I-Linear motor: ungaqala kanjani ukuyisebenzisa kumaphrojekthi akho e-DIY

imoto kagesi

Kukhona izinhlobo ezahlukene zama-motor kagesi, njengoba wazi kahle uma usifunda njalo. Kwezinye izindatshana sethule amanye amamotho abalulekile amaphrojekthi akho e-DIY ngawo I-Arduino noma of I-Mechatronic, kodwa kulesi sihloko esisha sizogxila ohlotsheni oluthile lwenjini: motor eqondile.

para funda kabanzi Mayelana nalokhu, ngiyakumema ukuthi uqhubeke ufunda...

Iyini injini yomugqa?

Un motor eqondile Iwuhlobo olukhethekile lwenjini kagesi ehlukile kumamotho avamile ngoba ayikhiqizi ukunyakaza okujikelezayo, okungukuthi, ayijikelezi i-axis, kodwa kunalokho ikhiqiza amandla omugqa ngobude bayo. Lolu hlobo lwemoto lusebenza ikakhulukazi njenge-actuator yohlobo lwe-Lorentz, lapho amandla akhiqizwayo ahlobene ngokuqondile namandla kagesi kanye nensimu kazibuthe esetshenziswayo.

Ungadideki ukuthi iyini injini yomugqa ne-actuator yomugqa, engasetshenziswa futhi kumaphrojekthi we-DIY electronics. Esikhundleni salokho, i-actuator iyi-plunger ehamba ngokulandelana, kungaba ngogesi nge-rack kanye ne-pinion motor, ngomjikelezo ophindaphindayo, ngomfutho we-hydraulic, ngisho nokusebenzisa ama-stepper motors ukulawula ukunyakaza ngokunembe kakhudlwana.

Kunemiklamo ehlukene yamamotho aqondile, kodwa ngokuvamile ahlukaniswa abe izigaba ezimbili main: izinjini

  • Izinjini zokusheshisa eziphansi- Zifanele izicelo ezifana nesitimela se-maglev nezinye izinhlelo zokuthutha ezihamba phansi ezisebenza kahle kakhulu. Lezi zitimela zingakwazi ukuhanjiswa kuwo wonke amathrekhi zisebenzisa ugesi kanye nozibuthe, futhi zingahamba ngesivinini esikhulu, nakuba zidinga isikhathi esengeziwe ukuze zisheshise zifinyelele esivinini esikhulu.
  • Izinjini zomugqa zokusheshisa okuphezulu: Ngokuvamile zimfushane futhi zenzelwe ukusheshisa izinto ziye esivinini esikhulu kakhulu, njengoba kwenzeka ngezibhamu zikaloliwe. Avame ukusetshenziswa ezinhlelweni ezinesivinini esikhulu, njengezikhali noma ama-thrusters amaningi kumasistimu wokuphehla umkhathi. Lawa mamotho ngokuvamile anomklamo ohlanganisa ukusonga okusebenzayo ohlangothini olulodwa lwegebe phakathi kwezingxenye kazibuthe kanye nepuleti le-passive conductive ngakolunye uhlangothi. Isibonelo i-railgun yohlobo lwe-homopolar direct current linear motor.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, i-low-throttle, high-speed, high-power motors ngokuvamile iwuhlobo ama-synchronous motors (LSM), okufaka ukujikajika okusebenzayo ohlangothini olulodwa lwegebe phakathi kwezingxenye kazibuthe kanye nesethi yezidonsa ezinezigxobo ezishintshanayo ngakolunye uhlangothi. Lawa mamagnethi angaba yizibuthe ezihlala njalo noma ozibuthe kagesi. Injini ye-Shanghai Transrapid iyisibonelo se-LSM.

Linear Motor Izicelo

Ama-Linear motors angamadivayisi e-electromechanical anobubanzi ezihlukahlukene izicelo ezimbonini ezahlukene, njenge:

  • Ezokuthutha ezihamba ngesivinini esiphezulu: Izinhlelo zokuthutha ezihamba ngesivinini esikhulu, njengezitimela ze-magnetic levitation (maglev), ngokuvamile zisebenzisa izinjini zomugqa ukuze zifinyelele isivinini esikhulu kanye nokusebenza kahle kwamandla okuphawulekayo. Lawa ma-motor avumela ukuhamba ngomugqa ngokusebenzisa izizibuthe.
  • Ukukhiqiza kanye ne-automation: Ezimweni zokukhiqiza nezokuzenzakalela, amamotho alayini asetshenziswa emishinini ye-CNC (ikhompyutha yokulawula izinombolo), amaphrinta e-3D, nezinhlelo zokubamba izinto. Ukunemba kwazo kanye nekhono lokulawula ukunyakaza kuzenza zilungele lezi zinhlelo zokusebenza.
  • Amarobhothi: Asetshenziswa kumarobhothi kanye nama-robotic manipulators ukulawula ukunyakaza okunembile kwamalunga namathuluzi. Lokhu kubalulekile ezimbonini zezimoto, zikagesi nezihlanganisayo.
  • I-Aerospace: Embonini ye-aerospace, ama-linear motors angatholakala ezinhlelweni zokulawula indiza, ama-actuator okulawula indawo, nezinye izingxenye ezibalulekile ekuzulazuleni nasekulawuleni izindiza namasathelayithi.
  • Isayensi nemithi: Ama-Linear motors asetshenziswa kumishini yokuxilonga yezokwelapha, kuma-microscopes anembe kakhulu, nezinhlelo zokuhlaziya amakhemikhali. Ikhono layo lokunyakaza okulawulwa ngokunembe kakhulu libalulekile kulezi zinhlelo zokusebenza.
  • Uphenyo lwesayensi: Kulabhorethri yocwaningo, amamotho alayini asetshenziswa ekuhlolweni kwefiziksi nekhemistri, kanye nasezinsizeni zokuhlola nezokulinganisa. Ikhono layo lokuhlinzeka ngokunyakaza okunembile libalulekile ocwaningweni lwesayensi. Isibonelo, ekusetshenzisweni kwemishini yokulinganisa, njll.
  • Ubuchwepheshe bokuvikela: Zisetshenziswa ezinhlelweni zezempi, njengezinhlelo zezikhali, izisetshenziswa zokukhomba, nezinhlelo zokumisa ezinembayo eziphezulu.
  • Izilingisi nokuzijabulisa: Embonini yezokuzijabulisa, amamotho aqondile asetshenziswa kuzilingisi zendiza, izilingisi zokushayela, kanye nezindawo ezikhangayo zepaki ukuze kwakheke ukuzizwisa okugxilile, okungokoqobo.

izinhlobo ezikhona

motor eqondile

Phakathi kwezinjini zomugqa singazihlukanisa izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene phakathi kwezigaba engizibalule ngenhla. Kulokhu kuhlobene nohlobo lomfutho abawusebenzisayo ukunyakaza. Futhi kufanele sigqamise:

  • i-induction motor- Kulo mklamo, amandla akhiqizwa ngokuhambisa inkambu kazibuthe eqondile esebenzisana namakhondakta endaweni eyizungezile. Uma noma yiluphi uhlobo lwe-conductor, olufana nekhoyili, iluphu noma ngisho nocezu lwensimbi, lubekwe kulo mkhakha, kukhiqizwa ama-eddy currents aphinde akhe indawo kazibuthe ephikisayo, elandela umthetho we-Lenz. Amandla kazibuthe amabili aphikisanayo ayaxoshana, abangele ukunyakaza njengoba amandla kazibuthe eshanela ensimbi.
  • I-synchronous Motor: Ijubane lensimu kazibuthe enyakazayo ngokuvamile lilawulwa ngamadivaysi e-elekthronikhi ukuze alawule ukuhamba kwe-rotor. Ngenxa yokucatshangelwa kwezindleko, amamotho e-synchronous aqondile awavamisile ukusebenzisa ama-commutators, ngakho-ke i-rotor ivamise ukufaka ozibuthe baphakade noma insimbi ethambile. Izibonelo zalezi zinhlobo zamamotho zifaka izibhamu zamakhoyili namamotho asetshenziswa ezinhlelweni ze-maglev.
  • I-Homopolar: Umsinga ophezulu udlula ku-sabot yensimbi kusetshenziswa othintana nabo abaslayidayo abaphakelwa kusuka kumareyili amabili. Ukukhiqizwa kwendawo kazibuthe ngenxa yalesi senzo kubangela insimbi ukuthi iphrojekthe kumathrekhi.
  • I-Piezoelectric- Ama-motor alayini amancane avame ukusebenzisa uhlelo lwe-piezoelectric ukukhiqiza ukunyakaza.

Manje usuyazi ukuthi ayini ama-linear motors, ngakho-ke ungaqala ukuwasebenzisa kumaphrojekthi akho ezinhlelweni ezahlukene. Ukusetshenziswa kwayo kuyafana nezinye izinhlobo zezinjini esikuchazele zona kule bhulogi, njenge ama-actuator alayini, ifana kakhulu nalezi zinjini...


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Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.