I-28BYJ-48 stepper motor: konke odinga ukukwazi

28byj-48 stepper motor

El I-28BYJ-48 iyinjini ye-stepper unipolar izindleko eziphansi nokunemba okuphezulu, ilungele amaphrojekthi kagesi, amaphrinta we-3D, imishini ye-CNC, namarobhothi. Usayizi wayo ohlangene, ukusetshenziswa kwamandla okuphansi kanye nokusebenziseka kalula kwenza kube ukukhetha okudumile kwabathanda izinto ngogesi kanye nezingcweti.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, kanye nale njini, a I-module ene-ULN2003, ukuze ukwazi ukulawula. Ngale ndlela, sinakho konke okudingekayo ukuze sikwazi ukusebenzisa lesi simiso ngokuphelele, sisebenzisa i-microcontroller noma ibhodi Arduino noma okufanayo.

Iyini i-28BYJ-48 stepper motor?

imoto kagesi yasendlini: i-stator-rotor

Un I-stepper motor iwuhlobo lwemoto kagesi ehamba ngezinyathelo ezincane ezihlukene ze-angular, kunokuzungeza okuqhubekayo. Isebenza kusetshenziswa isethi yama-electromagnets acushwe ngokulandelana okuthile. Ngokuvula ama-electromagnets ahlukene, kwakhiwa inkambu kazibuthe eheha i-motor rotor, iyenze ijikeleze isinyathelo esisodwa ngesikhathi. Inombolo yezinyathelo inguquko ngayinye kanye nokunemba kokunyakaza kuncike ekwakhiweni kwemoto ethile kanye nokulandelana kokulawula okusetshenzisiwe.

Ngaphakathi kwama-stepper motors sinezinhlobo ezimbili:

  • I-Unipolar- Aneqoqo elilodwa lamakhoyili futhi adinga isilawuli esikhethekile sokuhlehlisa amandla amanje futhi enze injini ijikeleze nhlangothi zombili.
  • I-Bipolar- Anamasethi amabili amakhoyili azimele, okubavumela ukuthi bajikeleze nhlangothi zombili ngaphandle kwesidingo sesilawuli esikhethekile.

Endabeni ye-28BYJ-28 iwuhlobo lwe-unipolar, njengoba ngishilo ngaphambili. Futhi, ngaphakathi kwaleli qembu, libonakala ngokuba nalokhu okulandelayo imininingwane:

  • Unipolar stepper: ukulawula okulula ngezintambo ezi-4 kuphela.
  • Isinciphisi esihlanganisiwe: inikeza ukunemba okuphezulu (0.088° ngesinyathelo ngasinye) kanye ne-torque (3 N·cm).
  • Ukusetshenziswa okuphansi: 83 mA (imodeli ye-5V) noma 32 mA (imodeli ye-12V).
  • Ukudla: 5V noma 12V (kuye ngemodeli).
  • Intengo yezomnotho: kusukela ku-€1.2 iyunithi ngayinye, noma ngaphezulu kancane uma zifaka imojuli ye-ULN2003.

Ngokuqondene ne izicelo ezingenzeka, sengike ngasho ezinye zazo ngaphambili, kodwa lapha ngiphinde ngikunike imibono yamaphrojekthi akho:

  • Ukulawula ama-hydraulic kanye nama-valve womoya.
  • Amarobhothi akhulumayo nezingalo zamarobhothi.
  • Ukuma kwenzwa.
  • Ukuzungezisa amatafula ezikena.
  • Amaphrinta we-3d.
  • Imishini ye-CNC.

I-stepper motor ayisebenzi yodwa, idinga enye into. Esimweni esinjalo, I-28BYJ-48 ilawulwa ibhodi eline-ULN2003 edidiyelwe, okuvumela okwamanje kokuphumayo kwe-Arduino ukuthi kukhuliswe ukuze kunikwe amandla amakhoyili enjini. Ngokuvula amakhoyili ngokulandelana okulungile, injini izungeza isinyathelo ngesinyathelo ngokunemba okukhulu.

Izinhlobo zokulawula ukulandelana nezigaba

Kukhona ukulandelana kokulawula okuhlukahlukene kwe-28BYJ-48, okuvame kakhulu yilezi:

  • Ukulandelana kwamagagasi okugcwele: yenza wonke amakhoyili asebenze ngesikhathi esisodwa.
  • Ukulandelana kwesinyathelo esiyingxenye: Ivula amakhoyili amabili ancikene ngesikhathi esisodwa.
  • Ukulandelana kwesinyathelo se-Microscopic: Ivula ikhoyili eyodwa ngesikhathi.

Ake sibheke izigaba ngokuningiliziwe:

  • Ukulandelana kwesigaba esingu-1: Ngokulandelana kwesigaba esi-1 sivula ikhoyili eyodwa ngesikhathi. Ukuyisa lokhu kulandelana komlilo kuthebula, okulandelayo kuzodingeka ukuthi kwenziwe kuphinawuthi yenjini:
Paso A B A' B'
1 ON OFF OFF OFF
2 OFF ON OFF OFF
3 OFF OFF ON OFF
4 OFF OFF OFF ON
  • Ukulandelana kwezigaba ezi-2: sivula amakhoyili amabili ahlobanayo esigabeni ngasinye, ukuze indawo kazibuthe ekhiqizwe ibe nkulu (41% ngaphezulu) ukuze injini ibe ne-torque eyengeziwe, okungukuthi, sithola amandla engeziwe. Njengephuzu elibi, siphindaphinde ukusetshenziswa kwamandla. Ngokuqondene netafula, kungaba:
Paso A B A' B'
1 ON ON OFF OFF
2 OFF ON ON OFF
3 OFF OFF ON ON
4 ON OFF OFF ON
  • Ukulandelana kwesinyathelo esiyingxenye: Lesi ngesinye sezigaba esizosibona, ungathola okuthakaselekayo kakhulu. Lapha sishintshanisa ikhoyili eyodwa nambili, sithola ukunemba kwesinyathelo esiyingxenye. Isetshenziswa ezinhlelweni zokusebenza lapho kudingeka khona ukunemba okuphezulu kakhulu, nakuba kungase kube nezinkinga lapho uhlelo lokusebenza lusemkhawulweni wetorque. Ukuveza ukulandelana kufomu lethebula kuphumela kokuthi:
Isinyathelo esiyingxenye A B A' B'
1 ON OFF OFF OFF
2 ON ON OFF OFF
3 OFF ON OFF OFF
4 OFF ON ON OFF
5 OFF OFF ON OFF
6 OFF OFF ON ON
7 OFF OFF OFF ON
8 ON OFF OFF ON

28BYJ-28 nge-Arduino

28byj-48 nge-Arduino

Into yokuqala ukuxhuma kahle module kanye motor 28byj-48 ebhodini lethu le-Arduino, ukwenza lokhu, kufanele nje wenze ukuxhumana okulandelayo:

  • Iphinikhodi - kusuka ku-ULN2003 kuya ku-GND ye-Arduino.
  • Iphinikhodi + ye-ULN2003 eya ku-Vcc (5v noma kwezinye izimo, uma kuyinjini engu-12v, kuzofanele kusetshenziswe ugesi onaleyo voltage) ukusuka e-Arduino.
  • I-IN1, IN2, IN3 kanye ne-IN4 ye-ULN2003 kokokufaka kwedijithali D8, D9, D10 kanye ne-D11 ye-Arduino.
  • Injini engu-28byj-48, vele uyixhume ethekwini kumojula ye-ULN2003.

Manje njengoba usuxhumekile, into elandelayo ukusebenzisa isibonelo ku-Arduino IDE, ongayisebenzisa njengokuyihlola noma ukuyilungisa ngendlela othanda ngayo. Kulesi sibonelo, wonke amatafula wesigaba aphawuliwe, njengokuthi // phambi komugqa, uyazi ... Uma ufuna ukusebenzisa enye yazo, vele ususe // phambi kwemiyalelo.

//Definir los pines
const int motorPin1 = 8;    // 28BYJ48 In1
const int motorPin2 = 9;    // 28BYJ48 In2
const int motorPin3 = 10;   // 28BYJ48 In3
const int motorPin4 = 11;   // 28BYJ48 In4
                   
//Definición de variables
int motorSpeed = 1200;   //Velocidad del motor
int stepCounter = 0;     //Contador de pasos
int stepsPerRev = 4076;  //Pasos para un giro completo

//Tablas de secuencia (descomentar la que necesites)
//Secuencia 1-fase
//const int numSteps = 4;
//const int stepsLookup[4] = { B1000, B0100, B0010, B0001 };

//Secuencia 2-fases
//const int numSteps = 4;
//const int stepsLookup[4] = { B1100, B0110, B0011, B1001 };

//Secuencia media fase
//const int numSteps = 8;
//const int stepsLookup[8] = { B1000, B1100, B0100, B0110, B0010, B0011, B0001, B1001 };

void setup()
{
  //Declarar los pines usados como salida
  pinMode(motorPin1, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(motorPin2, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(motorPin3, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(motorPin4, OUTPUT);
}

void loop()
{
  for (int i = 0; i < stepsPerRev * 2; i++)
  {
    clockwise();
    delayMicroseconds(motorSpeed);
  }
  for (int i = 0; i < stepsPerRev * 2; i++)
  {
    anticlockwise();
    delayMicroseconds(motorSpeed);
  }
  delay(1000);
}

void clockwise()
{
  stepCounter++;
  if (stepCounter >= numSteps) stepCounter = 0;
  setOutput(stepCounter);
}

void anticlockwise()
{
  stepCounter--;
  if (stepCounter < 0) stepCounter = numSteps - 1;
  setOutput(stepCounter);
}

void setOutput(int step)
{
  digitalWrite(motorPin1, bitRead(stepsLookup[step], 0));
  digitalWrite(motorPin2, bitRead(stepsLookup[step], 1));
  digitalWrite(motorPin3, bitRead(stepsLookup[step], 2));
  digitalWrite(motorPin4, bitRead(stepsLookup[step], 3));
}


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.