Isikhulisi sokusebenza - siyini?

i-amplifier yokusebenza

Uma ufuna ukufunda kabanzi ngaye i-amplifier yokusebenza, noma uma namanje ungazi ukuthi kuyini, lapha ungaqonda okwengeziwe ngalolu hlobo lwedivayisi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, lezi Izingxenye ze-elekthronikhi zisetshenziswa kakhulu kumasekethe amaningi, ngoba zilusizo kakhulu ekusebenziseni okuningi.

Ngenxa yabo, izimpawu ze-analog zingacutshungulwa, imisebenzi eminingi nabo, qhathanisa, njll. Namuhla bakhona kumasekethe amaningi owasebenzisa nsuku zonke, kufaka phakathi ibhodi lakho. I-Arduino...

Yini i-amplifier esebenzayo?

uphawu lwe-op amp

El umqondo op izovela ngo-1947. Eyokuqala yakhiwa kusetshenziswa amashubhu okugcoba azosetshenziswa kumakhompyutha wokuqala we-analog. Ngenxa yabo, imisebenzi eyisisekelo yezibalo ingenziwa, njengokungezelela, ukususa, ukuphindaphinda, ukwahlukanisa, ukukhipha, ukuhlanganisa, njll. Kungakho abizwa ngokuthi ama-amplifiers "asebenzayo"

Kuze kube ngo-1964, sibonga abadumile I-Fairchild Semiconductor, i-amplifier yokuqala yokusebenza kwe-monolithic eyakhelwe kusekethe ehlanganisiwe ibingeke ifike, njengoba isatshalaliswa namuhla. Kwakuwumsebenzi wonjiniyela uRobert John Widlar, futhi kwabekwa uphawu μA702. Ukusuka lapho ibizoguquka iye ku-741 μA1968, i-bipolar chip eye yaba yizinga lomkhakha.

Lezi zikhulisi ezisebenzayo (ezaziwa nangokuthi i-Op Amp), zingamadivayisi akwazi ukwenza imisebenzi eminingi ngokuya ngezinto ze-elekthronikhi ezihambisana nayo ezibekiwe. Lezi zinto zizonamathiselwa izikhonkwane zalo ezi-5 (i-pinout):

  • - okokufaka: ukufaka okuguqukayo.
  • + okokufaka: ukungena okuqondile, okungukuthi, ongeyena-zimali.
  • Okukhiphayo: Phuma.
  • + Amav: kungukudla okuhle.
  • -Amav: ukuphakelwa okungekuhle.

Kulawa madivayisi amanye izimo ezithile ukuthi kufanele wazi. Ngokwesibonelo:

  • Akukho ukungena kwamanje / okushiya izikhonkwane ezingaguquki nezingaguquki ngoba i-impedance phakathi kwalaba bobabili ayinamkhawulo (ku-op amp ekahle).
  • Inzuzo yokwehluka kokufanelekayo nayo izophela, yize empeleni kungenzeki, ngoba lapho ukufinyelelwa kufinyelelwa, amandla okuphuma ahlala njalo.
  • Umehluko ongaba khona phakathi kokufaka kokuphambukayo nokungaphenduki kufanele kube uziro.
  • Inzuzo ephezulu kakhulu. Kepha kulinganisiwe, okungukuthi, kuzofana kokufakwayo kokubili. Lokhu kusho ukuthi okukhiphayo aku-zero uma zombili izinto ezifakwayo zondliwa ngamasiginali alinganayo nangobumbano obulinganayo
  • Ukumelana kokufaka okuphezulu kakhulu, kanye nokumelana kokukhipha okuphansi kakhulu.
  • Njenganoma iyiphi enye amp, bangafinyelela endaweni yabo yokugcwala. Ngaleso sikhathi, isignali yokukhipha ngeke iqhubeke nokwanda noma ngabe umehluko phakathi kwamasignali wenza.
  • Umkhawulokudonsa nawo awunamkhawulo esimweni esihle, kepha esimweni sangempela akunakwenzeka. Lokhu kukhombisa ububanzi bemvamisa lapho umsebenzi wokusebenza onikeziwe ugcinwa unembile.

Futhi njengoba igama layo liphakamisa, i-op amp iyithuluzi elingakwazi khuphula noma yiluphi uhlobo lwesiginali (i-voltage noma umfutho), zombili kushintshana zamanje nezamanje. Futhi lokho kwanele ukwenza imisebenzi eminingi ngokuya ngamalungiselelo noma izindlela esizobona esigabeni esilandelayo ...

Izindlela zokusebenza

Into enhle nge-op amp ukuthi ingakwazi zilungiselelwe ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene ukuze usebenze ngokuhlukile:

Umtshalizimali

I-op amp ingasebenza njenge-amplifier voltage umtshalizimali hhayi umtshali-zimali. Uma uyenza njenge-inverter, amandla okukhipha aphikisana nesigaba kumandla wokufaka (esikhundleni sesigaba esifanayo nakuma-non-inverters).

Futhi, kufanele wazi ukuthi bangasebenza bobabili nge okwamanje okuqhubekayo nokushintsha manje kulolu hlobo lokumisa Endabeni ye-AC, i-capacitor C1 izofakwa ochungechungeni naphambi nje kwe-R1.

Kulokhu, ukuzuza kungabalwa nefomula:

Av = - R2 /R1

Ngenkathi ungakwazi abale ukumelana exhuma kokufaka kanye nomhlabathi nge:

R3 =R1 R2 /R1 + R2

Hhayi zimali

hhayi umtshali-zimali

Isikhulisi sokusebenza hhayi umtshali-zimali izonikezwa amandla ngokufaka okungaguquguquki, futhi isignali yokukhipha isesigabeni naleyo yokufaka. Kulokhu ingasebenza futhi kulokhu kulungiselelwa kwe-DC njenge-AC, enezela esimweni sesibili ama-capacitor amabili, i-C1 kokufaka okuqondile, kanye ne-C2 ngokulandelana phakathi kwe-R1 nomhlabathi.

Kulokhu, inzuzo ibalwa ngokuhlukile:

Av = R1 + R2 /R1

Ngenkathi i ukumelana kwesithathu isabalwa nefomula efanayo naku-inverter ...

Isengezo sevolthi

isengezo

I-op amp ingasetshenziselwa hlanganisa amasiginali okokufaka okuvela emithonjeni ehlukene. Lolu hlobo lwesekethe lusebenzisa okokufaka okumbalwa (kufika kuma-10, yize kukhona ama-3 kuphela esithombeni).

Okwenzeka lapha ukuthi i- amandla ilingana nesamba semisinga ethile yokufakwayo (njengoba kusungulwe ngumthetho kaKirchhoff):

Ii = Mina1 + Mina2 + Mina3

Ngayinye yalezi ngamandla, ukusebenzisa i- Umthetho ka-Ohm, kuzoncika kusuka:

I1 = V1 /R1

I2 = V2 /R2

I3 = V3 /R3

Njengoba umfutho wamanje wokufaka unenani elifanayo futhi ungophawu oluphambene ne okukhipha njengamanje, kunganqunywa ukuthi:

Ii = - Minao

Ngakho-ke, kunganqunywa ukuthi i- amandla okukhipha kube:

Vo = Minao R4 = -Ii R4

Kulokhu, ngiyaphinda ngiyengeza ama-capacitor ingasebenza futhi ne-AC ...

Isikhombi se-Voltage

umamukeli

Kulokhu, kuyi- umehluko amplifier okwakhiwa ngumtshali-zimali kanye nongenzi zimali. Ingasetshenziselwa ukukhipha ukushintshana nokuqondisa imisinga, kuzokwanela ukubeka noma ukususa ama-capacitors ochungechungeni nama-resistor okokufaka kwawo.

Kulokhu, amandla okukhipha kube:

Vo = Vo1 +Vo2 =R4 /R1 (Vo1 +Vo2)

Ukuqhathanisa

isiqhathanisi

Ngokucushwa okufana ne- isiqhathanisi, amanani amabili ohlobo olufanayo lwesiginali azofaniswa futhi isignali yokukhipha izokhombisa ukuthi amanani wokufaka afanayo noma cha. Okusho ukuthi, okulandelayo kungenzeka:

Uma i-Vi1 <Vi2  okukhipha i-Vo kuzoba kuhle.

Uma i-Vi1 > Vi2  okukhipha i-Vo kuzoba okungekuhle.

Kufanele ukhumbule ukuthi uma kusetshenziswa isekethe ku- iluphu evulekile (ngaphandle kokuphikiswa kwempendulo), kuzoziphatha njengesiqhathanisi sevolthi.

Ezinye izilungiselelo

Ungakwazi lungiselela ezinye izindlela Kula ma-amplifiers asebenzayo, axhume ku-cascade, futhi afake ama-resistors ngama-potentiometers ukwenza ama-amplifiers wokuthola okuguquguqukayo, njengesihlanganisi, okuphuma kokunye, njengabaguquli, kwemisebenzi ye-logarithmic ne-exponential, i-comparator iwindi, njll. Kepha lezi zivame ukwedlula lezo engizichaze ngenhla ...A

Aplicaciones

I-Las izinhlelo zokusebenza kulawa ma-opps angaba amaningi. Kufanele ngabe uzisebenzisile. Eqinisweni, akhona kumabhodi athile entuthuko, kuma-calculator edijithali, kuzihlungi zesistimu yomsindo (ukudlula okuphezulu, ukudlula okuphansi, umkhawulokudonsa, okokuhlunga okusebenzayo, ama-oscillator), kuma-preamplifiers nama-audio / video buffers, kuma-regulators, converters, adapters level (isib.

Su nokuguquguquka Kungenxa yokuthi zingasebenza njengeziqhathaniso zesiginali, abalandeli bamandla kagesi, izikhulisi ezingaguquguquki, isengezi esiguqukayo, njengesengezi esiguqukayo, njengesihlanganisi, i-shunt, isiguquli samanje se-voltage, semisebenzi ye-logarithmic noma yokuveza izinto, njengeDigital / Analog abaguquli, njll.

Ama-amplifiers asebenza kakhulu

Uma ungumenzi noma wenza uhlobo oluthile lwephrojekthi ye-DIY, ngokuqinisekile uzofuna ukwazi ezinye zazo amamodeli we-op amp ajwayelekile kakhulu. Ngokwesibonelo:


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

Isivivinyo sesiNgisiHlola isiCatalanimibuzo yeSpanishi