenzisa khona ii-capacitors, Nje ukuba uyilo kwaye uyazi kakuhle into oyifunayo, ukuba ufuna ukwenza unikezelo lwamandla, icebo lokucoca ulwelo, ulisebenzise nge555 ngexesha, njl., ngokokubala okwenzileyo kwaye kuxhomekeke kwinto oyifunayo ukufezekisa, uya kudinga amandla okanye enye.

  • Ufuna kangakanani amandla? Kuxhomekeke kwisekethe oyifunayo, uya kuba ubala enye okanye enye indawo (kwakhona uthathe ingqalelo ukuba uza kuba nokuninzi kunxityelelaniswe kuthotho okanye ukufana). Kuxhomekeka kumthamo, unokucoca kuphela ezo zikonelisayo.
  • Ngaba uya kusebenza ngee-voltages ezilungileyo nezingalunganga okanye ngoku ngoku? Ukuba uza kusebenzisa iipolarizations ezahlukeneyo okanye enye ngoku, kungcono ukusebenzisa i-ceramic capacitor okanye enye engafakwanga polarized ukunqanda ukuyaphula ukuba utshintsha ubumenyemenye.
  • Ngaba ufuna ukuvumela kuphela ukutshintshana kokupasa kwangoku? Emva koko ukhethe i-capacitor capacitor ephezulu, oko kukuthi, enye ayiyiyo i-ceramic, efana ne-electrolytic.
  • Ngaba ufuna ukuhambisa ngqo ngoku? Unokubeka i-capacitor ngokuhambelana nomhlaba (GND).
  • Yimalini ombane? Abaphathi bamelana nomda wevolthi. Hlahlela kakuhle umbane oza kusebenza kuwo kwaye ukhethe i-capacitor enokusebenza kuluhlu olifunayo. Musa ukukhetha enye esemida, kuba nayiphi na into enokuyonakalisa. Ukongeza, ukuba unemida, awuyi kusebenza nzima, kwaye ngokusebenza ngokukhululeka uya kuhlala ixesha elide.

Njani khetha i-capacitor yakho yexesha elizayo.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
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  1.   enrique sitsho

    molo ndine-capacitor eza kuvavanya isekethe emfutshane kwaye i-capacitor inika ukufundwa kwaye ukufundwa akulungisekanga phantsi kwaye kuyaqhubeka kuyehla kwaye kutshintshiswane ngencam ye-voltmeter kwaye into enye ihlala isenzeka, i-capacitor izakulunga

    1.    UIsake sitsho

      Sawubona,
      Ngaba usebenzisa ubungakanani obufanelekileyo kwidayalo ye-multimeter? Okanye ngaba yi-voltmeter ngaphandle kwemisebenzi yokulinganisa ezinye iiyunithi?
      Un saludo

  2.   USergio del Valle Gomez sitsho

    Ndine-1200mf 10V capacitor eyonakeleyo. Ngaba ndingayifaka enye ye-1000mf kunye ne-16V, ngokuhambelana nenye ye-250mf 16V, ukongeza i-1250mf kunye ne-16V?

    1.    Carlos sitsho

      Ukuba kunokwenzeka, ixabiso longezwa ngokudibeneyo, ukuba nombane ophezulu akunamsebenzi.