Amagiya: konke odinga ukukwazi ngalezi zinhlaka

amagiya

I-Los amagiya Zisebuningini bezinqubo zamanje, kusuka kumawashi we-analog, izinjini zezimoto, amabhokisi wamagiya, ngokusebenzisa amarobhothi, amaphrinta, kanye nezinye izinhlelo eziningi zemidlalo. Ngenxa yabo, izinhlelo zokudlulisa zingenziwa futhi zidlulele ngaphezu kokudlulisa ukunyakaza, zingakuguqula futhi.

Ngakho-ke, yizinto ezibaluleke kakhulu lezo kufanele wazi ukuthi zisebenza kanjani Ngokufanele. Ngaleyo ndlela, ungasebenzisa amagiya afanele amaphrojekthi akho futhi uqonde kangcono ukuthi asebenza kanjani ...

Yini igiya?

amagiya

Kunezinhlelo zamaketanga, amasistimu e-pulley, amasondo wokushayisana, njll. Konke izinhlelo zokudlulisa ngobuhle nobubi bayo. Kepha kuzo zonke, uhlelo lwamagiye lubonakala, okuvame ukuba izintandokazi zezakhiwo zabo:

  • Bangamelana namandla amakhulu ngenxa yamazinyo abo ngaphandle kokushelela, njengoba kungaba njalo ngamasondo wokushayisana noma ama-pulleys.
  • Luhlelo olubuyela emuva, olukwazi ukudlulisa amandla noma ukunyakaza kuzindlela zombili.
  • Bavumela ukulawulwa kokunyakaza okunemba kakhulu, njengoba kungabonakala kufayela le- ama-stepper motors, isibonelo.
  • Bavumela ukudala izinhlelo zokudlulisa ezihlangene phambi kwamaketanga noma ama-pulleys.
  • Osayizi abahlukahlukene bangahlanganiswa ukuphazamisa ukuzungeza kwe-eksisi ngayinye. Ngokuvamile, lapho kusetshenziswa ama-sprocket amabili, igiya elikhulu libizwa ngokuthi isondo kanye ne-pinion encane.

Un igiya noma i-cogwheel akuyona nje into ngaphandle kohlobo lwesondo olunochungechunge lwamazinyo aqoshwe onqenqemeni lwayo lwangaphandle noma lwangaphakathi, kuya ngohlobo lwegiya oluyilo. Lezi zinqampuna zizoba kumjikelezo ojikelezayo ukukhiqiza i-torque emiphini enamathiselwe kuyo, futhi ingahlanganiswa ndawonye ukuze yenze amasistimu egiya anzima kakhulu, ahlanganise amazinyo awo ndawonye.

Ngokusobala, ukuze lokho kwenzeke, uhlobo nosayizi wamazinyo kufanele ifane. Ngaphandle kwalokho ngeke zihambisane futhi ngeke zilingane. Le mingcele ixoxwa esigabeni esilandelayo ...

Izingxenye zegiya

izingxenye gear

Ukuze amagiya amabili alingane, ubukhulu nenombolo yamazinyo kungahluka, kepha kufanele bahloniphe uchungechunge lwezinto ezenza igiya zivumelane, njengohlobo lwezinyo abalisebenzisayo, ubukhulu, njll.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona esithombeni esedlule, kukhona izingxenye eziningana ngegiya kufanele wazi:

  • I-Septum noma izingalo: yingxenye ephethe ukujoyina umqhele nekhiyubhu ukuze kudluliswe ukunyakaza. Zingaba zikhulu noma zingaphansi, futhi ukwakheka namandla ayo kuncike kakhulu emandleni nasesisindo. Kwesinye isikhathi kuvame ukubhobozwa ukunciphisa isisindo, kwesinye isikhathi kukhethwe ukwahlukanisa okuqinile.
  • The Cube: yingxenye lapho kufakwa khona shaft yokuhambisa ukunyakaza futhi enamathiselwe ukwahlukanisa.
  • Corona: yindawo yegiya lapho kusikwe khona amazinyo. Kubaluleke kakhulu, ngoba ukuhambisana, ukusebenza nokusebenza kwegiya kuzoncika kuyo.
  • Izinyo: ingenye yamazinyo noma okuvela komqhele. Izinyo lingahlukaniswa libe izingxenye eziningana:
    • ICresta: yingxenye engaphandle noma ichopho lezinyo.
    • Ubuso nohlangothi: yingxenye engenhla nephansi yohlangothi lwezinyo, okungukuthi, indawo yokuxhumana phakathi kwamasondo amabili egiya anezikhala.
    • Vala: kuyingxenye engezansi yezinyo noma indawo emaphakathi phakathi kwamazinyo amabili, lapho isidumbu selinye isondo elinamazinyo elizofakwa khona.

Konke lokhu kudala uchungechunge lwe umqhele wejometri lokho kuzohlukanisa izinhlobo nezakhiwo zamagiya:

  • Umjikelezo wezimpande: kumaka isigodi noma phansi kwamazinyo. Okusho ukuthi, inciphisa ububanzi obungaphakathi begiya.
  • Umjikelezo wokuqala: kusungula ukuhlukaniswa phakathi kwezingxenye ezimbili zohlangothi lwezinyo: ubuso nohlangothi. Ipharamitha ebaluleke kakhulu, ngoba zonke ezinye zichazwe ngokususelwa kuyo. Izokwahlukanisa izinyo libe yizingxenye ezimbili, i-dedendum ne-addendum.
    • Unyawo lwezinyo noma i-dedendum: yindawo engezansi yezinyo ephakathi kwesikwele sokuqala kanye nomjikelezo wezimpande.
    • Ikhanda lamazinyo noma isengezo: indawo engenhla yezinyo, ephuma esikweleni sokuqala kanye nasezingxenyeni ezingaphandle.
  • Umjikelezo wekhanda- izobeka uphawu lwamazinyo, okungukuthi, ububanzi obungaphandle begiya.

Njengoba ungacabanga, ngokuya ngomqhele, ububanzi nezinhlobo zamazinyo, ungakwazi ziyahlukahluka igiya ngokuya:

  • Inani lamazinyo: izocacisa isilinganiso segiya futhi ingenye yemingcele enquma kakhulu ukunquma ukusebenza kwayo ohlelweni lokudlulisa.
  • Ukuphakama kwamazinyo: ukuphakama okuphelele, kusuka esigodini kuya emmangweni.
  • Isinyathelo esiyindilinga: ibanga phakathi kwengxenye eyodwa yezinyo nengxenye efanayo yezinyo elilandelayo. Okungukuthi, ahluke kangakanani amazinyo, nawo ahlobene nenombolo.
  • Ukuqina: ubukhulu begiya.

Izicelo zeGiya

I-Las izicelo zamagiya baningi, njengoba sengivele ngiphawule phambilini. Ezinye zezinto ezisebenzisekayo yilezi:

  • Amabhokisi wamagiya ezimoto.
  • Ama-Stepper motors wokuguqula ukulawula.
  • Amabhomu we-Hydraulic.
  • Izinjini zazo zonke izinhlobo, njengokuguqula noma ukunyakazisa izinto.
  • Izindlela ezahlukahlukene.
  • Amaphrinta wokuhambisa amakhanda noma ama-roller.
  • Amarobhothi wezingxenye ezihambayo.
  • Imishini yezimboni.
  • Amawashi we-analog.
  • Imishini yasendlini enezingxenye zemishini.
  • Amadivayisi kagesi anezingxenye ezihambayo.
  • Izinjini zokuvula umnyango.
  • Amathoyizi eselula.
  • Imishini yepulazi.
  • I-Aeronautics.
  • Ukukhiqizwa kwamandla (umoya, ukushisa, ...).
  • njll

Ungacabanga ngobuningi bezinye izinhlelo zamaphrojekthi wakho nge-Arduino, amarobhothi, njll. Ungashintsha izindlela eziningi futhi udlale ngejubane, njll.

Izinhlobo zamagiya

Ngokuya ngamazinyo ayo nezimpawu zegiya uqobo, unayo izinhlobo ezahlukene zamagiya kutholakale kalula, ngayinye inezinzuzo nezinkinga zayo, ngakho-ke kubalulekile ukukhetha okulungile kuhlelo lokusebenza ngalunye.

I-Los izinhlobo ezivame kakhulu Yilezi:

  • Ukwakhiwa kwesakhiwo: zisetshenziselwa izimbazo ezifanayo.
    • Qondile: yizona ezivame kakhulu, ezisetshenziswa lapho kudingeka igiya elilula elingenamajubane aphezulu kakhulu.
    • Helical: zinguhlobo oluthuthuke kakhudlwana lwangaphambilini. Kuzo amazinyo ahlelwe ngezindlela ezihambisanayo ze-helix ezungeze isilinda (esisodwa noma esiphindwe kabili). Banethuba elicacile ngaphezu kokuhamba, njengokuthula, ukusebenza ngejubane eliphakeme, bangadlulisa amandla amaningi, futhi babe nokunyakaza okufanayo nokuvikelekile.
  • Okuyindilinga: zisetshenziselwa ukudlulisa ukuhamba phakathi kwamazembe abekwe kuma-engeli ahlukene, noma ku-90º.
    • Qondile: basebenzisa amazinyo aqondile futhi babelana ngezici nalawo aqondile angama-cylindrical.
    • Kuvunguza: kulokhu, basekela isivinini namandla amakhulu, njengoba kwenzekile kuma-helicals.
  • Amagiya angaphakathi: esikhundleni sokuba kuqoshwe amazinyo noma umqhele ngaphandle, kunakho ngaphakathi. Azivamile, kepha zisetshenziselwa nezinhlelo ezithile zokusebenza.
  • Amaplanethi: iqoqo lamagiya asetshenziswa ezinhlelweni ezithile zokudlulisa lapho kukhona igiya eliphakathi elizungeza amanye amancane. Kungakho inegama lelo, ngoba zibonakala zizungeza.
  • Isikulufa esingapheli: kuyigiya elijwayelekile kwezinye izindlela zezimboni noma zikagesi. Isebenzisa igiya elinamazinyo alo asikwe aba yisimo sokuvunguza. Zenza isivinini esihlala njalo futhi ngaphandle kokudlidliza noma umsindo. Bangadlulisela esondweni elinamazinyo eliqondile i-eksisi labo elibheke esikulilini esingapheli.
  • Rack futhi pinion: iqoqo lamagiya futhi elijwayelekile kwezinye izindlela futhi evumela ukunyakaza okujikelezayo kwe-eksisi ukuthi kuguqulwe kube ukunyakaza okuqondile noma okuphambene nalokho.

Uma uhambela i- Ukwakheka kwakhe, ungahlukanisa futhi phakathi kwezinto ezifana:

  • Amalenta: zivame ukwenziwa ngezinhlobo ezahlukene zensimbi, ama-alloys ethusi, ama-aluminium alloys, insimbi yensimbi noma i-grey cast iron, ama-alloys we-magnesium, njll.
  • Amapulasitiki: isetshenziswe ku-elekthronikhi, amathoyizi, njll. Zingama-polycarbonate, ama-polyamide noma ama-PVC amagiya, izinhlaka ze-acetal, i-PEEK polyetheretherketone, i-polytetrafluoroethylene (i-PTFE), nama-polymer e-liquid liquid (LCP).
  • Madera: azivamile, kuphela ezindleleni zakudala noma kumathoyizi athile.
  • abanye: kungenzeka ukuthi ezimweni ezithile kakhulu kusetshenziswa eminye imicu noma izinto ezithile.

Ungawathenga kuphi amagiya?

amagiya athenge

Ungakwazi thola izinhlobo ezahlukene zamagiya ezitolo eziningi ezisebenza ngomshini noma ngogesi. Isibonelo, nazi izibonelo:

Le mikhiqizo incane ngosayizi, uma udinga amagiya amakhulu kungenzeka ukuthi ungawatholi kalula. Futhi, uma udinga okuthile okucaciswe kakhulu, ama-workshops amaningi we-Turner angakwazi yenzele wena. I Amaphrinta we-3D Basiza nabenzi ukuthi bazenzele amagiya abo.

Izibalo eziyisisekelo zezinhlelo ze-sprocket

amagiya

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona kule GIF, kufanele uqonde ukuthi lapho amagiya amabili enezikhala, zombili izimbazo izophenduka iye kolunye uhlangothi futhi hhayi ngomqondo ofanayo. Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, uma ubheka i-red jagged rue ijikela kwesokudla, ngenkathi eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka iphendukela kwesobunxele.

Ngakho-ke, ukuze i-eksisi izungeze ohlangothini olufanayo kungadingeka ukwengeza elinye isondo elengeziwe, njengaleli eliluhlaza. Ngaleyo ndlela, okubomvu nokuhlaza kujikeleza ohlangothini olufanayo. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi, njengoba okwesibhakabhaka kuzungeziswa ngakwesobunxele, lapho kuhlanganiswa okuluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, okuluhlaza kuzobuyisela emuva ukujikeleza kokujikeleza futhi, ukuvumelanisa nokubomvu.

Enye into engaziswa kuleyo GIF isivinini sokujika. Ukube wonke amagiya abenobubanzi nobuningi bamazinyo, yonke imiphini ibizungeza ngejubane elifanayo. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, lapho inombolo / ubukhulu bezinyo buguqulwa, isivinini naso siyashintshwa. Njengoba ukwazi ukubona kuleli cala, okubomvu yikhona okuphotha okushesha kakhulu, njengoba sinobubanzi obuncane, kuyilapho okuluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ngejubane eliphakathi futhi okuluhlaza yilokho okuphotha okuhamba kancane.

Ukuphendula lokhu, kungenzeka ucabange ukuthi ukudlala ngosayizi isivinini kungashintshwa. Uqinisile, njengoba nje nebhayisikili lingakwenza ngokuhamba ngamagiya noma u-gearbox akwenze ngama-gear ratios wemoto. Futhi hhayi lokho kuphela, ungenza futhi izibalo ngejubane lokujika.

Uma unamagiya amabili acijile, elilodwa encane (pinion) nenye enkulu (wheel), okulandelayo kungenzeka:

  • Uma sicabanga ukuthi i-motor noma i-traction isetshenziswa ku-pinion futhi isondo liqhutshwa, yize iphini lijikeleza ngejubane elikhulu, linesondo elikhudlwana, lizoyinciphisa, lisebenze njenge ukunciphisa. Kuphela uma belingana ngosayizi (pinion = wheel) lapho ama-ekseli womabili azungeza ngejubane elifanayo.
  • Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uma sicabanga ukuthi kuyisondo elinokudonsa futhi ijubane lifakwa kulo, noma ngabe liphansi, iphini lizobe seliphenduka ngokushesha, ngoba usayizi walo omncane usebenza ukwandisa.

Izibalo zokudlulisa amagiya

Uma usukuzwisisile lokhu, ungenza izibalo zohlelo lokuhambisa olulula phakathi kwamagiya amabili ngokusebenzisa ifomula:

I-N1 Z1 = N2 Z2

Lapho u-Z eyinani lamazinyo wamagiya 1 no-2 acijile kanti i-N isivinini sokuzungezwa kwemiphini ku-RPM (izinguquko ngomzuzu noma ukuvukela ngomzuzu). Ngoba ejemplo, ake ucabange ukuthi ku-GIF engenhla, ukwenza lula:

  • Okubomvu (idrayivu) = 4 amazinyo futhi imoto isebenzisa ijubane lokujikeleza kushaft yayo engu-7 RPM.
  • Luhlaza okwesibhakabhaka = amazinyo ayi-8
  • Luhlaza = 16 amazinyo

Uma ufuna ukubala ithuba kulolu hlelo, kufanele uqale ubale ijubane lokuluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka:

4 7 = 8 z

z = 4 7/8

z = 3.5RPM

Okusho ukuthi, i-shaft eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ibizophenduka ibe yi-3.5 RPM, kancane kancane kune-4 RPM ebomvu. Uma ubufuna ukubala ukujika kohlaza, manje njengoba usazi ijubane eliluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka:

8 3.5 = 16 z

z = 8 3.5/16

z = 1.75

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, okuluhlaza kuzojikeleza ku-1.75 RPM, okuhamba kancane kunokuluhlaza okotshani nokuluhlaza. Futhi bekungenzekani uma imoto itholakala ku-eksisi eluhlaza futhi isondo lokushayela lizungeza ngo-4 RPM, khona-ke ukuzungeza kungaba yi-8 RPM eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, i-16 RPM ngokubomvu.

Ngakho-ke kulandela ukuthi, lapho isondo lokushayela lincane, isivinini esiphansi siyatholakala kushaft yokugcina, kepha ngamandla amakhulu. Uma kwenzeka ukuthi kuyisondo elikhulu elithwala ibhande, leli sondo elincane lifinyelela ijubane elikhulu, kepha lingaphansi kwamandla. Ngoba lapho amandla noma i-torque kwehlukile? Bheka le fomula:

P = T ω

Lapho u-P amandla adluliswa yi-shaft kuma-watts (W), T yi-torque eyenziwe (Nm), ω i-angular velocity lapho i-shaft ijikeleza khona (ama-rad / s). Uma amandla emoto egcinwa futhi ijubane lokujikeleza liphindaphindeka noma lincishisiwe, khona-ke i-T nayo iyashintshwa.Okufanayo kwenzeka uma i-T igcinwa ingaguquguquki futhi ijubane lihlukile, khona-ke u-P uyashintshwa.

Cishe futhi ufuna ukubala ukuthi ngabe i-eksisi izungeza ku-X RPM, ngabe izothuthukisa malini ngokuqonde ngqo, okungukuthi, velocity eqondile. Isibonelo, cabanga ukuthi kokubomvu unemoto ye-DC futhi ku-eksisi eluhlaza ubeke isondo ukuze imoto ihambe ngaphezulu. Kungahamba ngokushesha okungakanani?

Ukuze wenze lokhu, kufanele nje ubale umkhawulo wesondo olifakile. Ukuze wenze lokhu, phindaphinda ububanzi ngePi futhi izokunikeza umjikelezo. Ukwazi ukuthi isondo lingaqhubekela phambili ngaphi lapho ubheka khona okujika umzuzu ngamunye, ijubane elilinganayo lingatholakala ...

Lapha ngikukhombisa ividiyo ukuze ukuqonde lokhu ngendlela engcono:

Ukubalwa kwesibungu ne-sprocket

Ngokuqondene ne igiya lembungu ne-sprocket, kungabalwa nefomula:

i = 1 / Z

Lokhu kunjalo ngoba isikulufa sibhekwa kulolu hlelo njengesiponji esisodwa sezinyo esisikiwe ngesihogo. Ngakho-ke uma une-sprocket yamazinyo engama-60, ngokwesibonelo, kuzoba ngu-1/60 (lokhu kusho ukuthi isikulufu kuzodingeka sijike amahlandla angama-60 ukuze i-sprocket iqede i-1 turn). Ngaphezu kwalokho, kuyindlela engaguquguquki njengabanye, okungukuthi, iswidi alikwazi ukuguqulwa ukuze isibungu sizungeze, isibungu kuphela esingaba idrayivu shaft lapha.

Rack futhi pinion izibalo

Okwe-system Rack futhi pinion, izibalo ziyashintsha futhi, kulokhu yilezi:

V = (p Z N) / 60

Okungukuthi, phindaphinda iphimbo lamazinyo we-pinion (ngamamitha), ngenombolo yamazinyo we-pinion, nangangenani le-pinion elijika (ku-RPM). Futhi lokho kuhlukaniswe ngama-60. Isibonelo, cabanga ukuthi unohlelo olune-pinion yamazinyo engama-30, iphimbo engu-0.025m, nejubane le-40 RPM spin:

V = (0.025) / 30

V = 0.5 m / s

Okusho ukuthi, ibizothuthukisa isigamu semitha njalo ngomzuzwana. Futhi, kulokhu, yebo kuyabuyiselwa emuvaOkusho ukuthi, uma i-rack ihanjiswa kude, i-pinion ingenziwa ukuthi ijikeleze.

Ungabala ngisho nokuthi kuzothatha isikhathi esingakanani ukuhamba ibanga ngokubheka ifomula ye- ukunyakaza komugqa ofanayo (v = d / t), okungukuthi, uma i-velocity ilingana nebanga elihlukaniswe isikhathi, khona-ke isikhathi siyasuswa:

t = d / v

Ngakho-ke, vele ukwazi ijubane nebanga ofuna ukulibala, isibonelo, ake ucabange ukuthi ufuna ukubala ukuthi kuzothatha isikhathi esingakanani ukuhamba imitha eli-1:

t = 1 / 0.5

t = 2 imizuzwana

Ngiyethemba ngikusizile ukuthi uthole okungenani ulwazi olubaluleke kakhulu ngamagiya, ukuze uqonde ukuthi zisebenza kanjani nokuthi ungazisebenzisa kanjani ukuze uzuze ezinhlelweni zakho ezizayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

*

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   URamon kusho

    Kumenzi onjengami (osethathe umhlalaphansi ngenjabulo) kuhle ukuba nemininingwane ecacile, emfushane nephelele yokuthi ungakha kanjani amagiya futhi ukwazi ukuwaphrinta. Halala

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