Noma kungabonakala njengeyunithi yobude, ku micrometer esikhuluma ngakho nansi ithuluzi eliqanjwe kanjalo. Kuyaziwa nangokuthi i-gauge yesundu, futhi ingaba ithuluzi elibalulekile kunoma iyiphi indawo yokusebenzela yomenzi noma kulabo abathanda i-DIY, ngoba ivumela ukukala ngokunemba okukhulu ezinye izinsimbi ezingakwazi.

Kulesi sihloko uzofunda okwengeziwe mayelana yini, yenzelwa ini, isebenza kanjani, kanye nokhiye bokukhetha okuhle kumaphrojekthi wakho wesikhathi esizayo ...

## Yini i-micrometer?

El i-micrometer, noma i-Palmer caliper, iyithuluzi lokulinganisa elinembe kakhulu. Njengoba igama lalo liphakamisa, lisetshenziselwa ukukala izinto zosayizi omncane kakhulu ngokunemba okukhulu. Ngokuvamile, bathambekele ekubeni nephutha elincane, bekwazi ukukala kuze kufike kuma-hundredths (0,01 mm) noma izinkulungwane (0,001 mm) we-millimeter.

Ukubukeka kwayo kuzokukhumbuza okuningi kwe- caliper noma caliper ezivamile. Eqinisweni, indlela esebenza ngayo iyafana kakhulu. Sebenzisa isikulufa ngesikali esiphothuliwe esizosetshenziselwa ukunquma isilinganiso. Lawa madivayisi athinta imikhawulo yento ezolinganiswa, futhi uma ubheka isikali sayo uzothola umphumela wesilinganiso. Vele, ubuncane futhi buningi, ngokuvamile bungu-0-25 mm, noma kukhona okunye okukhudlwana.

### historia

cunt kwezezimboniIkakhulu ngesikhathi seNguquko Yezimboni, intshisekelo enkulu yokulinganisa izinto ngokunembile yaqala ukukhula. Izinsimbi ezazisetshenziswa ngaleso sikhathi, njengamageji avamile, noma amamitha, zazinganele.

Uchungechunge lwezinto ezakhiwe zesikhathi esedlule, njengesikulufu se-micrometer se UWilliam Gascoigne ka-1640, baletha ukuthuthuka kwe-vernier noma i-vernier esetshenziswe kuma-calibers esikhathi. I-astronomy ibingenye yemikhakha yokuqala lapho izosetshenziswa khona, ukukala amabanga ngokunembile ngesibonakude.

Kamuva kuzofika ezinye izinguquko nokuthuthuka kwalolu hlobo lwensimbi. NjengamaFulentshi UJean Laurent Palmer, owathi ngo-1848, wakha ukuthuthukiswa kokuqala kwe-micrometer ephathwa ngesandla. Lo mklamo waboniswa eParis ngo-1867, lapho wawuzodonsela khona uJoseph Brown noLucius Sharpe (weBrown & Sharpe), abaqala ukuwakha njengethuluzi ngobuningi ngo-1868.

Lo mcimbi wenze ukuthi abasebenzi bezindawo zokusebenzela bakwazi ukuthembela kuthuluzi eliqonde kakhulu kunalelo ababenalo phambilini. Kepha bekungaze kufike ngo-1890, lapho usomabhizinisi nomsunguli waseMelika ULaroy Sunderland Starrett ibuyekeze i-micrometer futhi inelungelo lobunikazi ngendlela yayo yamanje. Ngaphezu kwalokho, wasungula inkampani i-Starrett, engomunye wabakhiqizi abakhulu bezinsimbi zokulinganisa namuhla.

### Izingxenye ze-micrometer

Emfanekisweni ongenhla ungabona izingxenye ezibaluleke kakhulu ze-Palmer caliper noma i-micrometer. Ingabe izingxenye Yilezi:

1. Umzimba: ucezu lwensimbi olwenza uhlaka. Idalwe kusuka kokuqukethwe okungafani kakhulu nezinguquko ezishisayo, okungukuthi, ngokunwebeka nokuncipha, ngoba lokhu kungadala ukuthi kuthathwe izilinganiso ezingalungile.
2. Thaya: iyona ezonquma u-0 wesilinganiso. Kubalulekile ukuthi yenziwe ngento eqinile, njengensimbi, ukugwema ukuguga futhi kungashintsha isilinganiso.
3. Spike: kuyinto yeselula ezonquma ukulinganisa kwe-micrometer. Lokhu kuzoba yilona elihambayo njengoba uvula isikulufa size ixhumane nengxenye. Okusho ukuthi, ibanga phakathi kwaphezulu ne-spike kuzoba isilinganiso. Ngokufanayo, futhi kuvame ukwenziwa ngento efanayo neyaphezulu.
4. Ukulungisa i-lever: ikuvumela ukuthi uvimbe ukuhamba kwesipikha ukulungisa isilinganiso ukuze singanyakazi, noma ngabe ususe ucezu ukukala.
5. Ratchet: Kuyingxenye ezokhawulela amandla asetshenziswayo lapho kwenziwa isilinganiso sokuxhumana. Kungashintshwa kalula.
6. Isigubhu seselula: Yilapho kulotshwa khona isilinganiso esinembile kunazo zonke, kumashumi mm. Labo abane-vernier nabo bazoba nesinye isikali sesibili ngokunemba okukhulu, noma izinkulungwane zamamilimitha.
7. Isigubhu Fixed: yilapho kubekwa khona isilinganiso esinqunyiwe. Umugqa ngamunye uyimilimitha, futhi kuya ngokuthi amamaki esigubhu angashintshi, lokho kuzoba yisilinganiso.

### Isebenza kanjani i-Palmer micrometer noma i-caliper

I-micrometer inesimiso esilula. Kususelwa ku isikulufa ukuguqula ukufuduswa okuncane ngesilinganiso esiqondile ngenxa yesilinganiso sayo. Umsebenzisi walolu hlobo lwethuluzi uzokwazi ukugoqa isikulufa kuze kube yilapho amathiphu wokulinganisa enza ukuxhumana nobuso bento ezolinganiswa.

Ngokubheka ukumaka kugubhu elithweswe iziqu, isilinganiso singanqunywa. Ngokwengeziwe, amaningi ala ma-micrometer afaka phakathi i- i-vernier, okuzovumela ukufundwa kwezilinganiso ezinamaqhezu ngenxa yokufakwa kwesikali esincane.

Vele, ngokungafani ne-caliper ejwayelekile noma i-caliper, izinyathelo zikaPalmer kuphela ububanzi bangaphandle noma ubude. Usuyazi vele ukuthi igeji ejwayelekile nayo inamandla okulinganisa ububanzi bangaphakathi, ngisho nokujula ... Kodwa-ke, njengoba uzobona esigabeni esilandelayo, kunezinhlobo ezithile ezingakuxazulula lokhu.

### Izinhlobo

Kuneziningana izinhlobo ze-micrometer. Ngokuya ngendlela yokufunda, bangaba:

• Mechanics: azisetshenziswa ngokuphelele, futhi ukufundwa kwenziwa ngokuhumusha isikali esirekhodiwe.
• digital: ziyi-elekthronikhi, zinesikrini se-LCD lapho kufundwa khona ukuze kubonakale kulula.

Futhi zingahlukaniswa kabili ngokusho kwe- uhlobo lwamayunithi oqashiwe:

• Uhlelo lwedesimali: basebenzisa amayunithi we-SI, okungukuthi, uhlelo lwe-metric, ngamamilimitha noma ama-submultiples alo.
• Uhlelo lweSaxon: sebenzisa amasentimitha njengesisekelo.

Ngokwalokho abakulinganisayo, ungahlangabezana nama-micrometer afana nalokhu:

• Estándar: yilezo ezikala ubude noma ububanzi bezingcezu.
• Kujulile: ziwuhlobo olukhethekile olunokusekelwa ngezitobhi ezimbili noma isisekelo esihlala ngaphezulu. Ngenkathi i-spike iphuma ibheke ngasesisekelweni ukuthinta phansi futhi ngaleyo ndlela ulinganise ukujula ngokunembile.
• Ngaphakathi: Zibuye ziguqulwe ngezingcezu ezimbili zokuxhumana ukukala amabanga noma ububanzi bangaphakathi ngokunembile, njengaphakathi kwethambo, njll.

Kukhona nezinye izindlela zokwenza ikhathalogi, kodwa lezi yizona ezibaluleke kakhulu.

## Ungathenga kuphi i-micrometer

Uma ufuna thenga i-micrometer yekhwalithi nenembile, nazi izincomo ongazithanda:

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

### Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Isivivinyo sesiNgisiHlola isiCatalanimibuzo yeSpanishi