Ukukhiqiza okungeziwe kunemikhakha eminingi yokusetshenziswa, kokubili emkhakheni wezokungcebeleka kanye nezimboni nobuchwepheshe. Amaphrinta e-3D eze ukuze aguqule indlela ophrinta ngayo futhi bakha izakhiwo ezintsha, ezingasukela ezintweni ezincane kuye kwezicubu eziphilayo ngisho nezindlu, noma izingxenye ze-aerodynamic ze-motorsport.

Kuze kube yiminyaka embalwa edlule, ukuphrinta kwe-2D kwakuyinto eqanjiwe yesayensi. Abaningi babephupha ngokukwazi ukuphrinta izinto esikhundleni sezithombe noma umbhalo ephepheni elilula le-XNUMXD. Manje ubuchwepheshe buvuthiwe kangangokuthi zikhona ubuchwepheshe obungenakubalwa, izinhlobo, amamodeli, njll. Kulo mhlahlandlela ungafunda okuningi mayelana nalawa maphrinta angajwayelekile.

## Yini i-voxel?

Uma ungakajwayeli i-voxel, kubalulekile ukuthi uqonde ukuthi kuyini, njengoba ekuphrinteni kwe-3D kubalulekile. Kuyisifinyezo sesiNgisi esithi «volumetric pixel», iyunithi ye-cubic eyenza into enezinhlangothi ezintathu.

Kukhona namanye amayunithi afana ne-texel (i-texture element noma i-texture pixel), okuyiyunithi encane yokuthungwa esetshenziswa endaweni ezithombeni zekhompyutha, noma i-tixel (i-pixel ethintekayo), okuyi-neologism ebhekisela ohlotsheni oluthile. yobuchwepheshe be-haptic bezikrini zokuthinta, ezivumela ukulingisa ukuthinta kwezinhlobonhlobo ezahlukene.

Ngamanye amazwi, kungaba njalo i-2D elingana nephikseli. Futhi, njengoba ungabona esithombeni esingenhla, uma leyo modeli ye-3D ihlukaniswa ngamakhyubhu, ngalinye lingaba i-voxel. Kubalulekile ukucacisa ukuthi iyini, njengoba amanye amaphrinta e-3D athuthukile avumela ukulawulwa kwe-voxel ngayinye ngesikhathi sokuphrinta ukuze kutholakale imiphumela engcono.

## Iyini iphrinta ye-3D

Iphrinta ye-3D umshini okwazi ukuphrinta izinto ngevolumu kusuka kumklamo wekhompyutha. Okusho ukuthi, njengephrinta evamile, kodwa esikhundleni sokuphrinta endaweni eyisicaba naku-2D, iyakwenza enobukhulu obuthathu (ububanzi, ubude nobude)). Imiklamo okungatholakala kuyo le miphumela ingaqhamuka kumodeli ye-3D noma ye-CAD, futhi ngisho nasentweni yangempela ebonakalayo XNUMXD scan.

Futhi bangakwazi phrinta zonke izinhlobo zezinto, kusukela ezintweni ezilula njengenkomishi yekhofi, kuya kweziyinkimbinkimbi kakhulu ezifana nezicubu eziphilayo, izindlu, njll. Ngamanye amazwi, iphupho labaningi ababefuna imidwebo yabo ephrintiwe iphile ephepheni isikhona, futhi ishibhile ngokwanele ukuthi isetshenziswe ngale kwemboni, nasekhaya.

#### Umlando wokuphrinta kwe-3D

Umlando wokuphrinta kwe-3D ubonakala wakamuva kakhulu, kodwa iqiniso ukuthi kufanele ubuyele emuva emashumini ambalwa eminyaka. Konke kuvela Iphrinta ye-inkjet kusukela ngo-1976, okuye kwenziwa inqubekelaphambili ekushintsheni uyinki wokunyathelisa ngezinto zokwakha izinto ngevolumu, ukuthatha izinyathelo ezibalulekile nokumaka ingqopha-mlando ekuthuthukisweni kwalobu buchwepheshe kuze kufike emishinini yamanje:

• Ngo-1981 idivayisi yokuqala yokunyathelisa ye-3D yanikezwa ilungelo lobunikazi. wakwenza UDkt Hideo Kodama, weNagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute (Japan). Umqondo wawuwukusebenzisa izindlela ezi-2 ezihlukene azisungulela ukukhiqiza okungeziwe esebenzisa i-resin ezwela isithombe, efana nendlela ama-chips enziwa ngayo. Kodwa-ke, iphrojekthi yakhe izoyekwa ngenxa yokushoda kwenzalo noxhaso.
• Kule minyaka eyishumi efanayo, onjiniyela baseFrance U-Alain Le Méhauté, u-Olivier de Wittte noJean-Claude André, yaqala ukuphenya ubuchwepheshe bokukhiqiza ngokuqiniswa kwezinsalela ze-photosensitive nge-UV yokwelapha. I-CNRS ngeke ivume iphrojekthi ngenxa yokuntuleka kwezindawo zokufaka izicelo. Futhi, nakuba bafaka isicelo selungelo lobunikazi ngo-1984, ekugcineni lalizoyekwa.
• uCharles HullNgo-1984, wayezothola inkampani i-3D Systems, esungula i-stereolithography (SLA). Kuyinqubo lapho into ye-3D ingaphrintwa ngayo isuka kumodeli yedijithali.
• La Okokuqala SLA uhlobo 3D umshini Yaqala ukuthengiswa ngo-1992, kodwa amanani ayo ayephezulu kakhulu futhi kwakuseyimishini eyisisekelo kakhulu.
• Ngo-1999 kwaphawulwa enye ingqopha-mlando, kulokhu kubhekiselwa kuyo i-bioprinting, ukukwazi ukukhiqiza isitho somuntu elabhorethri, ikakhulukazi esinyeni somchamo kusetshenziswa okokwenziwa okunama-stem cells ngokwawo. Lesi sigameko esiyingqopha-mlando sinomsuka ku-Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, sivula iminyango yokukhiqiza izitho zokufakelwa.
• El Izinso eziphrintiwe ze-3D zizofika ngo-2002. Kwakuyimodeli esebenza ngokugcwele enekhono lokuhlunga igazi nokukhiqiza umchamo esilwaneni. Le ntuthuko yakhiwe nakusona lesi sikhungo.
• U-Adrian Bowyer wasungula i-RepRap eNyuvesi yaseBath ngo-2005. Kuyisinyathelo somthombo ovulekile sokwakha amaphrinta e-3D ashibhile aziphindaphindayo, okungukuthi, angakwazi ukuphrinta izingxenye zawo futhi asebenzise izinto ezisetshenziswayo ezifana 3D imicu.
• Ngemva konyaka, ku 2006, ubuchwepheshe be-SLS bufika kanye nethuba lokukhiqiza ngobuningi ngenxa ye-laser. Ngayo, iminyango yokusetshenziswa kwezimboni ivuliwe.
• U-2008 kuzoba unyaka wephrinta yokuqala nge ikhono lokuziphindaphinda. KwakunguDarwin weRepRap. Ngawo lo nyaka, izinsiza zokudala ngokuhlanganyela nazo zaqala, amawebhusayithi lapho imiphakathi yayikwazi ukwabelana ngamadizayini ayo e-3D ukuze abanye bakwazi ukuwaphrinta kumaphrinta wabo we-3D.
• Inkulu inqubekelaphambili eseyenziwe e Imvume ye-3D prosthetics. Ngo-2008 kuzoba unyaka lapho umuntu wokuqala ezokwazi ukuhamba ngenxa yomlenze wokufakelwa ophrintiwe.
• 2009 unyaka we I-Makerbot namakhithi yamaphrinta e-3D, ukuze abasebenzisi abaningi bakwazi ukuwathenga ashibhile futhi bazakhele iphrinta yabo ngokwabo. Okusho ukuthi, kuqondiswe kubakhi kanye ne-DIY. Ngawo lowo nyaka, uDkt. Gabor Forgacs wenza esinye isinyathelo esikhulu ku-bioprinting, ekwazi ukudala imithambo yegazi.
• El indiza yokuqala ephrintiwe ku-3D izofika ngo-2011, idalwe onjiniyela abavela eNyuvesi yaseSouthampton. Kwakuwumklamo ongenamuntu, kodwa wawungenziwa ngezinsuku eziyi-7 kuphela futhi ngesabelomali se-€7000. Lokhu kwavula ukuvinjelwa kokukhiqizwa kweminye imikhiqizo eminingi. Eqinisweni, kulo nyaka kuzofika umfuziselo wokuqala wemoto ephrintiwe, i-Kor Ecologic Urbee, enamanani aphakathi kwama-€12.000 nama-€60.000.
• Ngaso leso sikhathi, ukuphrinta kwaqala ukusebenzisa izinto ezisezingeni eliphakeme njenge isiliva se-sterling negolide elingu-14kt, ngaleyo ndlela kuvula imakethe entsha yamatshe ayigugu, ekwazi ukudala izingcezu ezishibhile usebenzisa impahla enembile.
• Ngo-2012 yayizofika ukufakelwa umhlathi wokuqala wokufakelwa I-3D ephrintiwe ibonga iqembu labacwaningi baseBelgium nabaseDutch.
• Futhi okwamanje imakethe ayiyeki ukuthola izinhlelo zokusebenza ezintsha, zithuthukise ukusebenza kwazo, nokuqhubeka nokwanda ngamabhizinisi namakhaya.

Okwamanje, uma uzibuza ibiza malini iphrinta ye-3d, ingasukela ngaphezudlwana kuka-€100 noma ama-€200 esimweni sokushibhe nokuncane kakhulu, kuye ku-€1000 noma ngaphezulu esimweni sokuthuthuke kakhulu nesikhudlwana, futhi ngisho namanye abiza izinkulungwane zama-euro emkhakheni wezimboni.

### Kuyini ukukhiqiza okungeziwe noma i-AM

Ukuphrinta kwe-3D akulutho ukukhiqiza okungeziwe, okungukuthi, inqubo yokukhiqiza okuthi, ukuze udale amamodeli e-3D, adlulele izendlalelo zezinto. Okuphambene kakhulu nokukhiqizwa okukhiphayo, okusekelwe kubhlokhi yokuqala (ishidi, ingot, ibhulokhi, ibha,...) okukhishwa kuyo kancane kancane kuze kuzuzwe umkhiqizo wokugcina. Isibonelo, njengokukhiqiza okukhiphayo unocezu oluqoshwe ku-lathe, oluqala ngebhulokhi yokhuni.

Ngenxa yalokhu indlela yenguquko ungathola ukukhiqizwa okushibhile kwezinto ekhaya, amamodeli onjiniyela nabakhi bezakhiwo, thola ama-prototypes okuhlola, njll. Ngaphezu kwalokho, lokhu kukhiqizwa okungeziwe kwenze kwaba nokwenzeka ukudala izingxenye ezazingenakwenzeka ngaphambili ngezinye izindlela ezifana nokubunjwa, i-extrusion, njll.

### Yini i-bioprinting

I-Bioprinting iwuhlobo olukhethekile lokukhiqiza okungeziwe, okubuye kwakhiwe ngamaphrinta we-3D, kodwa imiphumela yawo ihluke kakhulu ezintweni ezingenasici. Meyi yenza izicubu nezitho eziphilayo, kusukela esikhumbeni somuntu kuya esithweni esibalulekile. Bangakwazi futhi ukwenza izinto ezihambisana ne-biocompatible, njengalezo zokwenziwa noma izimila.

Lokhu kungafinyelelwa kusuka izindlela ezimbili:

• Isakhiwo, uhlobo lokusekela noma isikafula sakhiwe ngezinhlanganisela ama-polymers ahambisanayo ukuthi awaliwa ngumzimba, nokuthi amaseli azowamukela. Lezi zakhiwo zingeniswa ku-bioreactor ukuze zikwazi ukugcwala amaseli futhi uma sezifakwe emzimbeni, kancane kancane zizokwenza amangqamuzana omzimba ophethe.
• Kungumbono wezitho noma ungqimba lwezicubu ngongqimba, kodwa esikhundleni sokusebenzisa izinto ezinjengamapulasitiki, noma ezinye, phila amasiko amaseli kanye nendlela yokubopha ebizwa ngokuthi i-biopaper (i-biodegradable material) ukuze ibumbe.

### Indlela amaphrinta e-3D asebenza ngayo

El ukuthi iphrinta ye-3d isebenza kanjani Ilula kakhulu kunalokho engase kubonakale:

1. Ungaqala kusuka ekuqaleni ngesoftware ukuya Ukumodeliswa okungu-3d noma idizayini ye-CAD ukuze ukhiqize imodeli oyifunayo, noma ulande ifayela eselidaliwe, futhi usebenzise isithwebuli se-3D ukuze uthole imodeli ye-3D entweni ebonakalayo yangempela.
2. Manje usunayo Imodeli ye-3D egcinwe efayelini ledijithali, okungukuthi, kusukela kulwazi lwedijithali enobukhulu kanye nokuma kwento.
3. Okulandelayo ukusika, inqubo lapho imodeli ye-3D "isikwa" ibe ngamakhulu noma izinkulungwane zezendlalelo noma izingcezu. Okusho ukuthi, indlela yokusika imodeli ngesoftware.
4. Uma umsebenzisi echofoza inkinobho yokuphrinta, iphrinta ye-3D exhunywe ku-PC ngekhebula le-USB, noma inethiwekhi, noma ifayela elidluliselwe ekhadini le-SD noma ipeni lokushayela, lizoba kuhunyushwe iphrosesa yephrinta.
5. Ukusuka lapho, iphrinta izohamba ukulawula izinjini ukuhambisa ikhanda futhi ngaleyo ndlela ukhiqize ungqimba ngongqimba kuze kube yilapho imodeli yokugcina ifinyelelwa. Ifana nephrinta evamile, kodwa ivolumu izokhula isendlalelo ngesendlalelo.
6. Indlela lezo zingqimba ezikhiqizwa ngayo zingahluka ngobuchwepheshe enamaphrinta e-3D. Isibonelo, zingaba nge-extrusion noma nge-resin.

## Idizayini ye-3D nokuphrinta kwe-3D

Uma wazi ukuthi iyini iphrinta ye-3D nokuthi isebenza kanjani, into elandelayo yazi isofthiwe edingekayo noma amathuluzi zokunyathelisa. Okuthile okubalulekile uma ufuna ukusuka kumdwebo noma umqondo uye entweni yangempela ye-3D.

Kufanele wazi ukuthi kunezinhlobo ezimbalwa eziyisisekelo zesoftware yamaphrinta e-3D:

• Ngakolunye uhlangothi kukhona izinhlelo ze Imodeli ye-3D noma idizayini ye-3D CAD umsebenzisi angadala ngayo imiklamo kusukela ekuqaleni, noma ayiguqule.
• Ngakolunye uhlangothi kukhona okuthiwa isofthiwe yokusika, okuguqula imodeli ye-3D ibe yimiyalelo ethile ezophrintwa kuphrinta ye-3D.
• Kukhona futhi isofthiwe yokuguqula i-mesh. Lezi zinhlelo, ezifana ne-MeshLab, zisetshenziselwa ukuguqula ama-meshes amamodeli e-3D uma adala izinkinga lapho uwaphrinta, njengoba ezinye izinhlelo zingase zinganaki indlela amaphrinta e-3D asebenza ngayo.

### Isoftware yephrinta ye-3D

Nazi ezinye zazo isofthiwe engcono kakhulu yokuphrinta ye-3d, kokubili kukhokhelwe namahhala, kwe Ukumodeliswa okungu-3d y Umklamo we-CAD, kanye nesofthiwe yamahhala noma yomthombo ovulekile:

#### Sketchup

I-Google kanye Nesofthiwe Yokugcina idaliwe I-SketchUp, nakuba igcine idlulele ezandleni zenkampani iTrimble. Isofthiwe ephathelene nobunikazi futhi yamahhala (enezinhlobo ezahlukene zezinhlelo zokukhokha) futhi nethuba lokukhetha phakathi kokuyisebenzisa kudeskithophu ye-Windows noma kuwebhu (noma iyiphi isistimu yokusebenza enesiphequluli sewebhu esihambisanayo).

Lolu hlelo lwe i-graphic design kanye ne-3D modelling ingenye engcono kakhulu. Ngayo ungakha zonke izinhlobo zezakhiwo, nakuba iklanyelwe ngokukhethekile imiklamo yezakhiwo, umklamo wezimboni, njll.

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#### I-Ultimaker Cura

I-Ultimaker idaliwe I-Cura, uhlelo lokusebenza oluklanyelwe ngokukhethekile amaphrinta e-3D lapho amapharamitha wokuphrinta angashintshwa futhi aguqulwe abe ikhodi ye-G. Yadalwa nguDavid Raan ngenkathi esebenza kule nkampani, nakuba ukuze kube lula ukuyilungisa wayezovula ikhodi yayo ngaphansi kwelayisensi ye-LGPLv3. Manje isiwumthombo ovulekile, onika amandla ukuhambisana okukhulu nesofthiwe yenkampani yangaphandle ye-CAD.

Namuhla, ithandwa kakhulu kangangokuthi i ezisetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni, enabasebenzisi abangaphezu kwesigidi esi-1 abavela emikhakheni ehlukene.

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#### i-prusaslicer

Inkampani yakwaPrusa nayo ibifuna ukwakha isoftware yayo. Ithuluzi lomthombo ovulekile elibizwa I-PrusaSlicer. Lolu hlelo lokusebenza lucebe kakhulu ngokwemisebenzi nezici, futhi lunokuthuthuka okusebenzayo.

Ngalolu hlelo uzokwazi ukuthekelisa amamodeli e-3D kumafayela omdabu angajwayelaniswa nawo amaphrinta okuqala ePrusa.

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#### umenzi wemibono

Lolu olunye uhlelo lumahhala, futhi lungafakwa kukho kokubili IMicrosoft Windows, macOS, naku-GNU/Linux. I-Ideamaker yakhelwe ngokukhethekile imikhiqizo ye-Raise3D, futhi ingesinye isisiki ongaphatha ngaso ama-prototypes akho ukuze aphrinte ngendlela esheshayo.

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I-FreeCAD idinga izethulo ezimbalwa, iwumthombo ovulekile wephrojekthi futhi mahhala ngokuphelele ukuklama I-3D CAD. Ngayo ungakha noma iyiphi imodeli, njengoba ubungenza ku-Autodesk AutoCAD, inguqulo ekhokhelwayo nekhodi yokuphathelene.

Kulula ukuyisebenzisa, futhi ine-interface enembile futhi inothile ngamathuluzi ongasebenza ngawo. Yingakho ingenye esetshenziswa kakhulu. Isekelwe ku-OpenCASCADE futhi ibhalwe nge-C++ nePython, ngaphansi kwelayisensi ye-GNU GPL.

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#### blender

Omunye ukwazana okukhulu emhlabeni wesoftware yamahhala. Le software enkulu isetshenziswa ngisho ochwepheshe abaningi, unikezwe amandla kanye nemiphumela inikeza. Itholakala ezinkundleni eziningi, njenge-Windows ne-Linux, nangaphansi kwelayisensi ye-GPL.

Kodwa into ebaluleke kakhulu ngale software ukuthi ayisebenzi nje kuphela ukukhanya, ukuhlinzeka, ukugqwayiza nokudalwa kwezithombe ezinezinhlangothi ezintathu kumavidiyo wopopayi, imidlalo yevidiyo, imidwebo, njll., kodwa futhi ungayisebenzisela ukwenza imodeli ye-3D futhi udale okudingayo ukuze ukuphrinte.

Landa

Kuyinkundla efana neFreeCAD, kodwa iyisoftware ephathelene nobunikazi nekhokhelwayo. Amalayisensi akho ane amanani aphezulu, kodwa ingenye yezinhlelo ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ezingeni lochwepheshe. Ngale software uzokwazi ukudala imiklamo yomibili ye-2D ne-3D CAD, wengeze ukuhamba, ukwakheka okuningi ezintweni zokwakha, njll.

Iyatholakala ku-Microsoft Windows, futhi enye yezinzuzo zayo ukuhambisana nayo Amafayela we-DWF, okungenye esakazwe kakhulu futhi yathuthukiswa yinkampani ye-Autodesk ngokwayo.

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#### I-Autodesk Fusion 360

I-Autodesk Fusion 360 Inokufana okuningi ne-AutoCAD, kodwa isekelwe ku-platform yefu, ukuze ukwazi ukusebenza noma kuphi lapho ufuna futhi uhlale unenguqulo ephakeme kakhulu yale software. Kulokhu, kuzodingeka futhi ukhokhe okubhaliselwe, okungashibhile ncamashi.

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I-TinkerCAD ingolunye uhlelo lokumodela lwe-3D ingasetshenziswa ku-inthanethi, kusuka kusiphequluli sewebhu, esivula kakhulu amathuba okusebenzisa noma yikuphi lapho udinga khona. Kusukela ngo-2011 ibilokhu ithola abasebenzisi, futhi isiphenduke inkundla ethandwa kakhulu phakathi kwabasebenzisi bephrinta ye-3D, ngisho nasezikhungweni zemfundo, njengoba ijika layo lokufunda lilula kakhulu kune-Autodesk.

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#### I-Meshlab

Iyatholakala ku-Linux, Windows, kanye ne-macOS, futhi imahhala ngokuphelele futhi ingumthombo ovulekile. I-MeshLab iwuhlelo lwe-3D mesh processing software. Umgomo wale software ukuphatha lezi zakhiwo ukuze zihlelwe, zilungiswe, zihlolwe, zinikezwe, njll.

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#### solidworks

Inkampani yase-Europe i-Dassault Systèmes, ephuma enkampanini engaphansi kwayo i-SolidWorks Corp., isungule isofthiwe ye-CAD ehamba phambili nesezingeni eliphezulu kakhulu yokumodela i-2D ne-3D. I-SolidWorks ingase ibe enye indlela ye-Autodesk AutoCAD, kodwa kunjalo yakhelwe ngokukhethekile ukumodela amasistimu emishini. Ayimahhala, futhi ayiwona umthombo ovulekile, futhi iyatholakala ngeWindows.

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#### Creo

Ekugcineni, I-Creo ingenye yesofthiwe ehamba phambili ye-CAD/CAM/CAE kumaphrinta e-3D ongawathola. Kuyisoftware edalwe yi-PTC futhi ekuvumela ukuthi udizayine inqwaba yemikhiqizo yekhwalithi ephezulu, ngokushesha nangomsebenzi omncane. Konke sibonga isikhombimsebenzisi sayo esinembile esiklanyelwe ukuthuthukisa ukusebenziseka nokukhiqiza. Ungathuthukisa izingxenye zokukhiqiza okungeziwe nokukhiphayo, kanye nokulingisa, ukwakheka kokukhiqiza, njll. Ikhokhwa, umthombo ovaliwe futhi weWindows kuphela.

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### Ukuphrinta kwe-3D

Isinyathelo esilandelayo sokuklama usebenzisa isofthiwe engenhla ukuphrinta kwangempela. Okusho ukuthi, uma kulelo fayela elinemodeli iphrinta ye-3D iqala ukwenza izendlalelo kuze kube yilapho uqeda imodeli nokuthola umklamo wangempela.

Este inqubo ingathatha ngaphezulu noma ngaphansi, kuye ngesivinini sokunyathelisa, ubunkimbinkimbi besiqephu, nobukhulu baso. Kodwa kungase kusuke emaminithini ambalwa kuye emahoreni. Phakathi nale nqubo, iphrinta ingashiywa ingagadiwe, nakuba kuhlale kukuhle ukuqapha umsebenzi ngezikhathi ezithile ukuvimbela izinkinga ekugcineni ezithinta umphumela wokugcina.

### ngemuva kwenqubo

Kunjalo, uma ingxenye isiqedile ukuphrinta kuphrinta ye-3D, umsebenzi awugcini lapho ezikhathini eziningi. Khona-ke abanye ngokuvamile bayafika izinyathelo ezengeziwe ezaziwa ngele-post-processing like:

• Susa izingxenye ezithile ezidinga ukukhiqizwa futhi ezingeyona ingxenye yemodeli yokugcina, njengesisekelo noma ukusekela okudingekayo ukuze ingxenye ime.
• Sand noma sula indawo engaphezulu ukuze ufinyelele isiphetho esingcono sokugcina.
• Ukwelashwa okungaphezulu kwento, njengokuvanisha, ukudweba, okugeza, njll.
• Ezinye izingcezu, njengezicucu zensimbi, zingase zidinge nezinye izinqubo ezifana nokubhaka.
• Uma kwenzeka ukuthi ucezu kuye kwadingeka luhlukaniswe izingxenye ngoba kwakungenakwenzeka ukwakha yonke into ngenxa yobukhulu bayo, kungase kudingeke ukuthi ujoyine izingxenye (umhlangano, iglue, i-welding ...).

## Imibuzo ebuzwa njalo

Okokugcina, isigaba sivuliwe Imibuzo evame ukubuzwa noma imibuzo nezimpendulo ezivame ukubuzwa okuvame ukuvela uma usebenzisa iphrinta ye-3D. Okuvame ukuseshwa yilezi:

#### Uyivula kanjani i-STL

Omunye wemibuzo evame kakhulu uwukuthi ungavula noma ubuke kanjani ifayela le-.stl. Lesi sandiso sisho amafayela we-stereolithography futhi angavulwa futhi ahlelwe isoftware ye-Dassault Systèmes CATIA phakathi kwezinye izinhlelo ze-CAD njenge-AutoCAD njll.

Ngaphezu kwama-STL, kukhona futhi amanye amafayela njengokuthi .obj, .dwg, .dxf, njll. Zonke zithandwa kakhulu futhi ezingavulwa ngezinhlelo eziningi ezahlukahlukene futhi ziguqule phakathi kwamafomethi.

#### Izifanekiso ze-3D

Kufanele wazi ukuthi akudingekile njalo ukuthi udale umdwebo we-3D ngokwakho, ungathola amamodeli enziwe ngomumo azo zonke izinhlobo zezinto, kusukela kuzibalo zemidlalo yevidiyo noma amamuvi, kuya ezintweni zasendlini ezisebenzayo, amathoyizi, okokufakelwa, imaski, ifoni. amacala, njll. Ukusajingijolo Pi, nokunye okuningi. Ayanda amawebhusayithi anemitapo yolwazi yalokhu izifanekiso zilungele ukudawunilodeka futhi ziphrintwe kuphrinta yakho ye-3D. Amanye amasayithi anconyiwe yilawa:

#### Kusuka kumodeli yangempela (ukuskena kwe-3D)

Okunye okungenzeka, uma okufunayo kuwukwenza kabusha i-clone ephelele noma umfanekiso wenye into ye-3D, ukusebenzisa a Iskena se-3d. Zingamadivayisi akuvumela ukuthi ulandele ukuma kwento, udlulise imodeli kufayela ledijithali futhi uvumele ukuphrinta.

## Izinhlelo zokusebenza nokusetshenziswa kwephrinta ye-3D

Ekugcineni, amaphrinta e-3D anjalo ingasetshenziswa ezinhlelweni eziningi. Izindlela ezivame kakhulu zokusetshenziswa ezingase zinikezwe yilezi:

### prototypes zobunjiniyela

Enye yezinto ezisetshenziswa kakhulu amaphrinta e-3D emkhakheni wezobuchwepheshe ukwenza i-prototyping esheshayo, okungukuthi, prototyping okusheshayo. Ukuze uthole izingxenye zemoto yomjaho, njenge-Formula 1, noma ukudala ama-prototypes ezinjini noma izindlela eziyinkimbinkimbi.

Ngale ndlela, unjiniyela uvunyelwe ukuthola ingxenye ngokushesha okukhulu kunalapho bekufanele ithunyelwe efekthri ukuze ikhiqize, kanye nokutholwa. test prototypes ukubona ukuthi imodeli yokugcina izosebenza njengoba bekulindelekile.

### izakhiwo kanye nokwakha

Yiqiniso, futhi ehlobene eduze nalokhu okungenhla, angasetshenziswa futhi yakha izakhiwo futhi wenze izivivinyo zemishini kubakhi bezakhiwo, noma ukwakha izingxenye ezithile ezingakwazi ukukhiqizwa nezinye izinqubo, dala ama-prototypes ezakhiwo noma ezinye izinto njengamasampula noma amamodeli, njll.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuvela kwe amaphrinta kakhonkolo nezinye izinto zokwakha, nazo ziye zavula umnyango wokukwazi ukuphrinta izindlu ngokushesha nangempumelelo kakhulu nangenhlonipho ngemvelo. Kuze kwahlongozwa ukuthi kuyiswe lolu hlobo lwephrinta kwamanye amaplanethi kumakoloni azayo.

### Ukuklama nokwenza ngokwezifiso ubucwebe nezinye izesekeli

Enye yezinto ezisabalele kakhulu ubucwebe obuphrintiwe. Indlela yokuthola izingcezu ezihlukile nezisheshayo, ezinezici eziqondene nawe. Amanye amaphrinta e-3D angaphrinta ezinye izintelezi nezinto ezisetshenziswayo ezifana nenayiloni noma ipulasitiki ngemibala ehlukene, kodwa akhona futhi amanye asetshenziswa emkhakheni wobucwebe obuchwepheshile ongasebenzisa izinsimbi ezinhle njengegolide noma isiliva.

Lapha ungafaka neminye imikhiqizo nayo ephrintwa kamuva nje, njenge izingubo, izicathulo, izesekeli zemfashini, Njll

### Ukungcebeleka: izinto ezenziwe ngephrinta ye-3D

Masingakhohlwa ezokungcebeleka, okuyikhona okusetshenziselwa amaphrinta amaningi e-3D asekhaya. Lokhu kusetshenziswa kungahluka kakhulu, kusukela ekudaleni ukwesekwa komuntu siqu, ukuthuthukisa imihlobiso noma izingxenye ezisele, ukuya ekudwebeni izibalo zabalingiswa bakho abayizintandokazi eziqanjiwe, amakesi amaphrojekthi we-DIY, izinkomishi eziqondene nawe, njll. Okusho ukuthi, ukusetshenziswa okungenzi inzuzo.

### Imboni yokukhiqiza

Abaningi izimboni zokukhiqiza sebevele basebenzisa amaphrinta e-3D ukukhiqiza imikhiqizo yabo. Hhayi nje ngenxa yezinzuzo zalolu hlobo lokukhiqiza okungeziwe, kodwa futhi ngenxa yokuthi ngezinye izikhathi, kunikezwe ubunzima bomklamo, akunakwenzeka ukuyidala ngezindlela zendabuko ezifana ne-extrusion, ukusetshenziswa kwesikhunta, njll. Ngaphezu kwalokho, lawa maphrinta athuthukile, akwazi ukusebenzisa izinto ezihlukahlukene kakhulu, kuhlanganise nezingxenye zensimbi zokunyathelisa.

Kuvamile futhi ukwenza izingxenye ezezimoto, ngisho nasezindizeni, njengoba zivumela ukuba kutholwe izingxenye ezithile ezilula kakhulu nezisebenza kahle kakhulu. Ezinkulu ezifana ne-AirBus, Boeing, Ferrari, McLaren, Mercedes, njll., sezinazo.

### Amaphrinta we-3D kwezokwelapha: amazinyo, i-prosthetics, i-bioprinting

Omunye umkhakha omkhulu ukusebenzisa amaphrinta we-3D ngu umkhakha wezempilo. Zingasetshenziselwa izinhloso eziningi:

• Khiqiza izitho zokufakelwa zamazinyo ngokunembe kakhudlwana, kanye nabakaki, njll.
• I-Bioprinting yezicubu ezifana nesikhumba noma izitho zokufakelwa esikhathini esizayo.
• Ezinye izinhlobo ze-prostheses zezinkinga zamathambo, motor noma zemisipha.
• Amathambo.
• njll

### Ukudla okuphrintiwe / ukudla

Amaphrinta e-3D angasetshenziswa ukwenza imihlobiso kumapuleti, noma ukuphrinta amaswidi afana noshokoledi ngendlela ethile, ngisho nokunye ukudla okuningi okuhlukile. Ngakho-ke, i- imboni yokudla iphinde ifune ukusebenzisa izinzuzo zale mishini.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, indlela ngcono ukudla okunomsoco, njengokunyatheliswa kwezibopho zenyama ezenziwe ngamaprotheni agaywe kabusha noma lapho kukhishwe khona imikhiqizo ethile eyingozi okungenzeka ibe senyameni yemvelo. Kukhona futhi amaphrojekthi athile wokwenza imikhiqizo yezilwane ezidliwayo noma imifino elingisa imikhiqizo yenyama yangempela, kodwa edalwe ngamaprotheni emifino.

### imfundo

Futhi, vele, amaphrinta e-3D ayithuluzi elizokhukhula izikhungo zemfundo, njengoba kunjalo umngane kumnandi for amakilasi. Ngazo, othisha bangakha amamodeli ukuze abafundi bafunde ngendlela engokoqobo nenembile, noma abafundi ngokwabo bangathuthukisa ikhono labo lobuhlakani futhi bakhe zonke izinhlobo zezinto.

## Ulwazi oluningi

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula