Electrolytic capacitor: konke odinga ukukwazi

capacitor kagesi

Enye indatshana entsha yokwengeza "ilungu" elisha emndenini we Izingxenye ze-elekthronikhi ihlaziyiwe kule bhulogi. Lesi sikhathi sekuyithuba le- capacitor kagesi, uhlobo olujwayelekile lwe-capacitor lapho uzofunda khona konke okuyisisekelo odinga ukukwazi ukuqala ukusisebenzisa kumaphrojekthi wakho wesikhathi esizayo.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, kuyathakazelisa ukwazi kahle izici zobuchwepheshe zala ma-capacitors, i- umehluko kuma-capacitor we-ceramic, kanye nobuhle nobubi ...

Yini i-capacitor? 

Un capacitor, noma capacitor, Kuyisici esibalulekile sikagesi esisebenza njengendawo yokugcina amanzi, sigcina imali ekhokhwayo kagesi ngendlela yokwehluka okungaba khona ukuze siyidedele ngokuhamba kwesikhathi.

La i-shit egciniwe Igcinwe emapuletini amabili aqhubayo angenziwa ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene, kuya ngohlobo nobume be-capacitor. Futhi ukuwavikela ngogesi, kukhona amashidi we-dielectric, okungukuthi, okokuvikela izinto. Ngakho-ke kutholakala ukuthi lezi zinkokhelo zigcinwa kulezi zivikelo ezisebenzayo ngaphandle kokuxhumana kokubili (okungenani uma i-condenser isesimweni esihle futhi ingabhobozi...).

Okokusebenza kwe-dielectric okwehlukanisa amapuleti kungaba umoya, i-tantalum, i-ceramic, ama-plastiki, iphepha, i-mica, i-polyester, njll., Kuya ngohlobo lwe-capacitor nekhwalithi.

Amapuleti akhokhiswa inani elifanayo lokushaja (q), kepha anezimpawu ezahlukahlukene. Omunye uzokwenza + nomunye -. Uma usukhokhisiwe, ungakwazi ukuletha impahla ukuyikhulula ngokuqhubekayo ngamatheminali afanayo asetshenziselwe ukuyilayisha.

Ngendlela, umthamo wamandla kagesi owugcinayo kukalwa kumaFarads. Iyunithi enkulu kakhulu yama-capacitors amancane asetshenziswa kakhulu kumaphrojekthi we-elekthronikhi avamile. Ngakho-ke, kusetshenziswa ama-submultiples afana ne-microfarads (µF) noma i-picofarad (pF), kwesinye isikhathi futhi i-nanofarad (nF) ne-millifarad (mF). Eqinisweni, uma ngokwenza ubufuna ukufinyelela umthamo we-1 F, uzodinga indawo eyi-1011 m2 futhi lokho kuyadabukisa ...

Yize kungukuthi ama-capacitors amancane, okwenziwayo ukuphakamisa indawo ukusebenzisa izindlela ezahlukahlukene ekwakhiweni kwawo, njengokugoqa izingqimba, kusetshenziswa ama-multilayers, njll.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, umzimba ulinganiswa ngamaCoulombs, futhi uma uzibuza mayelana nefomula yokwenza izibalo, kufanele wazi ukuthi iyini:

C = q / V

Okungukuthi, amandla we-capacitor phakathi kwamapuleti amabili aqhubayo alingana nokushaja kuma-Coulombs phakathi kwe-voltage noma umehluko ongaba khona (volts) phakathi kwemikhawulo emibili noma ama-terminals we-capacitor.

Kusukela kuleyo fomula umuntu angakwazi futhi sula V ukuthola i-voltage:

V = q / C.

Lapho i-capacitor ikhokhiswa, akunjalo izolanda ngokushesha. Njengoba ngishilo ngenhla, izokukwenza kancane kancane, njengokulayisha kwayo. Izikhathi zizoya ngekhono le-capacitor nokumelana ochungechungeni nalo. Ukuphakama kokumelana namandla, kuzoba nzima kakhulu ukuthi okwamanje kudlule ku-capacitor futhi kuzothatha isikhathi eside ukushaja.

Akunconyelwa ukwenza ngaphandle kwe-resistor, ngoba ukushaja kungalimaza i-capacitor.

Lapho i-capacitor isishajiwe, ngeke isavuma ukukhokhiswa futhi iziphatha njenge- inkinobho evulekile. Lokho wukuthi, phakathi kwamatheminali amabili we-capacitor kuzoba nomehluko ongaba khona kepha awukho wamanje ozogeleza.

Uma usufuna khulula capacitorIzophinda futhi ikwenze ngokuqhubekayo ngokuya ngokuqina namandla we-capacitor, ithathe isikhathi esiningi noma esincane.

Impela uqaphele ukuthi uma ucisha into kagesi ene-LED, kuthatha isikhashana ukuthi icime, lokho kungenxa yokuthi enye i-capacitor ibisagcina imali futhi ibiyihambisa ku-LED noma ngabe icishiwe . Ngakho-ke, lapho uxhaphaza amandla kagesi kuyadingeka ukuthi ushiye isikhashana ngemuva kokuwucisha noma ungathola ukukhishwa komunye wama-capacitor awo.

I-Las amafomula wokunquma isikhathi sokulayisha nokwethula ka capacitor yilezi:

t = 5RC

Okusho ukuthi, isikhathi sokushaja / sokukhipha esilinganiswe ngemizuzwana sizolingana nokuphindwe kahlanu ukumelana ochungechungeni (ngama-ohms) ne-capacitor kanye necala layo. Uma ukumelana bekuyi-potentiometer, ungahluka ngisho nesikhathi sokuthi ikhiphe noma ishaje ngokushesha okungaphansi noma okungaphansi ...

Yini i-capacitor electrolytic?

Hay izinhlobo ezahlukene capacitors, njengokuhlukahluka, umoya, i-ceramic ne-electrolytic. Kodwa yi-capacitor electrolytic kanye ne-ceramic capacitor ezuze ukuthandwa kakhulu futhi ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ku-elekthronikhi.

El capacitor kagesi Luhlobo lwe-condenser olusebenzisa uketshezi lwe-ionic oluqhubayo njengenye yamapuleti alo. Lokhu kusho ukuthi imvamisa inamandla amaningi ngevolumu yeyunithi kunezinye izinhlobo zama-condensers. Ngaphezu kwalokho, zisetshenziswa kakhulu kumasekethe afana nama-modulators wesiginali ekunikezelweni kwamandla, ama-oscillator, ama-generator ejwayelekile, njll.

Kulolu hlobo lwama-capacitors a udizili okuyi-aluminium oxide efakwe ephepheni lokumunca. Yilokho okuzovikela izihlangu noma amaphepha wensimbi ahambayo akhokhiswayo.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona esithombeni, ngaphezu kwama-capacitors ajwayelekile osabalalayo (amatheminali abo asendaweni engezansi), kukhona ne- i-axial, ezinokwakhiwa okufana nama-resistors ajwayelekile, okungukuthi, zizoba ne-terminal ohlangothini ngalunye. Kepha lokho akuzishintshi izici zayo noma ukusebenza kwayo ...

Ukuthenga kuphi

Uma ufuna thenga i-electrolytic capacitor, ungayithola kalula ezitolo ezikhethekile ze-elekthronikhi noma uzithenge kuzingxenyekazi ze-inthanethi ezinjenge-Amazon. Nazi ezinye izincomo:

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, ziyingxenye kushibhile impela...

Umehluko nge-ceramic capacitors

i-ceramic capacitor vs i-electrolytic capacitor

Kukhona umehluko Lokhu kuphawuleka phakathi kwe-ceramic capacitor ne-electrolytic capacitor, hhayi kuphela ngoba okwakamuva kuvame ukuba nokushaja okuningi nevolumu, kodwa futhi nangenxa yezinye izizathu:

  • Uma sinamathela ekubukekeni kuphela, i-ceramic capacitor ivame ukwakheka njengentilili, kuyilapho i-electrolytic capacitor iyi-cylindrical.
  • I-ceramic capacitor isebenzisa amafoyili amabili ensimbi ezikhumulweni zawo ukugcina imali ekhokhwayo. I-capacitor ye-electrolytic ine-foil yensimbi ne-liquid ionic kuphela.
  • Ama-capacitor amaningi we-electrolytic ahlukanisiwe, okusho ukuthi, anendawo yokuphela okumele uyihloniphe. Akunjalo nge-ceramic, akunandaba ukuthi uzifaka kanjani esifundeni.
  • Lokhu kusho ukuthi i-ceramics ingasetshenziswa kuma-AC noma kuma-DC circuits, ngenkathi i-electrolytic capacitor isetshenziswa kuphela kuma-DC circuits.

Izinzuzo nokungalungi

Uma kuqhathaniswa ne-ceramic capacitor, i-electrolytic capacitor inochungechunge lwe izinzuzo kanye nokubi:

  • Njengoba ihlukanisiwe, izokhawulela ukusetshenziswa kwayo ekushintsheni amasekethe wamanje. Ngenkathi i-ceramic, njengoba ingafakwanga polarized, izosebenza ne-DC ne-AC ngokunganaki.
  • Ama-capacitors e-Electrolytic anomthamo ophakeme, kepha futhi nevolumu ephezulu. Izinto zobumba zinamandla aphansi, kepha zingahlanganiswa kangcono kumadivayisi amancane kakhulu.
  • Avikelekile emiphumeleni ethile yokudlidliza kwemishini. Amanye ama-ceramics angathatha ukudlidlizela futhi ukuguqule kube ukuguqulwa kwesiginali kagesi okungafuneki, kube sengathi kungumbhobho ... Kungumthelela ojwayelekile we-ceramic lapho uyicindezela noma uyidlidliza (bona i-Xtal, piezoelectrics, ...).
  • I-electrolytic capacitor isebenzisa izingqimba ezivikela ukushisa ezizwela kumandla aphezulu, ngakho-ke ngeke zisebenzele izinhlobo ezithile zamasekethe. Izinto zobumba zimelana kakhulu namandla aphezulu.

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

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