Ukushintshanisa kwamanje ngokuqondile kwamanje: umehluko nokufana

yamanje, umbhoshongo kagesi

Kumele hlukanisa phakathi kwamanje okushintshayo nokwamanje okuqondile. Zombili zibaluleke kakhulu, futhi zisetshenziswa kwezimboni futhi ezingeni lasekhaya ukunika amandla inqwaba yamadivayisi. Kusuka kwimishini yezimboni, kwimishini yasendlini, ngamadivayisi eselula, nokunye izakhi ze-elekthronikhi.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, uzofunda nokufana, ngoba kukhona phakathi kwe- DC ne-AC, kanye nendaba ethokozisayo nemizabalazo phakathi kwabasunguli ababili abadume kakhulu okuholele nakwezinye izihluku zokubakhuthaza ...

Uyini umfudlana?

Ukuhlala njalo kukaFaraday

Una okwamanje kungukugeleza okuthile, kungaba ngumfudlana wamanzi, noma ugesi. Endabeni yamandla kagesi, okwenzeka ngempela ukuthi kukhona ukugeleza kwama-electron ahamba ngaphakathi ngaphakathi komqhubi, ngisho noma kungabonakali.

Lona ugesi Kungaba izinhlobo ezimbili ngokuyisisekelo ...

Yini i-current current?

UThomas Alba Edison

Njengoba uzokwazi vele uma ufunda le bhulogi kaningi, i- DC, futhi efushaniswe njenge-CC (noma i-DC ngesiNgisi), ingamanje enesiqondiso esisodwa. Okusho ukuthi, ukugeleza kwama-electron kuzoba ohlangothini oluthile ngokusebenzisa umqhubi phakathi kwamaphoyinti amabili wamandla ahlukile kanye namandla kagesi. Uma besingagrafu okukhona kugrafu, bekungavela njengomugqa oqhubekayo, oqhubekayo.

Lo mzuzu oqondile wakhiqizwa okokuqala ngqa ku-1800, ngenxa yebhethri elenziwe yisazi semvelo sase-Italy u-Alessandro Volta. Uhlobo lokugeleza kwamanje lwalungaqondakali kahle ngaleso sikhathi, kepha kwaba impumelelo ebalulekile. Ngo-1870 nasekuqaleni kwawo-1880, logesi waqala ukwenziwa ezitshalweni zikagesi, ukuze kukhanyiswe izinkampani namakhaya ngemuva kokusungulwa kwebhalbhu yokukhanyisa. Thomas Edison.

Ukuvikela lolu hlobo lwamanje, u-Edison weza ukuzokwenza imibukiso ye-dantesque ngempela, ezama ihlazisa uNikola Tesla, ethi imali yakhe yamanje iyingozi kakhulu. Ukuze enze lokhu, u-Edison weza ukwenza imiboniso yomphakathi eshaya izilwane ezihlukile. Ekuqaleni kuka-1903, abantu abayinkulungwane babona ukuthi wayibamba kanjani ugesi futhi wayibulala kanjani indlovu ngamandla angu-6600 XNUMX volts. Kodwa-ke, indlovu ngaphambilini yayiphakelwe izaqathe ezinobuthi be-cyanide ukuqinisekisa ukuthi iyafa. Yonke le micimbi yabizwa nge- Impi yemisinga.

Izicelo nokuguqulwa

Le ndlela eqondile manje yathathelwa indawo enye eshintshanayo, eyayinezinzuzo zayo njengoba sizobona. Kodwa-ke, okwamanje isetshenziselwa kabanzi ukusebenza kwezakhi ze-elekthronikhi, njengemishini yokubuka okubukwayo, amakhompyutha, njll. Ukuze bonke basebenze kunethiwekhi kagesi eshintshanayo, amadivayisi wokulungisa asetshenziselwa uguquko, njengama-adaptha noma amandla kagesi.

Ubumbano

Yize kumanje kushintshana polarity akubalulekile kangako, ngqo njengamanje kuyinto ebaluleke ngempela, futhi kufanele ihlonishwe uma isekethe lizosebenza kahle hhayi ukubhidlika. Ukushintsha ubukhulu ku-DC kungasho ukulimala okungenakulungiseka kwezinye izimo, ngakho-ke kufanele uqaphele ngalokhu.

Kungakho-ke kujwayelekile ukubona ama-terminals noma amakhebuli amakwe ngesigxobo sawo esihambelanayo, noma imibala ukuhlukanisa. Ngokuvamile, okubomvu kusetshenziselwa isigxobo esivumayo (+), futhi kumnyama kusetshenziswa okungekuhle (-). Ezinye izifunda eziyinkimbinkimbi ze-DC zingangeza imibala eyengeziwe futhi.

Yini i-AC?

Nikola Tesla

La ukushintshana kwamanje, efushaniswe njenge-CA (noma i-AC ngesiNgisi), wuhlobo lwamandla kagesi ubukhulu bawo nokuqondisa kwawo kuyahlukahluka ngokulandelana, ngezikhathi. Lokho ukusho ukuthi, ngokungafani neCC, okwakungumugqa oqondile omelwe kwigrafu, esimweni sokushintshana umelwa njengokushaywa kwe-sinusoidal. Inani lemijikelezo ephelele ngomzuzwana lizoya ngemvamisa yomjikelezo. Isibonelo, eYurophu sino-50 Hz, noma izikhathi ezingama-50 ngomzuzwana, kanti e-US isebenza kuma-60 Hz.

Le yamanje izovela ngo-1832, lapho iPixii izokwakha i- i-alternator yokuqala, i-dynamoelectric generator, ngokuya ngemigomo yeFaraday. Kamuva, iPixii izokwengeza neswishi ukukhiqiza i-current ngqo, ebisetshenziswa kakhulu ezikhathini zasendulo. Ngo-1855 kwanqunywa ukuthi i-AC yayingaphezu kuka-DC futhi yagcina ukufaka enye esikhundleni sayo.

Obunye ubuchwepheshe bamanje babunabo ithuthukiswe eYurophu, sibonga umsebenzi kaGuillaume Duchenne ngawo-1850s. Ngo-1876, unjiniyela waseRussia naye wayezokwakha uhlelo lokukhanyisa olufana noluka-Edison, kodwa olunamandla amakhulu e-AC. Inkampani yeGanz Works eBudapest izoqala ukukhiqiza imishini yokukhanyisa ngokususelwa kule migomo, ngaphezu kweminye imishini ngokususelwa kulo mzuzu.

Unjiniyela waseSerbia nomsunguli Nikola Tesla, wayengomunye wabavikeli abakhulu kunabo bonke bamanje ngokumelene nokuqhubeka kuka-Edison. Wakhe futhi wakha imoto yokuqala yokungenisa eshintshanayo yokuqala, engaguqula amandla kagesi abe yimishini yokujikeleza. Ngaphezu kwalokho, lobu buhlakani buzosiza nokwenza amasistimu wokusabalalisa amandla aphelele ngaphandle kokwenza ushintsho kulayini.

Ngokwengeziwe, uTesla uphenye ngedivayisi eyenziwe ngonjiniyela baseYurophu ebizwa ngokuthi isiguquli. Ngenxa yayo, ingaguqulwa ibe ugesi ophansi, bese iyenza iphephe kakhulu emakhaya, ngaphandle kwesidingo sokuthi ifike ngobuningi lapho ikhiqizwe khona, ngoba okunye okwesaba kakhulu ubungozi bayo. Lokhu kuphenya kuzoba ukuqala kocingo Impi yemisinga.

Onke amalungelo obunikazi aphathelene ne-CA kaNikola Tesla anikezwa inkampani I-Westinghouse Electric, ukukhulisa imali nokuqhubeka namaphrojekthi asuselwa kulo mkhuba. Ngemuva kwalokhu, ukuhanjiswa okokuqala kwe-CA phakathi kwe-CA kwakungeke kuthathe isikhathi eside, kwenzeka ngo-1891. Lokho kwakuzokwenzeka eTelluride (eColorado), ezinyangeni ezimbalwa kamuva naseYurophu, kusukela eLauffen kuya eFrankfurt (eJalimane).

Ngenkathi i-AC inqoba futhi isakazeka emhlabeni wonke, uThomas Edison uqhubeke nokukhuthaza ukuqondiswa kwamanje, into engamlahlekisela isikhundla sakhe enkampanini. Ugesi ka-Edison (manje ebizwa ngeGeneral Electric), ayisungule ngokwakhe ...

Aplicaciones

Kusetshenziswa enye indlela yamanje eyezezimboni neyekhaya, yiyo ehamba ngezintambo zikagesi ukuletha ugesi kuzo zonke izingxenye zomhlaba. Ingasebenza izinto zasendlini, izinjini, imishini yezimboni, amasistimu efriji, nokunye okuningi.

Ubumbano

Njengoba ngishilo ngaphambili, lapho uxhuma i- ipulaki, awunaki ukuthi uyibeka kanjani njengoba izosebenza noma kunjalo. Lokhu kungenxa yesimo samagagasi samanje esishintshayo, njengoba sizoshintsha. Kodwa-ke, ngokufakwa okuvamile, kunezindlela zokuhlukanisa izintambo, njll. Ngokuvamile unocingo oluphuzi / oluhlaza oluwumhlabathi, ucingo oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka noma olumhlophe luzoba olungathathi hlangothi, kuthi onsundu noma omnyama abe yisigaba.

DC vs AC: izinzuzo nobubi

cc vs ca

Yomibili le mifudlana isasetshenziswa kabanzi namuhla, njengoba injalo ubuhle nobubi bayo. Isibonelo:

  • Ukushintshana kwamanje kulula kakhulu ukukuguqula, into engenzeki nge-current current.
  • Ukuze ushintshe i-voltage, uma ushintsha amandla wamanje kufanele usebenzise i-transformer, ngenkathi kumanje ngqo udinga ukuxhuma ama-dynamos noma ama-generator ochungechungeni, okungasebenzi.
  • Ukushintshwa kwamanje kungasatshalaliswa emabangeni amade ngamandla aphansi wamanje, kulahlekelwa okuncane kakhulu ngesimo sokushisa ngenxa yomphumela weJoule neminye imiphumela efana nemisinga ye-eddy noma i-hysteresis. Ngenkathi i-DC ilahlekelwe kakhulu, futhi kungadingeka ukuthi kube nenani elikhulu lezitshalo zamandla eduze kwamaphoyinti okufuneka.

Ukuguqulwa kwe-AC / DC

Umthombo we-ATX

(bheka ugesi)


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.