Usebenza njani umatshini we-CNC kunye nokusetyenziswa

Umatshini wezixhobo ezininzi ze-CNC

Oomatshini be-CNC abaxhaphakileyo bakuninzi lweefektri kunye neendibano zocweyo zazo zonke iintlobo. Ubuhle bazo obumangalisayo bubenze baba ngoomatshini abayimfuneko bomatshini. Ngoku uyazi ukuba zeziphi ezi ntlobo zoomatshini, oku kulandelayo uyazi ukuba umatshini we-CNC usebenza njani, indlela amalungu asebenza ngayo, ulwimi locwangciso abalusebenzisayo, kwanezona zinto ziqhelekileyo ezisetyenziswa ngaba matshini.

Usebenza njani umatshini we-CNC: I-CNC okanye i-machining yolawulo lwamanani

Ukusuka kwi-CAD (uYilo oluNceda kwiKhompyutha okanye uYilo oluNceda kwiKhompyutha) okanye uyilo lweCAM (Ukwenziwa koNcedo lweKhompyutha okanye ukuVeliswa koNcedo lweKhompyutha), ezinye ukufunda okanye iikhowudi zolwimi apho umatshini we-CNC uya kuba nako ukulandela iindlela okanye iintshukumo eziphawulwe ukulungiswa kwenxalenye ngendlela efanelekileyo ukwenzela ukuba kufumaneke umphumo oyifunayo. Oko kukuthi, ukuze ekupheleni kwenkqubo, isiqwenga sifana nesinye kuyilo lwekhompyuter.

Ngamanye amazwi, enkosi kwezi khowudi kuya kuba nokwenzeka ukuba shukumisa intloko ngesixhobo somsebenzi ngeezembe zomatshini. Ewe kunjalo, isixhobo sinokwahluka kumatshini omnye ukuya komnye, abanye bade babe nentloko yezixhobo ezininzi ukutshintsha phakathi kwabaninzi kwaye banikeze ukuguquguquka okukhulu komsebenzi. Ngokomzekelo, kunokubakho izixhobo zokusika, izixhobo zokugaya, izixhobo zokugaya okanye ukuguqula, izixhobo ze-welding, izixhobo zokukhangela, njl.

Ulawulo lweentshukumo

oomatshini CNC babe iidilesi ezimbini nangaphezulu ezicwangcisekileyo (izembe). Ngokuqhelekileyo kukho i-3 (X, Y, Z), nangona ngamanye amaxesha ingaba ngaphezulu njengoko sibonile kwinqaku elidlulileyo, ngaphezu kokuvumela ukujikeleza (ii-ax ezijikelezayo zibizwa ngokuba ngu-A, B, C). Ngokuxhomekeke kwinani leezembe, unokwenza ngaphezulu okanye ngaphantsi komatshini ontsonkothileyo. Okukhona amazembe, kokukhona iqondo elikhulu lenkululeko yokuhamba, ngoko inokwenza imizobo entsonkothileyo ngakumbi.

ukuba ukunyakaza kolawulo Kwezi zembe, zimbini iindidi zeenkqubo ezinokusetyenziswa ezinokusebenza ngokwahlukeneyo okanye kunye:

  • Amaxabiso apheleleyo (ikhowudi G90): kulo mzekelo ulungelelwaniso lwendawo yokufikela lubhekiswa kwindawo yemvelaphi yolungelelwaniso. I-variables X (umlinganiselo we-diameter yokugqibela) kunye no-Z (umlinganiselo kwicala elihambelana ne-axis yokujikeleza kwe-spindle) isetyenziswa.
  • Amaxabiso okongezwayo (ikhowudi G91): kulo mzekelo ulungelelwaniso lwendawo ekuyiwa kuyo lubhekiswa kwindawo yangoku. Iinguqu ze-U (umgama we-radial) kunye ne-W (zilinganiswe kwicala elihambelana ne-axis yokujikeleza kwe-spindle) zisetyenziswa.

Izinto ezinokucwangciswa

Kuphela ngolawulo lwentshukumo umatshini we-CNC awukwazanga ukusetyenziswa. Ngoko ke, oomatshini kufuneka icwangciswe ngezinye iindlela. Uhlobo lomatshini we-CNC, enyanisweni, luhlobene ngokusondeleyo nohlobo lwezixhobo ezicwangcisiweyo ezinalo. Umzekelo, ngaphakathi komatshini unokuba nemisebenzi ethile ecwangcisiweyo efana nale:

  • utshintsho isixhobo oluzenzekelayo: kwamanye amaziko machining ezixhobo ezininzi. Intloko yesixhobo inokucwangciswa ukuba isebenzise isixhobo esiyimfuneko kwimeko nganye ngaphandle kokusibeka kwi-spindle ngesandla.
  • Isantya se-spindle kunye nokusebenza: Isantya sokujikeleza kwi-revolutions ngomzuzu (RPM) inokucwangciswa kwakhona, kubandakanywa isalathiso sokujikeleza (i-clockwise okanye i-counterclockwise), kunye nokumisa okanye ukuvula.
  • Isikhenkcisi: Oomatshini abaninzi abasebenza ngezinto eziqinileyo, njengelitye okanye isinyithi, bafuna into yokupholisa ukuze bangatshi ngokugqithisileyo. Isisipholisi sinokucwangciswa ukuba sivuleke okanye sivalwe ngexesha lomjikelo womsebenzi.

Inkqubo ye-CNC

Oomatshini be-CNC banokucwangciswa, njengoko kubonwe, kodwa benza njalo iindlela ezahlukeneyo okufuneka uyazi xa usebenza nomnye wabo:

  • ngezandla: Ukufaka ulwazi olufunayo kwi-prompt yomyalelo. Ukwenza oku, kuyimfuneko ukwazi ikhowudi yealphanumeric esemgangathweni, njengaleyo ye-DIN 66024 kunye nemigangatho ye-DIN 66025.
  • Zenzekelayo: yeyona meko iqhelekileyo ngoku, kwaye iqhutywa ngekhompyuter eqhagamshelwe kumatshini we-CNC. Umntu uya kukwazi ukuguqula idatha ngesofthiwe, ngaphandle kokufuna ukwazi iikhowudi, ekubeni inkqubo ngokwayo iya kuba yimbopheleleko yokuyiguqulela kwimiyalelo eqondakalayo kumatshini we-CNC. Oku kwenziwa ngolwimi olubizwa ngokuba yi-APT, oluya kuthi luguqulelwe kwi-binary (zero kunye nezinye) ukwenzela ukuba i-microcontroller yomatshini we-CNC ikwazi ukuyiqonda kwaye iguqulele kwiintshukumo.

Okwangoku, kukho nabanye oomatshini be-CNC phambili ngakumbi kwaye kulula ukuyisebenzisa, njengezinto ezizenzekelayo ezinokufuna ukungenelela okuncinci komntu.

Inkqubo yeCNC

Umzekelo weprogram ye-CNC. Umthombo: Researchgate

Inkqubo ebizwa ngokuba yi-CNC, ebhalwe kwi-a ulwimi olukumgangatho ophantsi olubizwa ngokuba ngu-G no-M (esemgangathweni yi ISO 6983 kunye I-EIA RS274) kwaye yenziwe:

  • Iikhowudi ze-G: imiyalelo yentshukumo eqhelekileyo. Umzekelo, u-G unokuya phambili, aqhubele phambili, anqumame, ajikeleze, njalo njalo.
  • Iikhowudi zeM: ezingahambelaniyo neentshukumo okanye ezahlukeneyo. Imizekelo ka-M isenokuba kukuqala okanye ukumisa intambo yokusonta, ukutshintsha isixhobo, ukufaka isisipholisi, njl.
  • N: inkqubo ihlulwe ngezigaba okanye iibhloko zemiyalelo eya kuba yiNtloko yeleta N. Umatshini uya kuhlonipha amanani.
  • Iinguqu okanye iidilesi: Ikhowudi ikwaqulathe ezi ndidi zamaxabiso, anje F ye feedrate, S yesantya sokujikeleza, T yokukhethwa kwesixhobo, I, J, kunye no K ngokufumana umbindi we arc, X, Y, kunye no Z ukwenzela intshukumo ye izembe, njl.

Ixesha ledinga elingagqibekanga kuya kuxhomekeka kuhlobo lomatshini. Umzekelo, umatshini we-CNC wokugoba i-sheet metal ayifani neyokusika. Eyokuqala ayinayo into yokusonta kwaye ayifuni sipholisi.

cnc ikhowudi itheyibhile

Itheyibhile yomzekelo wekhowudi ye-G kunye ne-M

Ukuba ujonga le theyibhile ingasentla, singakwazi sebenzisa umzekelo block ukucacisa ukuba kwenzeka ntoni. Umzekelo, khawucinge ukuba unekhowudi elandelayo okanye inkqubo ye-CNC:

N3 G01 X12.500 Z32.000 F800

Eli cwecwe lincinci lekhowudi ye-CNC ingaxelela umatshini we-CNC, xa sele iguqulelwe kokubini, ukwenza. ezi zenzo zilandelayo:

  • N3 ibonisa ukuba yibhloko yesithathu eza kuphunyezwa. Ke ngoko, kuya kubakho iibhloko ezimbini zangaphambili.
  • G01: yenza intshukumo yomgca.
  • X12.500: ingahambisa i-12.5 mm ecaleni kwe-X axis.
  • Z32.000: iya kuhamba nge-32 mm ecaleni kwe-axis engu-Z. Kule meko akuyi kubakho ntshukumo ku-Y.
  • F800: Isondlo senziwe ngesantya se-800 mm / min.

Ulwimi lwe-APT

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ulwimi olufanelekileyo lulwimi lweprogram oluya kusetyenziswa njengekhowudi ephakathi phakathi kwangaphambili kunye nekhowudi yomatshini (ikhowudi yebhinary) eqondakalayo yi-MCU. Yaphuhliswa kwi-laboratory ye-MIT, nguDouglas T. Ross. Emva phaya, ngo-1956, yayisetyenziselwa ukulawula i-servomechanism, kodwa ukusetyenziswa kwayo ngoku kwanda kwaye ibe ngumgangatho wehlabathi wokulawula amanani.

Kwaqwalaselwa owandulelayo weCAM, kwaye iyafana nezinye iilwimi ezinje ngeFORTRAN. Le khowudi iya kuguqulwa yinkqubo yekhompyutheni ibe yinkqubo yemiyalelo yokubini eya kulayishwa kwimemori ye-microcontroller yomatshini we-CNC ukwenzela ukuba ibenze, ivelise iimpawu zokulawula umbane ukuhambisa iimotor kunye nezixhobo.

Olu lwimi lwe-APT lunako lawula iiparamitha ezininzi yomatshini we-CNC:

  • Isantya sokujikeleza (RPM)
  • I-Spindle Vula okanye Valiwe
  • Ukujikeleza
  • ukumisa okucwangcisiweyo
  • Isikhenkcisi
  • Iintshukumo kuzo zonke iindlela ezinokwenzeka (XYZ kunye ne-ABC)
  • Ixesha
  • phinda imijikelo
  • iindlela
  • Njl

Ewe, abo basebenza ngoomatshini be-CNC akufuneki balwazi olu lwimi lwe-APT, kuba isoftware yangoku intuitive kwaye ivumela ulawulo olulula, ukuguqulela ngokucacileyo i-APT kumsebenzisi ukwenza indawo eyenzelwe oko. ifayile yeCAD/CAM. Nangona kunjalo, akukhe kube buhlungu ukwazi ukuba ikhona kwaye yintoni na.

Namhlanje, oomatshini bale mihla be-CNC sele benazo ujongano lomzobo ngezikrini zokuchukumisa kunye nekhompyuter edibeneyo eququzelela kakhulu ukusetyenziswa kwayo. Zinomdla kakhulu, kwaye azidingi kufunda kakhulu. Ngokusebenzisa ipeni yokuqhuba okanye imemori ye-USB, baya kukuvumela ukuba ulayishe uyilo lwesiqwenga, ngoko unokuyilwa kwenye ikhompyutha ezimeleyo.

Umlawuli we-CNC

El cnc-umlawuli Iya kuba nguye ojongene nokutolika inkqubo ye-CNC, imiyalelo yayo ngokulandelelana ngokulandelelana, kwaye iya kuqhuba ukunyakaza okufunekayo kunye nemisebenzi, phakathi kwezinye izinto.

Inkqubo yeCAM / CAD

Un CAD okanye CAM software Iya kusetyenziselwa ukuyila uyilo okanye imodeli yento ekujongwe ukuba yenziwe. Isoftware yangoku sele ivumela ukusuka kolu hlobo lweefomati ukuya kwinkqubo ye-CNC ngokuzenzekelayo.

Inkqubo ye-DNC

Ngokuphathelele I-DNC (Ulawulo lwamanani ngokuthe ngqo), ligama elibhekisa kwikhompyuter eqhagamshelwe yinethiwekhi kumatshini omnye okanye ngaphezulu weCNC. Ngale ndlela, inkqubo ye-CNC inokudluliselwa koomatshini, nokuba yi-Ehternet, okanye ngamachweba akudala kunye ne-rudimentary afana ne-RS-232C ye-serial port, esetyenziswa kumashishini amaninzi.

izicelo zomatshini CNC

oomatshini becnc banezicelo ezininzi kunokuba ucinga. Uninzi lweshishini kunye neendibano zocweyo, ukusuka kwelincinci ukuya kwelikhulu, zixhomekeke kwelinye okanye ngaphezulu kula maqela. Zisenokusetyenziswa ekhaya kwimisebenzi ethile ye-DIY yabenzi.

Ukuzonwabisa (DIY kunye nabenzi)

Abenzi abaninzi baye oomatshini abancinci be-CNC beentlobo ezahlukeneyo ekhaya ukwenza iiprojekthi ze-DIY. Isenokusetyenziswa ngabantu ukwenza imisebenzi ethile ekhaya:

  • Yenza iziqwenga zobucwebe.
  • Ukucutshungulwa kwezinto ukwenza iinxalenye okanye amacandelo.
  • Yenza iinxalenye zokulungisa iimoto okanye ezinye iintlobo zezixhobo xa iindawo ezisecaleni zingasathengiswa.
  • Yenza imisebenzi yobugcisa okanye imizobo.

Iindibano zocweyo kunye neshishini lemveliso

Kanjalo, kwicandelo leengcali, zombini kwiindibano zocweyo nakwiifektri, kuqheleke kakhulu ukubona oomatshini be-CNC, bobabini abachweli, iivenkile zokulungisa, iinxalenye zokuvelisa, i-textile industry, icandelo le-aeronautical, umhlobiso, ukwenza ikhabhinethi, njl. Umzekelo:

  • Ukusika i-laser yecwecwe.
  • Ukuwelda ngePlasma.
  • Khetha & Indawo, okanye ukubeka iinxalenye okanye amacandelo kanye kwindawo yabo yendibano.
  • Ukugotywa kwemivalo, iityhubhu, iipleyiti...
  • Ukugrumba.
  • Ukujika okanye ukugaya iinkuni.
  • Ukwenziwa kwamalungu aqhelekileyo.
  • Imodeli okanye imveliso eyongezelelweyo.
  • Ukudalwa kwezinto ezifakelwayo okanye iiprostheses zokusetyenziswa kwezonyango.
  • Imizobo.
  • Njl

ishishini lombane

Ukukhankanywa okukhethekileyo kufanelwe oomatshini be-CNC abakhe basetyenziswa kwicandelo elikhuphisanayo neliphambili njengaleyo ye Ishishini le-elektroniki kunye ne-semiconductor. Aba matshini banokwenza inani elikhulu lemisebenzi, efana nale:

  • Ukusika i-wafer ye-semiconductor.
  • Ukwenziwa kweesinki zobushushu ukusuka kwiibhloko zobhedu okanye ze-aluminium.
  • Ukwenziwa kwee-casings / izakhiwo zeekhompyuter, iithelevishini, ii-mobiles, njl.
  • Khetha kunye neNdawo yokubeka izinto zokuxhoma phezulu kwibhodi yePCB endaweni yokuphinda kufakwe i soldering.
  • Ukuwelda.
  • Umkrolo weLaser weempawu kunye neelogo.
  • Ukubumba iilensi.
  • Njl

Olunye ulwazi


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
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  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
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