Izinhlobo zokuphrinta kwe-3D: konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana nale nqubo

Iphrinta ye-3D

I-Las Amaphrinta we-3D bashibhile futhi bathandwa kakhulu, nge izinhlobo ezahlukene 3D zokunyathelisa, futhi zisetshenziselwa izinhlelo eziningi. Azisebenzi nje kuphela ukuphrinta izinto ezinokwakheka kathathu kwabenzi, onjiniyela, abakhi, njll., Manje sebengaphrinta nezindwangu zokuphila zezicelo zezokwelapha, amakhaya aphrintiwe, ukukhiqizwa kwezimboni, ku-motorsport ukudala izingxenye, zokudla okuphrintiwe, njll.

Uma ucabanga thenga iphrinta ye-3D ekhaya noma ngebhizinisi lakho, kufanele wazi izinhlobo zokuphrinta kwe-3D, umehluko, njll. Ngaphezu kwalokho, uzokwazi nezinye izinkinobho ukuze ukwazi ukukhetha kangcono imishini yakho yokuphrinta ...

Ungayikhetha kanjani iphrinta ye-3D nezinhlobo zokuphrinta kwe-3D?

Ukuphrinta kwe-3D

Akukona nje ukuthi izinhlobo zento yokuphrinta ye-3D uma ukhetha iphrinta ye-3D, eminye imingcele eminingi nayo idlala indima. Ukuze wenze ukukhetha okuhle, kufanele ugxile koku imibuzo emithathu ebalulekile:

  • Ngingachitha malini? Uzothola amaphrinta ashibhile kakhulu, asuka kumakhulu ambalwa ama-euro, aye kwamanye abiza izinkulungwane zama-euro. Konke kuzoya ngokuthi uyafuna yini ukuthi kusetshenziswe ekhaya noma kusetshenziselwe ubuchwepheshe obuthe xaxa.
  • Kwenzelwe ini? Omunye umbuzo obalulekile. Hhayi kuphela ngentengo, kodwa futhi nokusebenza kwephrinta ye-3D. Isibonelo, ukwenza izingcezu ezincane zekhaya, awunaki kakhulu ukuthi incane futhi inejubane eliphansi. Kepha ukwenza amamodeli amakhulu, kuzofanele ubheke amaphrinta ahamba ngaphezu kuka-6 noma u-8 ″.
  • Yiziphi izinto engizidingayo? Ezingxenyeni ezifuywayo, ngama-polymer ejwayelekile epulasitiki afana ne-PLA, ABS, PETG, njll., Kuzokwanela. Esikhundleni salokho, ezinye izicelo zobungcweti / zezimboni zingafaka ukusetshenziswa kwezindwangu, izinsimbi, inayiloni, njll.

Izinhlobo zezinto zokwakha:

Reel of PLA 3d iphrinta

Ngokuya ngezidingo zezingxenye, uzodinga uhlobo olulodwa noma olunye lwezinto zokubonisa. Ngokusobala, amaphrinta asekhaya, engizogxila kuwo, awemukeli zonke izinhlobo zezinto zokwakha. Ngenye yezincazelo ezikhonjisiwe, nefayili ye- imicu evame ukusekela Yilezi:

Iroll of filaments imvamisa ishibhile, futhi ithengiswa ngobude nobukhulu obuhlukile. Isibonelo, bangasuka ku-1.75mm baye ku-3mm. Ubukhulu kufanele bufane nalobo obusekelwa yinhloko ye-extrusion yephrinta yakho ye-3D.
  • ABSI-Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene iyi-thermoplastic ejwayelekile (isb. Izingcezu ze-LEGO zenziwa ngale nto). Ayikwazi ukubola, kepha inzima futhi inokuqina okuthile ukwakha izakhiwo eziqinile. Futhi inokuphikiswa okukhulu kwamakhemikhali, inyibilika kuphela nge-acetone. Imelana kahle nokuhuzuka, nokushisa, kepha kungalimala uma kushiywe ngaphandle ngenxa yokuchayeka kwe-UV.
  • I-PLA- I-Polylactic acid iyabola (yenziwa ngembewu, njenge-cornstarch), ngakho-ke inemvelo kakhulu futhi ingasetshenziselwa amaphrojekthi engadi. Ivumelekile ukusetshenziswa njengezitsha zasekhishini, njengezibuko, amapulasitiki, izinsimbi, njll. Yize ukuphela kungashelelanga njenge-ABS, ine-gloss ephezulu.
  • Ama-HIPSI-polystyrene enamandla kakhulu ifana kakhulu ne-ABS, noma ingajwayelekile njengaleyo eyedlule.
  • I-PET: I-Polyethylene terephthalate ivame emabhodleleni amanzi wamaminerali noma iziphuzo ezithambile, nakwezinye izinto zokupakisha zokudla. Kusobala futhi kuyamelana nemithelela kahle kakhulu.
  • I-Laywoo-d3: Ingashintsha umbala (ukukhanya / ubumnyama) ngezinga lokushisa, okuyinikeza izinto eziningi zokusetshenziswa kwezinye izinhlelo ezibandakanya ukulawula izinga lokushisa. Izakhiwo zayo zifana ne-PLA, iqinile, futhi ukuthungwa kwayo kuyefana nokhuni, kunemithambo.
  • I-Ninjaflex: i-thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) iyinto entsha eguquguqukayo, enokuguquguquka okukhulu. Uma ufuna ukwenza izingcezu eziguqukayo, yilokhu okufunayo.
  • Inayiloni: Iyinto ethandwa kakhulu (engeyona eye-polymer), uhlobo lwefayibha yezindwangu ezisetshenziswa ezingutsheni, ezintanjeni, nakwezinye izinto eziningi. Akulula ukulawula, ngakho-ke imininingwane yezingcezu ngeke ibe yinhle kakhulu, futhi iphakamisa nomswakama. Ngokwesimo sayo inamandla amakhulu okushisa nokushisa.
Kunama-reels amaningi alezi zinto ezinemibala ehluke kakhulu ukuze ukwazi ukukhetha leyo oyithanda kakhulu. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kukhona ezinemibala ehlukahlukene. Uma uqedela ucezu ngokuqeda ngopende, umbala ngeke ubaluleke kangako. Kukhona futhi, njengoba ngishilo, okushintsha ngokushisa, futhi kukhona ngisho ne-phosphorescent ukuze kukhanye ebumnyameni noma lapho kuvezwa imisebe ye-UV. Kukhona ngisho nezinto ezithile ezisebenza ngogesi, ukukwazi ukuphrinta amathrekhi angasetshenziswa kumasekethe ...

Izinhlobo zokuphrinta kwe-3D

izinhlobo zokuphrinta kwe-3D

Ngaphezu kokuqukethwe, nakho kubalulekile izinhlobo zokuphrinta kwe-3D. Njengokuthi uma ukhetha iphrinta yephepha ucabanga ukuthi uma ufuna iphrinta ye-inkjet, noma i-laser, i-LED, njll., Lapho ukhetha iphrinta ye-3D kufanele unake nobuchwepheshe obusebenzisayo, ngoba buzoya ngawo. ukusebenza nemiphumela:

  • I-FDM (i-Fused Deposition Modeling) noma i-FFF (Indwangu yefilidi efakiwe): Luhlobo lokumodela okuncibilikisiwe kwe-polymer. Intambo iyashiswa futhi iyancibilika ukuze kukhishwe i-extrusion. Inhloko izohamba nezixhumanisi ze-X, Y ngokusho kolwazi olukufayela lokuphrinta ukwenza into kabusha. Ipulatifomu eyakhiwe phezu kwayo nayo iyahamba kuleli cala, futhi izohamba ngohlangothi lwe-Z ukudala ungqimba ngongqimba. Izinzuzo zale nqubo ukuthi iyasebenza futhi iyashesha, yize ingafanele amamodeli anezingxenye ezivelele kakhulu, ngoba yenziwa kusukela phansi kuya phezulu.
  • I-SLA (I-StereoLithography): i-stereolithography uhlelo oludala impela lapho kusetshenziswa khona i-resin ye-photosensitive liquid ezokwenziwa lukhuni yi-laser. Le yindlela izendlalelo ezakhiwa ngayo kuze kube kutholakala ucezu lokugcina. Inemikhawulo efanayo ne-FDM, kepha ifinyelela izinto ezinendawo enhle kakhulu futhi enemininingwane eminingi.
  • I-DLP (iDigital Light Processing)- Ukucubungula ukukhanya kwedijithali kungenye yezinhlobo zokuphrinta kwe-3D okufana ne-SLA, kepha isebenzisa i-photopolymers elula enamanzi. Umphumela uba yizinto ezinezinqumo ezinhle kakhulu futhi ezinamandla kakhulu.
  • I-SLS (i-Laser Sintering ekhethiwe): Ukukhethwa kwe-laser okukhethiwe kufana ne-DLP ne-SLA, kepha esikhundleni seziphuzo basebenzisa i-powder. Isetshenziselwa amaphrinta anenayiloni, i-aluminium, nezinye izinto zalolu hlobo. I-laser izonamathela izinhlayiya zothuli ukwakha izinto. Ungakha izingxenye okunzima ukuzakha usebenzisa isikhunta noma i-extrusion.
  • I-SLM (Ukukhetha Ukuncibilika Kwelaser): ubuchwepheshe obuphambili futhi obubizayo, obufana ne-SLS. Kusetshenziswa ukuncibilika kwe-laser okukhethiwe, futhi kusetshenziswa kakhulu embonini ukuncibilikisa izimpushana zensimbi futhi kudale izingxenye.
  • I-EBM (Ukuqothuka kwe-Electron Beam): Lobu buchwepheshe busezingeni eliphezulu kakhulu futhi buyabiza, benzelwe umkhakha wezimboni. Isebenzisa ukuhlanganiswa kwento kusetshenziswa i-electron beam. Ingancibilikisa ngisho izimpushana zensimbi futhi ifinyelele ezingeni lokushisa elifinyelela ku-1000ºC. Amafomu aphelele kakhulu futhi athuthukisiwe angenziwa.
  • I-LOM (Ukukhiqizwa Kwento Enamathiselwe): ingenye yezinhlobo zokuphrinta kwe-3D ezisebenzisa ukukhiqizwa kwe-laminate. Amashidi wephepha, izicubu, insimbi noma ipulasitiki asetshenziselwa ukwakha izakhiwo. Lezi zingqimba zihlanganiswa isinamathelisi futhi zisikwa nge-laser. Kungenxa yokusetshenziswa kwezimboni.
  • I-BJ (I-Binder Jetting): umjovo we-binder nawo usetshenziswa ezimbonini. Sebenzisa i-powder, njengezinye izindlela. Ngokuvamile uthuli lu-plaster, usimende noma okunye okuhlanganisayo okuzohlanganisa izingqimba. Insimbi, isihlabathi noma ipulasitiki nakho kungasetshenziswa.
  • I-MJ (Material Jetting): umjovo wezinto ubunye bobuchwepheshe bokuphrinta be-3D obusetshenziswa embonini yobucwebe. Sekuyiminyaka isetshenziswa, futhi ifinyelela ikhwalithi enhle. Izendlalelo eziningi zakhiwe ngaphezulu komunye nomunye ukwakha ucezu oluqinile. Ikhanda lifaka amakhulu wamaconsi amancane we-photopolymer bese liwalapha (liwaqinise) nge-ultraviolet (UV) light.
  •  I-MSLA (Masked SLA): Luhlobo lwe-SLA efihliwe, okusho ukuthi, isebenzisa i-matrix ye-LED njengomthombo wokukhanya, ikhipha ukukhanya kwe-ultraviolet ngesikrini se-LCD esibonisa ishidi lesendlalelo elilodwa njengesifonyo, yingakho igama. Ungafinyelela izikhathi eziphakeme kakhulu zokuphrinta njengoba ungqimba ngalunye ludalulwa ngokuphelele ngasikhathi sinye yi-LCD, kunokuba ulandele izindawo ngothiphu we-laser.
  • I-DMLS (Direct Metal Laser Sintering)- Ikhiqiza izinto ngendlela efanayo ne-SLS, kepha umehluko ukuthi i-powder ayincibiliki, kepha iyashiswa nge-laser ize ifike lapho ingafakwa khona ezingeni lamangqamuzana. Ngenxa yengcindezi, izingcezu zivame ukuba ntekenteke ngandlela thile, yize zingafakwa enqubweni elandelayo yokushisa ukubenza bakwazi ukumelana ngokwengeziwe.
  • I-DOD (Drop On Demand)Ukuphrinta okudonswayo kudinga olunye uhlobo lokuphrinta kwe-3D. Isebenzisa amajethi amabili ayinki, enye ifaka izinto zokwakha kanti enye into ecekisekayo ezisekelweni. Iphinde idale ungqimba ngongqimba njengamanye amasu, kepha futhi isebenzisa i-fly-cutter epholisha indawo yokwakha ukudala ungqimba ngalunye. Ngakho-ke indawo eyisicaba ngokuphelele iyatholakala. Zisetshenziswa impela embonini ngokunemba okukhulu noma ukwenza isikhunta.

Akuzona zonke lezi ezenzelwe ukusetshenziswa ekhaya, ezinye zenzelwe ukusetshenziswa kwebhizinisi noma izimboni. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kunezinye izindlela ezintsha ezivelayo, yize zingadumile.

Iphrinta isici

Iphrinta engu-3d

Amaphrinta e-3D, kungakhathalekile izinhlobo zokuphrinta kwe-3D, nawo anezinombolo eziningi ze- izici zobuchwepheshe ezizonquma ukusebenza. Okubaluleke kakhulu okufanele ukwazi ukuthi:

  • Ijubane lokuphrinta: limele ijubane iphrinta elizoqeda ngalo ukuphrinta ingxenye. Kukalwa ngamamilimitha ngomzuzwana. Futhi zingaba ngama-40mm / s, 150mm / s, njll. Ukuphakama kwayo, isikhathi esincane esidingekayo ukuqeda. Khumbula ukuthi ezinye izingcezu, uma zikhulu futhi ziyinkimbinkimbi, zingahlala amahora ...
  • Umjovo: kuyisiqephu esiyisihluthulelo, ngoba kuzobe kuphethe ukufaka okubhaliwe ukwakha okubhaliwe, noma kungezona zonke izinhlobo zokuphrinta kwe-3D ezidinga eyodwa, ngoba ezinye zisebenza ngoketshezi nokukhanya. Kepha iningi lasekhaya linalo, futhi lakhiwe yizingxenye ezilandelayo:
    • Ithiphu eshisayo: yingxenye ebaluleke kakhulu. Inesibopho sokuncibilikisa intambo ngamazinga okushisa. Izinga lokushisa elifinyelelwe lizoncika ezinhlotsheni zezinto ezamukelwe. Kubalulekile ukukhetha amasistimu ane-cooler esebenzayo.
    • Umbhobho: ukuvulwa kwekhanda, okungukuthi, lapho kutholakala khona intambo ehlanganisiwe. Kukhona emikhulu enokunamathela okungcono nejubane, kepha ngesisombululo esiphansi (imininingwane emincane). Ezincane zihamba kancane, kepha zinemba kakhulu ukudala ubujamo obunzima kakhulu ngemininingwane emihle.
    • Isikhiphi: ucingo ngakolunye uhlangothi lwethiphu elishisayo. Futhi nguyena ophethe ukukhipha into encibilikisiwe. Ungathola izinhlobo eziningana:
      • Direct: banokulawula okungcono nokusebenza kalula. Zibizwa kanjalo ngoba zondliwa ngqo yipipi elishisayo.
      • Bowden: Kulokhu, intambo encibilikisiwe izohamba ibanga elithile phakathi kwethiphu elishisayo ne-extruder. Lokhu kukhanyisa indlela yokujova, ukunciphisa ukudlidlizela nokukuvumela ukuthi kusheshe.
  • Umbhede ofudumele: Ayikho kuwo wonke amaphrinta, kepha kusekela noma isisekelo ingxenye leyo ephrintwe kuso. Le ngxenye ingashiswa ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuthi leyo ngxenye ayilahli izinga layo lokushisa ngesikhathi sokunyathelisa, ifinyelela imiphumela engcono. Lokhu kudingekile ezintweni ezifana nenayiloni, i-HIPS, noma i-ABS. Ngaphandle kwalokho, ungqimba ngalunye ngeke lunamathele kahle kolandelayo. Amaphrinta we-PET, i-PLA, i-PTU, njll., Awadingi umbhede oshisayo, futhi asebenzise isisekelo esibandayo.
  • Fan- Ngenxa yamazinga okushisa aphezulu, amaphrinta ahlala enabalandeli ukugcina uhlelo lupholile. Lokhu kubalulekile ukugcina ukuthembeka kwephrinta.
  • I-STL: njengoba ubungabona ngesihloko se isoftware yokuphrinta, amaphrinta amaningi amukele ifomethi ejwayelekile ye-STL. Qiniseka ukuthi iphrinta yakho iyazamukela lezi zakhiwo zefayela.
  • UkuxhaswaYize amaphrinta adume kakhulu ehambisana neWindows, MacOS kanye ne-GNU / Linux, kufanele unake ngokukhethekile ukuthi ngabe kukhona abashayeli bohlelo lwakho.
  • ExtrasAmanye amaphrinta afaka nezinye izinto ezingathakazelisa, njengezikrini ze-LCD ezinolwazi mayelana nale nqubo, ukuxhumeka kwe-WiFi ukuzixhuma kunethiwekhi, amakhamera akhelwe ngaphakathi ukuze akwazi ukuthwebula inqubo yokuphrinta, njll.
  • Ihlanganisiwe vs ihlukanisweAmaphrinta amaningi alungela ukukhipha nokusebenzisa (kwabangenalwazi ngokwengeziwe), kepha uma uthanda i-DIY, ungathola imiklamo eshibhile ongayihlanganisa ngocezu usebenzisa amakhithi.

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.