Thenga isithwebuli se-3D: indlela yokukhetha okungcono kakhulu

Isithwebuli se-3d

Ngaphezu kokukwazi ukuziklama i-geometry yesiqeshana ofuna ukusiphrinta kwakho Iphrinta ye-3D usebenzisa isofthiwe, kukhona futhi enye indlela elula engakwazi ukukopisha izinto ezikhona ngokunembe kakhulu. Imayelana Iskena se-3d, ezonakekela ukuskena ubuso bento oyifunayo bese uyiguqulela kufomethi yedijithali ukuze ukwazi ukuyithinta kabusha noma uyiphrinte njengoba injalo ukwenza izifaniso.

Kulo mhlahlandlela uzothola ukuthi ziyini. izikena ezingcono kakhulu ze-3D nokuthi ungakhetha kanjani esifaneleka kakhulu ngokwezidingo zakho.

Azikho izibuyekezo
Azikho izibuyekezo
Azikho izibuyekezo
Azikho izibuyekezo

Izikena ezihamba phambili ze-3D

Kunemikhiqizo eminingi evelele, njenge-German Zeiss ehlonishwayo, i-Shining 3D, i-Artec, i-Polyga, i-Peel 3D, i-Phiz 3D Scanner, njll., okwenza kube nzima nakakhulu ukukhetha. Uma unokungabaza ngokuthi yisiphi isithwebuli se-3D ongasithenga, nazi ezinye zazo. amamodeli amahle kakhulu Esikuncomayo ukuze uthenge okulungile:

I-Shining 3D EINSCAN-SP

Este Isithwebuli se-3D esinobuchwepheshe bokukhanya okumhlophe siphakathi kwezinhle kakhulu uma ufuna okuthile okuchwepheshile. Ukulungiswa kwayo kufika ku-0.05 mm, kuthwebula ngisho nemininingwane emincane kakhulu. Ingakwazi ukuskena izibalo ukusuka ku-30x30x30mm ukuya ku-200x200x200mm (nge-turntable) kanye nezinye ezinkulu ezingu-1200x1200x1200mm (uma zisetshenziswe ngesandla noma nge-tripod). Ngaphezu kwalokho, inejubane elihle lokuskena, ikhono lokuthekelisa kulo I-OBJ, i-STL, i-ASC ne-PLY, isistimu yokulinganisa okuzenzakalelayo, nesixhumi se-USB. Iyahambisana neWindows.

Shining 3D Uno Can

Le enye imodeli yalolu hlobo lomkhiqizo oludumile ithi ishibhile kunangaphambili, kodwa futhi ingaba inketho enhle uma ufuna okuthile okuzosetshenziswa ngokochwepheshe. sebenzisa futhi ubuchwepheshe bombala omhlophe, obunesinqumo esingu-0.1 mm kanye nekhono lokuskena izibalo ukusuka ku-30x30x30 mm kuya ku-200x200x200 mm (ku-turntable), nakuba ungayisebenzisa ngesandla noma ku-tripod yayo ukuze uthole izibalo ezifinyelela ku-700x700x700 mm. Inesivinini esihle sokuskena, ixhuma nge-USB, futhi ingasebenza namafomethi wefayela le-OBJ, STL, ASC kanye ne-PLY njengeyangaphambili. Iyahambisana neWindows.

I-Creality 3D CR-Scan

Lona omunye umkhiqizo omuhle udale isithwebuli semodeli ye-3D Kulula kakhulu ukuyisebenzisa, ngokulungiswa okuzenzakalelayo, ngaphandle kwesidingo sokulinganisa noma ukusebenzisa amamaki. Ixhuma nge-USB futhi iyahambisana neWindows, Android ne-macOS. Ngaphezu kwalokho, inokunemba okuphezulu okufika ku-0.1 mm kanye nesixazululo esingu-0.5 mm, futhi ingasebenza kahle ekusetshenzisweni kochwepheshe ngenxa yezici zayo nekhwalithi. Ngokuqondene nobukhulu bokuskena, bukhulu impela, ukuskena izingxenye ezinkulu.

I-BQ Ciclop

Lesi sithwebuli se-3D esivela kuhlobo lwe-BQ yaseSpain singenye inketho enhle uma usifuna okuthile okuthengekayo ku-DIY. Iskena esinembayo esingu-0.5mm esinekhamera yekhwalithi ye-Logitech C270 HD, amalaser amabili e-Class 1 aqondile, isixhumi se-USB, I-Nema stepper motors, umshayeli we-ZUM, okwazi ukuthumela ku-G-Code ne-PLY, futhi iyahambisana ne-Linux nezinhlelo zokusebenza ze-Windows.

I-Inncen POP 3D Revopoint

Okunye okuhlukile kunangaphambili. Iskena se-3D esine- Ukunemba okungu-0.3mm, Izinzwa Ezimbaxambili ze-Infrared (I-Eye Safe), Enamakhamera Ajulile, Ukuskena Ngokushesha, Ikhamera ye-RGB Yokuthwebula I-Texture Capture, i-OBJ, i-STL, kanye Nokusekelwa Kokuthekelisa Kwe-PLY, Ikhono Elinentambo noma Okungenantambo, Izindlela ezi-5 zokuskena ezahlukene, futhi ziyahambisana ne-Android, iOS, macOS kanye nezinhlelo zokusebenza zeWindows.

Yini isithwebuli se-3D

3d scan scan izibalo

Un Isithwebuli se-3D iyithuluzi elikwazi ukuhlaziya into noma isigcawu ukuthola idatha yokuma, ukuthungwa, futhi ngezinye izikhathi nombala. Lolo lwazi luyacutshungulwa futhi luguqulelwe kumamodeli edijithali ezinhlangothi ezintathu angasetshenziswa ukuwaguqula kusuka kusofthiwe noma ukuwaphrinta kuphrinta yakho ye-3D futhi wenze amakhophi afanayo ento noma isigcawu.

Indlela lezi zithwebuli ezisebenza ngayo ngokuvamile i-optical, ikhiqiza ifu lamaphoyinti ereferensi endaweni engaphezulu yento ukuze kukhishwe i-geometry enembile. Ngakho-ke, izikena ze-3D zihlukile kumakhamera avamileNakuba anomkhakha wokubuka omise okwekhoni, amakhamera athwebula ulwazi lombala endaweni engaphakathi kwendawo yokubona, kuyilapho isithwebuli se-3D sithwebula ulwazi lwendawo nendawo enezinhlangothi ezintathu.

Ezinye izikena azinikezi imodeli ephelele ngokuskena okukodwa, kodwa kunalokho zidinga amashothi amaningi ukuze zithole izingxenye ezihlukene zengxenye bese ziyihlanganisa ndawonye usebenzisa isofthiwe. Naphezu kwalokho, kuseyi-a inketho enembe kakhulu, ekhululekile futhi esheshayo ukuze uthole i-geometry yengxenye futhi ukwazi ukuqala ukuyiphrinta.

Isithwebuli se-3D sisebenza kanjani

Isithwebuli se-3D ngokuvamile sisebenza ngokusebenzisa eminye imisebe ekhishwa njenge ukukhanya, i-IR, noma i-laser beam ezobala ibanga phakathi kwento ekhiphayo nento, imaka iphoyinti lereferensi lendawo kanye nochungechunge lwamaphoyinti ebusweni bengxenye ezokopishwa, nezixhumanisi ngayinye. Ngohlelo lwezibuko, izoshanela indawo bese ithola izixhumanisi noma amaphoyinti ahlukene ukuze kuzuzwe okufana ncamashi nezinhlangothi ezintathu.

Kuye ngebanga lento, ukunemba okufunayo, nobukhulu noma ubunkimbinkimbi bento, ungase uyidinge. thatha okukodwa noma ngaphezulu kokukodwa.

Izinhlobo

Kukhona i-2 izinhlobo zesithwebuli se-3D okuyisisekelo, kuye ngendlela abaskena ngayo:

  • Oxhumana naye: Lezi zinhlobo zezikena ze-3D zidinga ukusekela ingxenye ebizwa ngokuthi i-tracer (imvamisa insimbi eqinile noma ithiphu lesafire) ebusweni bento. Ngale ndlela, ezinye izinzwa zangaphakathi zizonquma indawo ye-probe ukuze kudalwe kabusha isibalo. Asetshenziswa kakhulu embonini ukulawula izinqubo zokukhiqiza nangokunemba okungu-0.01 mm. Kodwa-ke, akuyona inketho enhle yezinto ezithambile, eziyigugu (isb. imifanekiso eqoshiwe yomlando), noma izinto ezithambile, njengoba ithiphu noma ukuloba kungashintsha noma kulimaze indawo engaphezulu. Okusho ukuthi, kungaba ukuskena okulimazayo.
  • akekho othintana naye: yizona ezisakazeke kakhulu futhi kulula ukuzithola. Zibizwa kanjalo ngoba azidingi ukuthintwa ngakho-ke ngeke zilimaze ingxenye noma ziyiguqule nganoma iyiphi indlela. Esikhundleni se-probe, bazosebenzisa ukukhishwa kwesignali ethile noma imisebe efana ne-ultrasound, amaza e-IR, ukukhanya, ama-X-ray, njll. Yizona ezisakazeke kakhulu futhi kulula ukuzithola. Phakathi kwalezi, futhi, kunemindeni emibili emikhulu:
    • Amafa: Lezi zisetshenziswa zihlaziya ukuma kwento futhi, kwezinye izimo, umbala. Kwenziwa ngokulinganisa okuqondile kwendawo, ukulinganisa izixhumanisi ze-polar, ama-engeli namabanga ukuze kuqoqwe ulwazi lwejometri olunezinhlangothi ezintathu. Konke sibonga iqiniso lokuthi ikhiqiza ifu lamaphoyinti angaxhumekile azolinganisa ngokukhipha uhlobo oluthile lwe-electromagnetic beam (i-ultrasound, i-X-ray, i-laser,...), futhi ezoshintsha ibe amapholigoni ukuze kwakhiwe kabusha futhi kuthekeliswe ngaphandle imodeli ye-3D CAD. . Ngaphakathi kwalokhu uzothola ama-subtypes afana nalawa:
      • Isikhathi sendiza: uhlobo lwesikena se-3D esisebenzisa amalaser futhi sisetshenziswa kakhulu ukuskena izindawo ezinkulu, ezifana nokuma kwe-geological, izakhiwo, njll. Isekelwe I-ToF. Azinembile futhi zishibhile.
      • unxantathu: Iphinde isebenzise i-laser ukwenza unxantathu, i-beam eshaya into kanye nekhamera ebeka iphoyinti le-laser nebanga. Lezi zikena zinokunemba okuphezulu.
      • umehluko wesigaba: ikala umehluko wesigaba phakathi kokukhanya okukhishiwe nokwamukelwe, isebenzisa lesi silinganiso ukuze ilinganisele ibanga lento. Ukunemba kulo mqondo kumaphakathi phakathi kokubili kwangaphambilini, kuphakeme kancane kune-ToF futhi kuphansi kancane kunonxantathu.
      • i-conoscopic holography: kuyindlela ye-interferometric lapho ugongolo oluvela endaweni ludlula kukristalu oluyi-birefringent, okungukuthi, ikristalu enezinkomba ezimbili zokuphinda zikhanye, eyodwa evamile negxilile kanti enye iyamangalisa, okuwumsebenzi we-engeli yesigameko ray phezu kwengilazi. Ngenxa yalokho, kutholakala imisebe emibili ehambisanayo eyenziwa ukuphazamisa kusetshenziswa i-cylindrical lens, lokhu kuphazamiseka kuthathwe inzwa yekhamera evamile ethola iphethini yamafringe. Ukuvama kwalokhu kugxambukela kunquma ibanga lento.
      • ukukhanya okuhlelekile: phrojusa iphethini yokukhanya entweni futhi uhlaziye ukuguqulwa kwephethini okubangelwa ijometri yesehlakalo.
      • ukukhanya okushintshiwe: bakhipha ukukhanya (imvamisa iba nemijikelezo ye-amplitude kufomu le-synodal) eguquguqukayo entweni. Ikhamera izothwebula lokhu ukuze inqume ibanga.
    • Izikweletu: Lolu hlobo lwesithwebuli luzohlinzeka ngolwazi lwebanga lisebenzisa imisebe ethile ukuze luthwebule. Ngokuvamile basebenzisa ipheya yamakhamera ahlukene aqondiswe endaweni yesigameko ukuze bathole ulwazi lwezinhlangothi ezintathu ngokuhlaziya izithombe ezishuthiwe ezihlukene. Lokhu kuzohlaziya ibanga lephuzu ngalinye futhi kunikeze izixhumanisi ezithile zokwenza i-3D. Kulesi simo, imiphumela engcono ingatholakala uma kubalulekile ukubamba ukuthungwa kwendawo yento eskeniwe, kanye nokushibhile. Umehluko nalawo asebenzayo ukuthi alukho uhlobo lwemisebe ka-electromagnetic olukhishwayo, kodwa bamane bazikhawulele ekubambeni ukukhishwa okukhona kakade endaweni ezungezile, njengokukhanya okubonakalayo okubonakala entweni. Kukhona futhi okuhlukile okufana nalokhu:
      • i-stereoscopic: Basebenzisa isimiso esifanayo ne-photogrammetry, banquma ibanga lephikseli ngayinye esithombeni. Ukuze enze lokhu, ngokuvamile usebenzisa amakhamera evidiyo amabili ahlukene akhomba endaweni efanayo. Ukuhlaziya izithombe ezithathwe ikhamera ngayinye, kungenzeka ukunquma la mabanga.
      • Silhouette: sebenzisa imidwebo edalwe ngokulandelana kwezithombe ezizungeze into enezinhlangothi ezintathu ukuze uwele kuzo ukuze wenze isilinganiso esibonakalayo sento. Le ndlela inenkinga yezinto ezingenalutho, ngoba ngeke ibambe izinto zangaphakathi.
      • Ukumodela okusekelwe esithombeni: Kukhona ezinye izindlela ezisizwa ngabasebenzisi ezisuselwe ku-photogrammetry.

Isithwebuli seselula se-3D

Abasebenzisi abaningi bavame ukubuza ukuthi ungakwazi yini sebenzisa i-smartphone njengokungathi isithwebuli se-3D. Iqiniso liwukuthi amaselula amasha angasebenzisa izinzwa zawo zekhamera ezinkulu ukuze akwazi ukuthwebula izibalo ze-3D ngenxa yezinhlelo zokusebenza ezithile. Ngokusobala ngeke babe nemiphumela yokunemba kanye nephrofeshinali efanayo njengesikena esizinikezele se-3D, kodwa zingaba usizo ku-DIY.

ezinye ezinhle izinhlelo zokusebenza zamadivayisi eselula I-iOS/iPadOS ne-Android ongayilanda futhi uyizame yilezi:

  1. sketchfab
  2. qlone
  3. I-Trnio
  4. ScandyPro
  5. ItSeez3D

isithwebuli sasekhaya se-3d

Bavame ukubuza ukuthi ungakwazi yini yenza isithwebuli se-3d esenziwe ekhaya. Futhi iqiniso liwukuthi kukhona amaphrojekthi abenzi angakusiza kakhulu kulokhu, njengokuthi I-OpenScan. Uzothola namaphrojekthi athile asekelwe ku-Arduino futhi angaphrintwa ukuze uwahlanganise ngokwakho kanje, futhi ungathola ungayishintsha kanjani i-xbox kinect ibe isithwebuli se-3d. Ngokusobala, zilungile njengamaphrojekthi we-DIY nokufunda, kepha ngeke ukwazi ukuzuza imiphumela efana neyabasebenzi.

Izinhlelo zokusebenza zesithwebuli se-3D

Ngokuqondene ne Izinhlelo zokusebenza zesithwebuli se-3D, ingasetshenziselwa ukusetshenziswa okuningi kunalokho ongakucabanga:

  • izicelo zezimboni: Ingasetshenziselwa ukulawula ikhwalithi noma ubukhulu, ukubona ukuthi izingxenye ezikhiqizwayo ziyahlangabezana yini nokubekezelelana okudingekayo.
  • Ukubuyela emuva kwezobunjiniyela: ziwusizo kakhulu ukuthola imodeli yedijithali enembile yento ukuze uyifunde futhi uyikhiqize kabusha.
  • Amadokhumenti akhiwe: Amamodeli anembile wesimo sendawo noma ukwakhiwa angatholakala ukuze enze amaphrojekthi, ukugcinwa, njll. Isibonelo, ukunyakaza, ukuguquguquka, njll., kungatholwa ngokuhlaziya amamodeli.
  • ukuzijabulisa kwedijithali: Ingasetshenziswa ukuskena izinto noma abantu ukuze basetshenziswe kumamuvi nemidlalo yevidiyo. Isibonelo, ungakwazi ukuskena umdlali webhola lezinyawo wangempela futhi udale imodeli ye-3D ukuze uyiphilise ukuze ibe ngokoqobo kakhulu kugeyimu yevidiyo.
  • Ukuhlaziywa nokugcinwa kwamagugu amasiko nomlando: Ingasetshenziswa ukuze kuhlaziywe, kubhalwe phansi, kudale amarekhodi edijithali, kanye nokusiza ekongiweni nasekulondolozeni amagugu amasiko nomlando. Ngokwesibonelo, ukuhlaziya eziqoshiwe, imivubukulo, mummies, imisebenzi yobuciko, njll. Okufana ncamashi nakho kungadalwa ukuze kuvezwe nokuthi okwangempela awonakele.
  • Khiqiza amamodeli edijithali wezimo: izimo noma izindawo zingahlaziywa ukuze kutholwe ukuphakama kwezwe, ukuguqula amathrekhi noma ukuma kwezwe kube ifomethi ye-3D yedijithali, kudalwe amamephu e-3D, njll. Izithombe zingathwetshulwa ngezikena ze-laser ze-3D, nge-RADAR, ngezithombe zesathelayithi, njll.

Ungasikhetha kanjani isithwebuli se-3D

Iskena se-3d

Ngesikhathi sika khetha isithwebuli se-3D esifanele, uma ungabaza phakathi kwamamodeli ambalwa, kufanele uhlaziye uchungechunge lwezici ukuze uthole leyo evumelana kangcono nezidingo zakho kanye nesabelomali onakho ukuze usitshale. Amaphuzu okufanele uwakhumbule yilawa:

  • Ibhajethi: Kubalulekile ukunquma ukuthi ungatshala malini kusithwebuli sakho se-3D. Kusuka ku-€200 noma ku-€300 kuya kulawo abiza izinkulungwane zama-euro. Lokhu kuzophinde kuncike ekutheni izosetshenziswa yini ekhaya, lapho kungafanele khona ukutshala imali eningi, noma ukusetshenziswa kwezimboni noma umsebenzi womsebenzi, lapho ukutshalwa kwezimali kuzokhokha khona.
  • ngokunemba: ingenye yezici ezibaluleke kakhulu. Ukunemba okungcono, imiphumela engcono ongayithola. Kuzinhlelo zokusebenza zasekhaya ukunemba okuphansi kungase kwanele, kodwa ezinhlelweni zokusebenza kubalulekile ukuba nembe kakhulu ukuze uthole imininingwane emincane yemodeli ye-3D. Izikena eziningi zezentengiso zivame ukuba phakathi kuka-0.1 mm no-0.01 mm, ukusuka kokunembe kancane ukuya kwenembe kakhulu ngokulandelana.
  • Isinqumo: akufanele kudidaniswe nokunemba, nakuba ikhwalithi yemodeli ye-3D etholiwe nayo izoxhomeka kuyo. Nakuba ukunemba kubhekisela ezingeni lokulunga okuphelele kwedivayisi, ukulungiswa yibanga elincane elingaba khona phakathi kwamaphoyinti amabili ngaphakathi kwemodeli ye-3D. Ngokuvamile kulinganiswa ngamamilimitha noma ama-microns, futhi okuncane kuba ngcono imiphumela.
  • Ijubane lokuskena: isikhathi esisithathayo ukwenza ukuskena. Ngokuya ngobuchwepheshe obusetshenzisiwe, isithwebuli se-3D singakalwa ngendlela eyodwa noma enye. Isibonelo, izikena ezisekelwe ekukhanyeni ezihlelekile zikalwa nge-FPS noma amafreyimu ngomzuzwana. Abanye bangalinganiswa ngamaphoyinti ngomzuzwana, njll.
  • Ukusetshenziswa kalula: Kungelinye iphuzu elibalulekile okufanele ulicabangele lapho ukhetha isithwebuli se-3D. Nakuba eziningi sezivele zisebenziseka kalula futhi sezithuthuke ngokwanele ukwenza umsebenzi wenziwe ngaphandle kokufaka okuningi komsebenzisi, uzothola okunye okuyinkimbinkimbi kunabanye.
  • usayizi wengxenye: Njengoba nje amaphrinta e-3D enemikhawulo yobukhulu, izikena ze-3D nazo zenza njalo. Izidingo zomsebenzisi odinga ukufaka kudijithali izinto ezincane azifani nalowo ofuna ukuyisebenzisela izinto ezinkulu. Ezimweni eziningi asetshenziselwa ukuskena izinto ezinosayizi abahlukene, ngakho-ke kufanele alingane ngokwebanga eliphansi neliphezulu odlala ngalo.
  • Ukuphatheka: Kubalulekile ukucacisa ukuthi ukuthwebula kuhlelwa ukuthi kuthathwe kuphi, nokuthi kumele kube lula yini ukuthwala nokuthwebula izigcawu ezindaweni ezahlukene, njll. Kukhona nanamandla ebhethri akwazi ukuthwebula ngaphandle kokuphazamiseka.
  • Ukuhambisana: Kubalulekile ukukhetha izikena ze-3D ezihambisana nengxenyekazi yakho. Ezinye ziyi-cross-platform, ziyahambisana nezinhlelo zokusebenza ezihlukene, kodwa hhayi zonke.
  • Software: Yilokho okushayela isithwebuli se-3D ngempela, abakhiqizi bala madivayisi ngokuvamile basebenzisa izixazululo zabo. Eminye ivamise ukuba nemisebenzi eyengeziwe yokuhlaziya, ukumodela, njll., eminye ilula. Kodwa qaphela, ngoba ezinye zalezi zinhlelo zinamandla ngempela, futhi zidinga ezinye izimfuneko ezincane kukhompyutha yakho (GPU, CPU, RAM). Futhi, kuhle ukuthi umthuthukisi unikeza ukwesekwa okuhle nezibuyekezo ezivamile.
  • Isondlo: Kuhle futhi ukuthi idivayisi yokuthwebula igcinwa ngokushesha futhi kalula ngangokunokwenzeka. Ezinye izikena ze-3D zidinga ukuhlolwa okwengeziwe (ukuhlanzwa kwe-optics,…), noma zidinga ukulinganisa okwenziwa ngesandla, ezinye zikwenza ngokuzenzakalelayo, njll.
  • izindlela: Kubalulekile ukunquma ukuthi izimo zizoba yini ngesikhathi sokuthwebula imodeli ye-3D. Ezinye zazo zingase zithinte amanye amadivayisi nobuchwepheshe. Isibonelo, inani lokukhanya, umswakama, izinga lokushisa, njll. Abakhiqizi bavame ukukhombisa ububanzi lapho amamodeli abo asebenza kahle, futhi udinga ukukhetha eyodwa ehambisana nezimo ozifunayo.

Ulwazi oluningi


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

Isivivinyo sesiNgisiHlola isiCatalanimibuzo yeSpanishi