I-NE555: konke mayelana nale chip yemisebenzi eminingi

nge555

Isekethe ehlanganisiwe ye-555 ingenye yama-chips adume kakhulu ongawathola phakathi kwe Izingxenye ze-elekthronikhi. Ingafika ngezindlela ezahlukene, njengokuthi NE555, NE555C, LMC555, TLC555, uA555, MC1455, LM555, njll. Isizathu sokuthi ingenye ethandwa kakhulu ukuguquguquka kwayo, kanye nenani lezicelo ezingasetshenziswa, njengoba ubona lapha.

Kulo mhlahlandlela uzofunda konke okudingayo ngale chip, kanye nendlela yokuyisebenzisa kumaphrojekthi akho esikhathi esizayo, izincomo zokuyithenga ezishibhile, njll.

Iyini i-NE555?

555

I-NE555, noma i-555 nje, iyi-IC esetshenziselwa khiqiza ama-pulses, ama-oscillations noma njenge-timer. Ngakho-ke, ingasetshenziswa njenge-oscillator, ukukhiqiza ukubambezeleka, njll. Ungayithola ngokujwayelekile kumaphakheji ahlukahlukene, nakuba evame kakhulu i-8-pin DIP (kukhona okuhlukile kwamaphini angu-14), nakuba ingaba sephakeji lensimbi eliyindilinga ngisho naku-SMD yokukhweza phezulu.

Kungenzeka futhi ukuthola izinguqulo ze-NE555 ngokusetshenziswa okuphansi, ngisho izinguqulo ezimbili. Kulezi zinguqulo ezikabili, amasekhethi afanayo angu-2 afakiwe ngaphakathi, anamaphini amaningi aphindwe kabili futhi ngokuvamile aziwa ngokuthi angu-556.

Ezingeni lobuchwepheshe, le sekethi kufanele inikezwe amandla ngokuqhubekayo nge-voltage ye-Vcc, futhi okukhiphayo kungaba namandla amanje aphezulu ukuze kube isekethe ehlanganisiwe. Eqinisweni, le chip ingakwazi ngisho ngqo shayela udlulisela kanye nezinye izifunda ze-high-drain ngaphandle kwesidingo sezingxenye ezengeziwe. Kodwa, idinga inani elincane lezingxenye zangaphandle ukuze ikwazi ukusebenza (ilawuleke).

Abaningi bazozibuza ukuthi yini yini ngaphakathi kwalesi sifunda esihlanganisiwe. Ngaphakathi kwe-NE555, njengoba kubonakala esithombeni esidlule, kukhona umdwebo webhlokhi onamabili i-amplificadores operacionales kufakwe njengeziqhathanisi, isifunda se-bistable sohlobo lwe-RS sisebenzisa okukhiphayo okulahliwe, isigcinalwazi esishintshayo ukuze sisekele lokho kwamanje okukhiphayo, kanye ne-transistor esetshenziselwa ukukhipha i-capacitor yangaphandle ukuze kubekwe isikhathi.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kukhona futhi ama-resistors angu-3 angaphakathi anesibopho sokusetha amazinga okubhekisela okokufaka kwe-inverter yokusebenza kokuqala, kanye nokungaguquki kwesibili, ku-2/3 no-1/3 we-voltage Vcc ngokulandelanayo. Kubhekiselwa ku i-threshold voltage ye-terminal 6, uma idlula u-2/3 we-voltage yokuhlinzeka noma i-Vcc, khona-ke okukhiphayo kuzoya ezingeni eliphezulu lokunengqondo (1) futhi kusetshenziswe okokufaka kuka-R kwe-bistable, ngakho-ke okukhiphayo okulahliwe kuya ku-1, kugcwele. i-transistor futhi iqala ukukhishwa kwe-capacitor yangaphandle. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, ukukhishwa kwe-555 kuzokwehla (0).

En enye i-op amp, uma i-voltage esetshenziswa okokufaka inverting iwela ngaphansi kwe-1/3 ye-Vcc, ukuphuma kwe-amplifier kuzoya ezingeni eliphezulu (1), ngaleyo ndlela kunikeze okokufaka kwe-bistable S, kudlulisele okukhiphayo ezingeni eliphansi (0), ukuguqula i-transistor icime futhi ibangele okukhiphayo kwe-NE555 ukuthi kukhuphuke kunengqondo (1).

Okokugcina, kukhona futhi a ukusetha kabusha itheminali kuphinikhodi 4, exhunywe kokokufaka kwe-R1 kwe-bistable flip flop. Uma le phinikhodi yenziwe yasebenza i-logic ephansi (0), ingabuyisela okukhiphayo kwe-NE555 kuya phansi (0) noma kunini lapho kudingeka khona ukusetha kabusha.

Imifanekiso ye-NE555

I-Las imininingwane yezobuchwepheshe ye-NE555, nakuba kungase kuhluke kuye ngezinguqulo nomkhiqizi, okuvame kakhulu ukuthi uthola:

  • I-Vcc noma i-voltage yokufaka: 4.5 kuya ku-15V (kunezinguqulo ezifika ku-2V). Ama-5V ahambisana nomndeni we-TTL logic.
  • Okokufaka kwamanje (Vcc +5v): 3 ku6mA
  • Okokufaka kwamanje (Vcc 5v): 10 ku15mA
  • Umkhawulo ophumayo wamanje: 500 ma
  • Ubukhulu bamandla buchithiwe: 600 ma
  • Ukusetshenziswa kwamandla okuncane: 30mW@5V kanye no-225mW@15V
  • Ibanga lokushisa elisebenzayo: 0ºC kufika ku-70ºC. Ukuzinza kwefrikhwensi kungu-0,005% nge-ºC ngayinye.

Idatha ye-NE555

NE555

I-NE555, ephaketheni layo elivame kakhulu, ine 8 izikhonkwane. i-pinout okulandelayo:

  • I-GND (1): isigxobo esinegethivu sokuphakelwa kukagesi, ngokuvamile esiya phansi.
  • Ukudubula noma ukucupha (2): Le phinikhodi isetha ukuqala kwesikhathi sokulibaziseka uma ilungiswa njenge-monostable. Uma le phini ingaphansi kwe-1/3 ye-voltage yokuhlinzeka, i-trigger izokwenzeka.
  • Phuma noma uphume (3): kulapho umphumela wesibali sikhathi utholwa khona, noma ngabe kumodi ezinzile, i-monostable, njll.
  • Qalisa kabusha noma setha kabusha (4): Uma ihamba ngaphansi kwama-volts angu-0.7, izodonsela iphinikhodi yokukhipha ibe phansi. Uma le phinikhodi ingasetshenziswa, kufanele ixhunywe emandleni ukuvimbela isibali sikhathi ukuthi singasethwa kabusha.
  • Ukulawulwa kwe-voltage noma ukulawulwa (5): Uma i-NE555 ikumodi yesilawuli se-voltage, i-voltage kule phini izohluka ukusuka ku-Vcc ukuya cishe ku-0V. Ngale ndlela kungenzeka ukuguqula izikhathi, noma kungabuye kulungiselelwe ukukhiqiza ama-ramp pulses.
  • I-threshold noma i-threshold (6): iphinikhodi yokufaka yesiqhathanisi sangaphakathi esisetshenziselwa ukudonsa okukhiphayo kube phansi.
  • Landa noma ukhiphe (7): Isetshenziselwa ukukhipha ngempumelelo i-capacitor yangaphandle esetshenziselwa isikhathi.
  • I-Vdc (8): i-voltage yokuhlinzeka, indawo yokugcina lapho i-chip inikezwa khona ngama-voltage asukela ku-4.5v kuya ku-16v.

Khumbula njalo funda imininingwane yomenzi, njengoba kungase kube nomehluko phakathi kwemikhiqizo ehlukahlukene engu-555. Futhi, qiniseka ukuthi usebenzisa i-chip ngendlela efanele, uphawule ukuthi inothi engaphambili ibheke phezulu ukuze ifane naleli phiniwuthi.

Umlando we-555

Isekethe ye-555 noma i-NE555 yayi eyaklanywa uHans R. Camenzind ngo-1971. Ngaleso sikhathi ngangisebenzela ama-Signetics (okwamanje aphethwe yi-NXP Semiconductors). U-Hans wayesevele enolwazi kulolu hlobo lwamaphrojekthi, ngaphambilini wayeklama ama-amplifiers i-pulse width modulation (PWM) ngemishini yomsindo, wayephinde abe nentshisekelo kuma-PLL, njll.

U-Camenzind angaphakamisa ukuthi i-Signetics ithuthuke umjikelezo womhlaba ngokusekelwe kuma-PLL futhi angacela abaphathi benkampani ukuthi bazithuthukise ngokwabo, besebenzisa izinsiza zenkampani ukuze banciphise umholo wakhe ngesigamu. Umphathi wezokukhangisa wenkampani wamukele lesi siphakamiso, naphezu kokuthi abanye ozakwabo benkampani bathi ukusebenza kwe-555 yesikhathi esizayo kungashintshwa namanye ama-chips akhona.

Iphrojekthi izothatha izinombolo ezingu-5xx ezinikezwe ama-ICs e-analog. Ekugcineni kuzokhethwa inombolo engu-555. Umklamo wokuqala wawuzobuyekezwa ngo-1971 futhi, nakuba ayengekho amaphutha, wawunamaphini angu-9. U-Camenzind ube nombono wokusebenzisa isivimbeli esiqondile esikhundleni somthombo wamanje oqhubekayo futhi wehlise isidingo samaphini ukuze sibe kwesi-8 samanje.

Idizayini esebenzayo enamaphini angu-8 ingachitha a ukubuyekezwa komklamo wesibili futhi i-prototype yethulwa ekugcineni ngo-Okthoba 1971. Omunye wonjiniyela be-Signetics ababekhona ekubuyekezweni kokuqala wayezoqhubeka nokuthola enye inkampani futhi enze inguqulo yakhe ye-9-pin. Okwamanje ama-Signetics aqala ukukhiqiza nokudayisa i-NE555 ngokushesha nje lapho bekwazi. Ngo-1972 yakhiqizwa izinkampani ezingu-12 futhi yaba enye yezifunda ezithengiswa kakhulu.

NE555 Izicelo

phakathi NE555 izicelo kukhona lezo zokuba isibali sikhathi noma isibali sikhathi esinembe. Nakuba ekuqaleni yethulwe njengesekhethi yokulibaziseka okunembayo, ngokushesha yathola izinhlelo zokusebenza ezingenakubalwa ezifana nokusebenza njenge-oscillator eqinile, ijeneretha yerampu, isibali sikhathi esilandelanayo, njll. Yile ndlela eyaba ngayo enye yama-chips asetshenziswa kakhulu nanamuhla.

555 ukucushwa

I-Las Izilungiselelo ze-NE555 zenziwe ngochungechunge lwama-capacitor kanye nama-resistors axhunywe izikhonkwane zawo. Ngaleyo ndlela ungakwazi ukushintsha isikhathi noma izindlela zokusebenza zale IC. Nazi ezinye zezilungiselelo ezivame kakhulu:

  • Ukucushwa kwe-Monostable: kulesi simo, ukukhishwa kwe-NE555 kuzoba ekuqaleni kwe-0 (izinga eliphansi), futhi i-transistor izogcwala ukuvimbela i-capacitor C1 ekushajeni. Uma inkinobho icindezelwa, i-voltage ephansi isetshenziswa ku-trigger terminal futhi ibangela ukuthi i-flip-flop ishintshe isimo futhi okukhiphayo kuye ku-1 (izinga eliphezulu). Uma kunjalo, i-transistor yangaphakathi iyayeka ukuqhuba futhi i-capacitor C1 ikhokhiswa nge-resistor yangaphandle engu-R1. Uma i-capacitor voltage idlula u-2/3 we-voltage yokunikezela (Vcc), i-bistable ishintsha isimo sayo futhi okukhiphayo kubuyela ku-0.

  • I-Atable: kulokhu okunye ukucushwa, uma ixhunywe kugesi, i-capacitor ikhishwa, futhi ukuphuma kwe-NE555 kuya phezulu (1) kuze kube yilapho i-capacitor ifinyelela ku-2/3 ye-Vcc nomthwalo wayo. Ngaleso sikhathi, i-RS flip-flop ishintsha ileveli futhi okukhiphayo okungu-555 kuba ngu-0 noma phansi. Ngaleso sikhathi, i-capacitor C1 (noma i-C esithombeni) iqala ukukhipha nge-resistor R2 futhi lapho ifinyelela ku-1/3 we-voltage yokuhlinzeka, iqala ukushaja futhi njalonjalo ngenkathi ukunikezwa kugcinwa.

eqinile

Esimeni sokusebenzisa i-capacitor ethatha isikhathi esifanayo ukushaja lapho ikhipha, ukucushwa kwegagasi le-symmetric astable kungatholakala.
  • Ukucushwa kokusetha kabusha: uma kwenzeka ufuna ukusetha kabusha isekethe, ungakwazi ukuxhuma itheminali yokusetha kabusha ngokuqondile esigxotsheni esihle noma ugcine izinga liphezulu ngokusebenzisa isixhasi. Uma inkinobho eboniswe kumdwebo olandelayo icushiwe, i-NE555 izoba nokukhiphayo kokuthi 0 uma ifunwa. Kufana nokuqalisa kabusha isibali sikhathi noma ukusibeka esimweni sokulala.

  • I-Pulse Width Modulation (PWM): isignali yezinga eliguquguqukayo ingasetshenziswa kokokufaka kokulawula kwe-NE555, okubangela ukuthi i-pulse ephumayo ikhule ngobubanzi njengoba izinga lale voltage likhula. I-pulse ingenziwa futhi ukuthi ifike ngokubambezeleka okukhulu noma okuncane njengoba i-voltage esetshenziswa kokokufaka kokulawula inyuka noma incipha.

I-NE555 PWM

 

Ungathenga kuphi i-NE555 eshibhile

Ungayithola ezitolo eziningi ezikhethekile ze-electronics, nakuba kulula futhi ukuyithola ku-Amazon ngamanani amahle. Abanye izibonelo zemikhiqizo enconyiwe Yilezi:


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

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