Photodetector: yintoni, yenzelwa ntoni kwaye isebenza njani

umfanekiso wefotokhethi

Un umfanekiso wefotokhethi Luhlobo lwenzwa enokusetyenziselwa usetyenziso oluninzi kwiiprojekthi zakho ze-DIY. Nokuba ungumenzi, unokwenza eyakho inkqubo yokhuseleko ngenye ye ezi zinto zombane. Kodwa ngaphambi koko, kuya kufuneka uyazi ukuba yintoni kanye kanye le fowuni, yeyantoni, kwaye isebenza njani.

Ukongeza, uya kufunda umahluko kunye nezinye izixhobo ezinokubonakala zifana, kunye nefayile ye- iintlobo zeefotodetectors ezikhoyo, nganye inezinto ezintle nezingalunganga ...

Yintoni i-photodetector?

umfanekiso wefotokhethi

Un umfanekiso wefotokhethi Sisivamvo esivelisa umqondiso wombane oya kuxhomekeka ekukhanyeni okuwela kwesi sixhobo. Oko kukuthi, njengoko ubuninzi okanye ubuncinci kule radiation ye-electromagnetic ichaphazela, iya kuvelisa omnye okanye omnye umqondiso onokuthi utolikwe. Nokuba kukuvelisa isenzo, okanye ukulinganisa nje ubungakanani beli radiation.

Ezinye zezi fotodetectors zisekwe kwisiphumo, ezinokuthi zibe: ifotoelectric okanye i-photovoltaic. Le yokugqibela yenye yezona zixhaphakileyo, kwaye ibandakanya ukukhutshwa kwee-elektroni zizinto ezinazo xa iiprosesa ze-electromegnetic ziwela kuyo, ukukhanya ngokubanzi okanye i-UV. Ngamanye amagama, xa izinto ezisetyenzisiweyo zikwazi ukuguqula inxenye yamandla okukhanya abe ngamandla ombane.

Abanye abajonga phambili beefotodetectors, ezinje nge I-CCD kunye ne-CMOS sensors Bane-matrix yolu hlobo lwee-detectors ezincinci ukwenza i-matrix kunye nokubamba ividiyo kunye nemifanekiso, ezi zinto zihamba phambili ngakumbi.

Iindidi zefotodetector

Zininzi iintlobo yezixhobo ezinokuthi zenziwe ikhathalogu ngaphakathi koko kumelwa ngumfanekiso wefotodetector. Zezi:

  • Iifoto
  • Phototransistor
  • Ifotoresist
  • Photocathode
  • Phototube okanye photovalve
  • Photomultiplier
  • Isivamvo CCD
  • Isivamvo CMOS
  • Iselfowuni yefowuni
  • Iseli yefotoelectrochemical

Izicelo

Iifotodetectors zinokubaninzi izicelo ezinokwenzeka:

  • Isixhobo sonyango.
  • Iikhowudi okanye iikhowudi.
  • Ubalo lwezikhundla.
  • Iinkqubo zokujonga.
  • Iinkqubo zonxibelelwano ze-fiber optic.
  • Ukulungiswa kwemifanekiso (ukubanjwa kweefoto, ividiyo).
  • Njl

Umzekelo, kwinkqubo fiber optic, ezisebenza ngokukhanya endaweni yeempompo zombane, ukonyusa isantya sonxibelelwano, ifayibha ye-fiberglass inokuhambisa ukukhanya ngesantya esiphezulu, kodwa xa ezi mpawu zifunyenwe, zifuna i-photodetector ukubabamba kunye neprosesa yokubabamba.

Umtshini wevidiyo kunye nomtshini wefoto

Kwiinkqubo zokhuseleko, ezinje ngeialamu, ngokuqinisekileyo uvile ukuba baneefotodetectors okanye izixhobo zokukhangela ividiyo. Kwezi meko, ziluhlobo lwenzwa ethwebula imifanekiso, okanye ethi ithathe ividiyo yento eyenzekayo kwindawo ejongiweyo, ukuqinisekisa ukuba yonke into ichanekile okanye, kungenjalo, ukucima ii-alamu okanye ukwazisa imikhosi yezokhuseleko.

Ukudityaniswa kweArduino kunye nefotokhethi

Arduino ldr

Kulo mzekelo ndiza kusebenzisa ukumelana ne-LDR ngesitya Arduino UNO iqhagamshelwe ngale ndlela ilula onokuyibona kumfanekiso ongentla. Njengoko ubona, kulula njengokusebenzisa i-LED (ungayifaka enye indawo) edityaniswe nesixhathisi kwi-GND nakwenye ipini kwenye yeziphumo zebhodi.

Ukuxhathisa kunokuba yi-1K

Kwelinye icala, ukuba uqhagamshelo lwefotosensor, unikezelo lwe-5v kwibhodi ye-Arduino iya kusetyenziswa, kunye negalelo elinye le-analog kwelinye icala. Ngale ndlela, xa ukukhanya kuwela kwesi sixhathisi se-LDR, iziphumo ezikhoyo eziza kubanjwa yile galelo le-analog ziya kwahluka kwaye zinokutolikwa zivelise umsebenzi ...

Ke unokubona imeko elula kakhulu yokusebenzisa kwaye ikhowudi yomzobo iyimfuneko kwinkqubo yakho nge I-Arduino IDE:

//Uso de un fotodetector en Arduino UNO

#define pinLED 12

void setup() {

  pinMode(pinLED, OUTPUT);
  Serial.begin(9600);
}

void loop() {

  int v = analogRead(A0);
  // El valor 500 debe ajustarse según la luz del ambiente donde lo vayas a usar
  // Con poca luz debe ser más pequeño, con mucha mayor. 
  if (v < 500) digitalWrite(pinLED, HIGH); 
  else digitalWrite(pinLED, LOW);
  Serial.println(v);
}


Apha uya kubona ngokulula ukuba izibane ze-LED zikhanya njani ngokusekwe kukukhanya okufunyenwe ngumfaki weefoto. Ewe ukhululekile ukuba lungisa le khowudi ukuphuhlisa iprojekthi oyifunayo. Lo ngumzekelo olula wokubonisa ukusebenza kwawo ngendlela ebonakalayo.

Kuphi ukuthenga i-photodetector

isivusi sefotodetector

Ukuba uthatha isigqibo sokuthenga i-photodetector, unokukhetha ezi i ngcebiso eya kuba nakho ukwanelisa phantse zonke iimfuno:

  • Ukhuseleko lweBlaupunkt: iPhotodetector ekulungeleyo ukudityaniswa nenkqubo yealam yakho. Inoluhlu lwe-110º kwaye inokufikelela kwiimitha ezili-12 ngokukhangela intshukumo okanye ubukho bento ethile.
  • Ukumelana nefoto ye-Shang-Jun: yipakethe ye-LDR resistors, oko kukuthi, izixhobo eziya kwahluka ukuxhathisa kwazo kuxhomekeke kukukhanya okuwela kuzo.
  • Ikhamera ye-0.3MP yekhamera ye-CMOSenye imodyuli encinci yeArduino kunye nezinye iibhodi kunye nesisombululo se-680 × 480 px.
  • Imodyuli yokukhangela ukukhanya: Njenge-LDR kodwa iza inyuswe kwimodyuli kwaye kulula kakhulu ukudibanisa neArduino.

Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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