Izinhlobo zamaphrinta e-3D nezici zawo

izinhlobo zamaphrinta we-3d

Esihlokweni esandulele senze uhlobo lwesingeniso emhlabeni wamaphrinta we-3D. Manje sekuyisikhathi sokujula kancane kulobu buchwepheshe, sazi kabanzi ngezimfihlo ezifihlwa yila maqembu, kanye izinhlobo zamaphrinta e-3D akhona. Okuthile okubalulekile lapho ukhetha okulungile, njengoba zonke zinezinzuzo nezinkinga zazo, ngakho-ke iyohlala ikhona ehambisana kakhulu nezidingo zakho.

Izinhlobo zamaphrinta e-3D ngokuya ngobuchwepheshe bokuphrinta

Izinhlobo zamaphrinta we-3D ziningi kakhulu, futhi zingahlukaniswa ngokwemibandela eyahlukene. Nazi ezinye ezibaluleke kakhulu:

imindeni eyinhloko

Iphrinta ye-3D

Njengoba nje amaphrinta avamile futhi enemindeni embalwa, amaphrinta e-3D angahlukaniswa kakhulukazi Amaqembu ama-3:

  • Thinta: akuyona inki evamile, kodwa inhlanganisela yempushana efana ne-cellulose noma ukhonkolo. Iphrinta izokwakha imodeli kusuka kule conglomerate yothuli.
Izinzuzo nebubi
Indlela eshibhile yokukhiqiza ngevolumu enkulu. Izingcezu ezintekenteke kakhulu ezidinga ukwelashelwa ukuqina.
  • I-Laser/LED (i-optics): ubuchwepheshe obusetshenziswa kumaphrinta e-resin e-3D. Ngokuyisisekelo aqukethe uketshezi endaweni yokugcina amanzi futhi angaphansi kokuchayeka nge-laser ukuze aqinise inhlaka kanye nokwelapha kwe-UV ukuze kuqine. Lokho kwenza i i-resin (i-acrylic-based photopolymer) iguqulwa ibe yisiqephu esiqinile esinomumo odingekayo.
Izinzuzo nebubi
Ungaphrinta izimo eziyinkimbinkimbi kakhulu. Ziyabiza.
Ukunemba okuphezulu kakhulu kokuphrinta. Okuningi okuhloselwe ukusetshenziswa kwezimboni noma umsebenzi wobungcweti.
Isiphetho esihle kakhulu esidinga ukucutshungulwa okuncane noma kungasalungiswa. Angakhiqiza umhwamuko onobuthi, ngakho awafaneleki kakhulu ezindlini.
  • Ukujova: yilezo ezisetshenziswa kakhulu imicu (imvamisa i-thermoplastic) njenge-PLA, ABS, Tuvalu, inayiloni, njll. Umqondo walo mndeni uwukudala izimo ngokufaka izingqimba ezincibilikisiwe zalezi zinto (zingehluka kakhulu). Umphumela uba ucezu oluqinile, nakuba luhamba kancane futhi lunokunemba okuncane kune-laser.
Izinzuzo nebubi
amamodeli athengekayo. Bahamba kancane.
Inconyelwe abathanda ukuzilibazisa, ukusetshenziswa kwasekhaya, kanye nemfundo. Bakha imodeli ngezingqimba, futhi kuye ngokuthi ubukhulu be-filament, isiphetho singase sibe sekhwalithi empofu.
Inqwaba yezinto ongakhetha kuzo. Ezinye izingxenye zithembele kuzisekelo okufanele ziphrintwe ukuze zibambe ingxenye.
Imiphumela eqinile. Badinga ukucutshungulwa okwengeziwe.
Ziningi izinhlobo namamodeli ongakhetha kuzo.
Amanye amaphrinta athile e-3D, afana nokhonkolo noma i-bioprinting, angase asekelwe komunye wale mindeni, kodwa ngokulungiswa okuthile.

Uma sekwaziwa le mindeni, ezigabeni ezilandelayo sizofunda kabanzi ngayo ngayinye kanye nobuchwepheshe okungenzeka bukhona.

I-resin kanye/noma amaphrinta we-3D abonakalayo

I-Las resin kanye namaphrinta optical 3D Zingenye yeziyinkimbinkimbi kakhulu futhi enemiphumela engcono kakhulu ekuqedeni kwazo, kodwa futhi ngokuvamile zibiza kakhulu. Ukwengeza, bazophinde badinge imishini eyengeziwe efana nokugeza nokwelapha kwezinye izimo, njengoba le misebenzi ayihlanganisiwe kuphrinta ngokwayo (noma ezimeni lapho ukuhlanza izingxenye ze-MSLA kunzima).

  • Kugeziwe: Ngemva kokunyathelisa ingxenye ye-3D, inqubo yokugeza iyadingeka. Kodwa esikhundleni sokuxubha nokufutha ukuhlanza ingxenye, ungathatha ingxenye eqediwe endaweni yesikhulumi sokwakha futhi usebenzise imishini yokuwasha. Lokhu kuzosebenza njengokugeza izimoto okuzenzakalelayo, kunophephela ozungeza ngozibuthe ngaphakathi futhi onyakazisa uketshezi lokuhlanza (ithangi eligcwele isopropyl alcohol -IPA-) ngaphakathi kwekhabhinethi evalwe nge-hermetically.
  • I-Cura: ngemva kokuhlanza, kuyadingeka futhi ukuphulukisa ucezu, okungukuthi, ukuchayeka emisebeni ye-ultraviolet eguqula izakhiwo ze-polymer futhi iqinise. Ukuze wenze lokhu, isiteshi sokuphulukisa sisusa ingxenye kusuka oketshezini lokuhlanza lapho yayicwiliswe khona, iyomisa ngenkathi ijika ukuze ifinyelele kuzo zonke izinhlangothi. Uma lokhu sekwenziwe, ibha ye-UV LED izoqala ukuphulukisa ucezu, njengokungathi ihhavini.

I-SLA (I-StereoLithography)

Lona ubuchwepheshe be-stereolithography indlela endala eye yalungiselelwa amaphrinta e-3D. Kusetshenziswa inhlaka ye-photosensitive liquid ezoqina ezindaweni lapho i-laser beam ishaya khona. Yile ndlela izendlalelo ezidalwe ngayo kuze kube yilapho ucezu oluqediwe lufinyelelwa.

Izinzuzo nebubi
Ukuqedwa kwendawo ebushelelezi. Izindleko eziphezulu.
Iyakwazi ukuphrinta amaphethini ayinkimbinkimbi. Ayinabungani nemvelo.
Kuhle kakhulu ezingxenyeni ezincane. Idinga inqubo yokwelapha ngemuva kokuphrinta.
Kuyashesha Awukwazi ukuphrinta izingxenye ezinkulu.
Izinhlobonhlobo zezinto ongakhetha kuzo. Lawa maphrinta awawona ahlala isikhathi eside futhi aqinile.
Ihlangene futhi kulula ukuyihambisa.

I-SLS (i-Laser Sintering ekhethiwe)

Kungenye inqubo ye i-laser sintering ekhethiwe efana ne-DLP ne-SLA, kodwa esikhundleni soketshezi kuzosetshenziswa impushana. I-laser beam izoncibilika futhi ibambelele ungqimba lwezinhlayiya zothuli ngongqimba kuze kube yilapho kwakhiwa imodeli yokugcina. Izinzuzo zale ndlela ukuthi ungasebenzisa izinto eziningi ezahlukene (inayiloni, insimbi,…) ukuze udale izingxenye okunzima ukuzenza usebenzisa izindlela zendabuko ezifana nokubunjwa noma i-extrusion.

Izinzuzo nebubi
Ukuphrinta kweqoqo kungenziwa ngendlela elula.  Inani elilinganiselwe lezinto zokwakha.
Intengo yokuphrinta iyathengeka uma kuqhathaniswa. Ayikuvumeli ukugaywa kabusha kwezinto.
Ayidingi ukwesekwa. Izingozi zempilo ezingaba khona.
Izingcezu ezinemininingwane ephezulu. Izingcezu ziyaphuka.
Kuhle ukusetshenziswa kokuhlola. Ukucubungula ngemuva kuyinkimbinkimbi.
Ungaphrinta izingxenye ezinkulu.

I-DLP (I-Digital Light Processing)

Lobu buchwepheshe be ukucubungula ukukhanya kwedijithali kungolunye uhlobo lokuphrinta kwe-3D olufana ne-SLA, futhi lisebenzisa ama-photopolymer oketshezi oluqinile oluqinile. Kodwa-ke, umehluko usemthonjeni wokukhanya, kulokhu isikrini sokubonisa idijithali, sigxile emaphuzwini lapho i-resin idinga ukuqina, ukusheshisa inqubo yokunyathelisa uma kuqhathaniswa ne-SLA.

Izinzuzo nebubi
Isivinini sokuphrinta esiphezulu. Izinto ezisetshenziswayo ezingaphephile.
Ukunemba okukhulu. Izinto ezisetshenziswayo zinezindleko eziphezulu.
Kungaba kuhle ezindaweni ezihlukahlukene zohlelo lokusebenza.
Iphrinta ye-3D enezindleko eziphansi.

I-MSLA (Masked SLA)

Isekelwe kubuchwepheshe be-SLA, futhi yabelana ngezici zayo eziningi, kodwa iwuhlobo lwe ubuchwepheshe be-SLA obufihliwe. Okusho ukuthi, isebenzisa uhlelo lwe-LED njengomthombo wokukhanya we-UV. Ngamanye amazwi, inesikrini se-LCD lapho kukhishwa khona ukukhanya okufana nokuma kongqimba, okuveza yonke inhlaka ngesikhathi esisodwa futhi kuzuzwe isivinini sokuphrinta esiphezulu. Okusho ukuthi, isikrini siveza izingcezu noma izingcezu.

Izinzuzo nebubi
Ukuqedwa kwendawo ebushelelezi. Izindleko eziphezulu.
Iyakwazi ukuphrinta amaphethini ayinkimbinkimbi. Ayinabungani nemvelo.
Isivinini sokuphrinta. Idinga inqubo yokwelapha ngemuva kokuphrinta.
Izinhlobonhlobo zezinto ongakhetha kuzo. Awukwazi ukuphrinta izingxenye ezinkulu.
Ihlangene futhi kulula ukuyihambisa. Lawa maphrinta awawona ahlala isikhathi eside futhi aqinile.

DMLS (Direct Metal Laser Sintering) noma I-DMLS (I-PolyJet Direct Metal Laser Sintering)

Kulokhu, ikhiqiza izinto ngendlela efanayo ne-SLS, kodwa umehluko wukuthi impushana ayincibiliki, kodwa ishiswa yi-laser kuze kube yilapho. ingahlangana ezingeni lamangqamuzana. Ngenxa yokucindezeleka, izingcezu ngokuvamile ziba brittle, nakuba zingase zibe ngaphansi kwenqubo yokushisa elandelayo ukuze zikwazi ukumelana kakhulu. Lobu buchwepheshe busetshenziswa kabanzi embonini ukwenza izingxenye zensimbi noma i-alloy.

Izinzuzo nebubi
Iwusizo kakhulu ezimbonini. ubuso.
Zingasetshenziselwa ukuphrinta izingxenye zensimbi. Ngokuvamile zinkulu.
Ayidingi ukwesekwa. Izingxenye zingaba brittle.
Izingcezu ezinemininingwane ephezulu. Idinga i-post-process ehlanganisa ukuhlanganisa ukuhlanganisa izinsimbi noma ezinye izinhlobo zezinto.
Ungaphrinta izingcezu ezinosayizi abaningi abahlukene.

I-Extrusion noma i-deposition (umjovo)

Uma sikhuluma ngomndeni wamaphrinta asebenzisayo amasu okubeka usebenzisa ama-extruder wezinto ezibonakalayo, umuntu angakwazi ukuhlukanisa phakathi kobuchwepheshe obulandelayo:

I-FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling)

Lezi zindlela zokumodela ukubeka impahla encibilikisiwe ukuqamba isendlalelo sento ngokwesendlalelo. Uma umcu ushisisa futhi uncibilika, udlula ku-extruder bese ikhanda linyakaza kuma-XY coordinates aboniswa ifayela elinemodeli yokuphrinta. Kobunye ubukhulu sebenzisa i-Z offset izendlalelo ezilandelanayo.

Izinzuzo nebubi
Kuvaliwe. Bayimishini emikhulu yezimboni.
Izinhlobonhlobo zezinto zokwakha ongakhetha kuzo. Awashibhile.
Ikhwalithi enhle iqeda. Badinga ukunakekelwa okwengeziwe.

I-FFF (I-Fused Filament Fabrication)

Umehluko phakathi kwe-FDM ne-FFF? Nakuba ngezinye izikhathi kusetshenziswa igama elifanayo, i-FDM yitemu elibhekisela kubuchwepheshe obakhiwa i-Stratasys ngo-1989. Ngokuphambene, igama elithi FFF linokufana, kodwa laqanjwa abadali be-RepRap ngo-2005.

Ngokuthandwa kwamaphrinta we-3D kanye ne Ukuphelelwa yisikhathi kwelungelo lobunikazi le-FDM ngo-2009, indlela yavulwa amaphrinta amasha ashibhile anobuchwepheshe obufana kakhulu obubizwa ngokuthi i-FFF:

  • I-FDM: imishini emikhulu nevaliwe ezosetshenziswa kwezobunjiniyela kanye nemiphumela yekhwalithi ephezulu.
  • FFF: amaphrinta avulekile, ashibhile, futhi anemiphumela engemihle futhi engahambelani kakhulu yezinhlelo zokusebenza lapho izingxenye ezinezakhiwo ezicaciswe kakhulu zidingeka khona.
Izinzuzo nebubi
Akubizi. Ubuso obunzima bezingcezu.
I-filament ingasetshenziswa kabusha. I-Warping (deformation) ivamisile. Okusho ukuthi, ingxenye yento oyiphrintayo igobele phezulu ngenxa yomehluko wezinga lokushisa phakathi kwezendlalelo.
Zilula. Umbhobho uvamise ukuvaleka.
Kunezinhlobonhlobo zezinto ongakhetha kuzo. Bathatha isikhathi eside ukuphrinta.
Ahlangene futhi kulula ukuwahambisa. Izinkinga zokushintsha ungqimba ngenxa yokushoda kokunamathela phakathi kwezingqimba.
Ungazithola zombili ziqediwe futhi zingamakhithi ozowahlanganisa. Ubuthakathaka
Umbhede noma isekelo lidinga ukulinganiswa njalo.

Ezinye izinhlobo zamaphrinta e-3D athuthukile

Ngaphandle kwezinhlobo ezingenhla zamaphrinta e-3D, noma ubuchwepheshe bokuphrinta, kukhona ezinye okungenzeka zingadumile ngokusetshenziswa ekhaya, kodwa ziyathakasela imboni noma ucwaningo:

I-MJF (Multi Jet Fusion) noma I-MJ (Material Jetting)

Obunye ubuchwepheshe bokuphrinta be-3D ongabuthola yi-MJF noma i-MJ nje. Njengoba igama layo liphakamisa, iyi-a inqubo esebenzisa umjovo wezinto zokwakha. Izinhlobo zamaphrinta e-3D amukele le ndlela yokuphrinta zihloselwe kakhulu imboni yobucwebe, ukuthola ikhwalithi ephezulu ngokujova amakhulu amaconsi amancanyana e-photopolymer bese edlula inqubo ye-UV (ultraviolet) yokwelapha ukukhanya (yokuqinisa). .

Izinzuzo nebubi
Isivinini sokuphrinta esiphezulu. Ayinazo izinto ze-ceramic ezitholakalayo ukuthengisa okwamanje.
Ifanele ukusetshenziswa kwebhizinisi. Ubuchwepheshe abukandile kakhulu.
Izinga eliphakeme lokuzenzakalela ngesikhathi sokuphrinta kanye nenqubo yangemuva kokucubungula.

I-SLM (Ukukhetha Ukuncibilika Kwelaser)

Iwubuchwepheshe obuthuthukisiwe, obunomthombo welaser wamandla aphezulu kakhulu, futhi amaphrinta e-3D alolu hlobo anamanani aphezulu, ngakho ahloselwe ukusetshenziswa ngochwepheshe. Ngandlela thize, zifana nobuchwepheshe be-SLS optical, ngokukhetha ukuhlanganisa nge-laser. Isetshenziswa kakhulu ku ngokukhetha ncibilikisa i-metal powder futhi ukhiqize izingcezu eziqinile kakhulu ungqimba ngongqimba, ukuze ugweme ukwelashwa okuthile okulandelayo.

Izinzuzo nebubi
Ungaphrinta izingxenye zensimbi ezinezimo eziyinkimbinkimbi. Inani elilinganiselwe lezinto zokwakha.
Umphumela uba ingxenye eqondile neqinile. Ziyabiza futhi zinkulu.
Ayidingi ukwesekwa. Ukusetshenziswa kwayo kwamandla kuphezulu.
Ifanele ukusetshenziswa kwezimboni.

I-EBM (Ukuqothuka kwe-Electron Beam)

Ubuchwepheshe ukuhlanganiswa kwe-electron beam kuyinqubo yokukhiqiza okungeziwe efana kakhulu ne-SLM, futhi igxile ngokujulile embonini ye-aerospace. Iyakwazi futhi ukukhiqiza amamodeli aminyene kakhulu futhi aqinile, kodwa umehluko ukuthi esikhundleni se-laser, i-electron beam isetshenziselwa ukuncibilikisa impushana yensimbi. Lobu buchwepheshe bokusetshenziswa kwezimboni bungaholela ekuncibilikeni emazingeni okushisa angu-1000ºC.

Izinzuzo nebubi
Ungaphrinta izingxenye zensimbi ezinezimo eziyinkimbinkimbi. Inani elilinganiselwe lezinto zokwakha, njengoba okwamanje lingasetshenziselwa kuphela izinsimbi ezithile ezifana ne-cobalt-chromium noma ama-titanium alloys.
Umphumela uba ingxenye eqondile neqinile. Ziyabiza futhi zinkulu.
Ayidingi ukwesekwa. Ukusetshenziswa kwayo kwamandla kuphezulu.
Ifanele ukusetshenziswa kwezimboni. Badinga abasebenzi abaqeqeshiwe kanye nezinyathelo zokuvikela ukuze basebenzise.

I-BJ (Binder Jetting)

Ngolunye uhlobo olukhona lwamaphrinta e-3D, anobuchwepheshe obusetshenziswa ezingeni lezimboni. Kulokhu, it sebenzisa impushana njengesisekelo ukuze kwenziwe izingxenye, nge-binder ukuze kwakhiwe izingqimba. Okusho ukuthi, isebenzisa ama-powders wezinto ezibonakalayo kanye nohlobo lokunamathisela oluzosuswa kamuva ukuze kusele izinto eziyisisekelo kuphela. Lezi zinhlobo zamaphrinta zingasebenzisa izinto ezifana ne-plaster, usimende, izinhlayiya zensimbi, isihlabathi, ngisho nama-polymers.

Izinzuzo nebubi
Izinhlobonhlobo zezinto zokwakha izingcezu. Zingaba zinkulu ngosayizi.
Ungaphrinta izinto ezinkulu. Ziyabiza.
Ayidingi ukwesekwa. Ayilungele ukusetshenziswa ekhaya.
Ifanele ukusetshenziswa kwezimboni. Kungase kudingeke ukulungisa imodeli esimweni ngasinye.

Ukhonkolo noma i-3DCP

Kuwuhlobo lokunyathelisa oluthola isithakazelo esikhulu nakakhulu embonini yezokwakha. I-3DCP imele i-3D Concrete Printing, okungukuthi, ukuphrinta kwe-3D kukasimende. Inqubo esizwa ngekhompiyutha yokwakha izakhiwo zikasimende ngokukhipha ukuze kwakhiwe izendlalelo futhi ngaleyo ndlela kwakhiwe izindonga, izindlu, njll.

Izinzuzo nebubi
Bangakwazi ukwakha izakhiwo ngokushesha. Zingaba zinkulu ngosayizi.
Banentshisekelo enkulu emkhakheni wezokwakha. Ziyabiza futhi ziyinkimbinkimbi.
Bangakwazi ukwakhiwa kwezindlu ezishibhile nezisimeme. Ikesi ngalinye lizodinga ukulungisa iphrinta ye-3D ngokuqondile.
Intuthuko ebalulekile yokwenza amakoloni kwamanye amaplanethi.

I-LOM (Ukwenziwa Kwento Ene-Laminated)

I-LOM ihlanganisa ezinye izinhlobo zamaphrinta e-3D asetshenziselwa ukukhiqizwa kwe-rolling. Kulokhu, izindwangu, amashidi ephepha, amashidi noma amapuleti ensimbi, ipulasitiki, njll. kusetshenziswa, ukubeka ishidi ngeshidi lezendlalelo bese usebenzisa i-adhesive ukuzihlanganisa, ngaphezu kokusebenzisa amasu okusika izimboni ukukhiqiza umumo, njengokuthi kungaba laser cutting.

Izinzuzo nebubi
Bangakwazi ukwakha izakhiwo eziqinile. Akuwona amaphrinta e-3D ahlangene.
Amathuba okukhetha phakathi kwezinto ezisetshenziswayo ezihlukene kakhulu. Ziyabiza futhi ziyinkimbinkimbi.
Bangase babe nezicelo emkhakheni we-aeronautical noma emkhakheni wokuncintisana wezinhlanganisela ezithile. Badinga abasebenzi abaqeqeshiwe.

I-DOD (Yehlisa Isidingo)

Enye indlela ye yehla ngokufunwa isebenzisa amajethi 'kayinki' amabili, enye ifaka impahla yokwakha yento enye ibeka izinto ezincibilikayo ezisekelweni. Ngale ndlela, yakha ungqimba ngongqimba, isebenzisa amathuluzi engeziwe ukwenza imodeli, njenge-fly-cutter epholisha indawo esakhiwayo. Ngale ndlela, ifinyelela indawo eyisicaba ngokuphelele, yingakho isetshenziswa kakhulu embonini lapho kudingeka khona ukunemba okukhulu, njengokwenza isikhunta.

Izinzuzo nebubi
Iphelele ukusetshenziswa kwezimboni. Zingaba zinkulu ngosayizi.
Ukunemba okukhulu ekuqedeni. Ziyabiza futhi ziyinkimbinkimbi.
Bangakwazi ukuphrinta izinto ezinkulu. Badinga abasebenzi abaqeqeshiwe.
Ayidingi ukwesekwa. Izinto ezisetshenziswayo ezilinganiselwe.

I-MME (Metal Material Extrusion)

Le ndlela ifana kakhulu ne-FFF noma i-FDM, okungukuthi, iqukethe i-extrusion ye-polymer. Umehluko wukuthi lokhu i-polymer inomthwalo wempushana wensimbi ophezulu. Ngakho-ke, lapho udala umumo, ukucubungula ngemuva (i-debonding kanye ne-sintering) kungenziwa ukuze kwakhiwe ingxenye yensimbi eqinile.

I-UAM (Ukukhiqiza Okungeziwe kwe-Ultrasonic)

Le enye indlela isebenzisa amashidi ensimbi ayingqimba ngongqimba futhi ahlanganiswe ndawonye i-ultrasound ukuhlanganisa izindawo ezingaphezulu bese udala ingxenye eqinile.

i-bioprinting

Okokugcina, phakathi kwezinhlobo zamaphrinta we-3D, enye yezinto eziphambili kakhulu nezithakazelisa ukusetshenziswa kwezokwelapha, phakathi kwezinye izinhlelo zokusebenza embonini, ayikwazi ukulahlekelwa. Imayelana ubuchwepheshe be-bioprinting, okungase kusekelwe kwamanye amasu adlule, kodwa ngemininingwane. Isibonelo, kunezimo lapho zisekelwe khona ekufakweni kongqimba, amajethi e-bioink (i-bioink), i-bioprinting esizwa nge-laser, ingcindezi, i-microextrusion, i-SLA, i-direct cell extrusion, ubuchwepheshe kazibuthe, njll. Konke kuzoncika ekusetshenzisweni ofuna ukukunikeza, ngoba ngayinye inezinzuzo zayo ezingase zibe khona kanye nokulinganiselwa kwayo.

I-3D bioprinting ine izigaba ezintathu eziyisisekelo okuyi:

  1. I-Pre-bioprinting: kuyinqubo yokudala imodeli, njengokumodela kwe-3D kusetshenziswa isofthiwe yokuphrinta ye-3D. Kodwa, kulokhu, izinyathelo eziyinkimbinkimbi ziyadingeka ukuze uthole imodeli eshiwo, ngokuhlolwa okufana ne-biopsies, i-computed tomography, imaging resonance magnetic, njll. Ngale ndlela ungathola imodeli ezothunyelwa ukuphrinta.
  2. i-bioprinting: Uma kusetshenziswa izinto ezidingekayo ezihlukene, njengezixazululo eziwuketshezi ezinamaseli, ama-matrices, imisoco, ama-inks e-bio, njll., futhi afakwa kukhathriji yokuphrinta ukuze iphrinta iqale ukudala ithishu, isitho noma into.
  3. I-post-bioprinting: kuyinqubo ngaphambi kokuphrinta, njengoba kwakunjalo ngokuphrinta kwe-3D, kukhona nezinqubo ezihlukahlukene zangaphambilini. Kungaba ukukhiqiza isakhiwo esizinzile, ukuvuthwa kwezicubu, i-vasculation, njll. Ezimweni eziningi, ama-bioreactors ayadingeka kulokhu.
Izinzuzo nebubi
Amathuba okuphrinta izindwangu eziphilayo. Inkimbinkimbi.
Ingaxazulula inkinga yokushoda kwezitho zokufakelwa. Izindleko zale mishini ethuthukisiwe.
Susa isidingo sokuhlolwa kwezilwane. Isidingo sokucutshungulwa kwangaphambili, ngaphezu kokucutshungulwa kwangemuva.
Isivinini nokunemba. Kusezigabeni zokuhlola.

Izinhlobo zamaphrinta e-3D ngokuya ngezinto zokwakha

Reel of PLA 3d iphrinta

Enye indlela yokwenza ikhathalogi yamaphrinta e-3D ngu uhlobo lwezinto abangaphrinta kuzo, nakuba amanye amaphrinta e-3D asekhaya nasezimbonini amukela izinto ezihlukahlukene zokuphrinta (inqobo nje uma enezici ezifanayo, njengendawo yokuncibilika,…), njengoba nje iphrinta evamile ingasebenzisa izinhlobo ezahlukene zephepha.

metal 3D amaphrinta

insimbi ephrintiwe

Zonke izinsimbi azifaneleki kahle ezinhlotsheni ezahlukene zamaphrinta e-3D. Eqinisweni, ngokusebenzisa obunye bobuchwepheshe obubonwe ngenhla, bumbalwa kuphela obusingathwa. I ezivamile metal powders esetshenziswa ekukhiqizeni okungeziwe yilezi:

  • Insimbi engagqwali (izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene)
  • Insimbi yensimbi (enokwakheka okuhlukile kwekhabhoni)
  • Izingxube ze-Titanium.
  • Ama-alloys e-aluminium.
  • Ama-superalloys asekelwe ku-nickel, njenge-Inconel (i-austenitic Ni-Cr alloy).
  • Ama-alloys e-cobalt-chrome.
  • Ama-alloys asekelwe ethusi.
  • Izinsimbi eziyigugu (igolide, isiliva, iplatinamu,…).
  • Izinsimbi ezingavamile (i-palladium, i-tantalum, ...).

Amaphrinta okudla e-3D

inyama ephrintiwe

Umthombo: REUTERS/Amir Cohen

Kuya ngokuya kuvame ukuthola Amaphrinta e-3D okwenza ukudla ngokusebenzisa izindlela zokukhiqiza ezingeziwe. Kulokhu, ezinye ezivame kakhulu yilezi:

  • Izingxenye ezisebenzayo (ama-prebiotics, ama-probiotics, amaminerali, amavithamini, ama-fatty acids, ama-phytochemicals namanye ama-antioxidants).
  • Umucu.
  • Amafutha
  • Izinhlobo ezahlukene zama-carbohydrate, njengofulawa noshukela.
  • Amaprotheni (isilwane noma imifino) ukuze enze ukwakheka okufana nenyama.
  • Ama-Hydrogel, njenge-gelatin, ne-alginate.
  • Ama-chocolate.

Amaphrinta wePlastiki we-3D

Ipulasitiki ye-3D

Yiqiniso, enye yezinto ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ukuphrinta 3D, ikakhulukazi ekhaya 3D amaphrinta, kuyinto ama-polymers:

Njengoba sithandwa futhi sibaningi, sizonikezela isihloko ikakhulukazi kubo.
  • Amapulasitiki afana ne-PLA, ABS, PET, PC, njll.
  • Ama-polymers asebenza kahle kakhulu njenge-PEEK, i-PEKK, i-ULTEM, njll.
  • I-polyamide yokwenziwa yohlobo lwezindwangu njengenayiloni noma inayiloni.
  • Amanzi ancibilikayo njenge-HIPS, PVA, BVOH, njll.
  • Ivumelana nezimo njenge-TPE noma i-TPU, njengalezo zamakesi omakhalekhukhwini we-silicone.
  • Ama-resin asekelwe kwi-polymerization.

Futhi, uma uzosebenzisa iphrinta ye-3D ukuphrinta izinto ezizosetshenziswa ekudleni, njengezinkomishi, izibuko, amapuleti, izinto zokusika, njll., kufanele wazi ukuthi yini amapulasitiki aphephile ekudleni:

  • I-PLA, PP, i-co-polyester, i-PET, i-PET-G, i-HIPS, inayiloni 6, i-ABS, i-ASA ne-PEI. Uma uzowasebenzisa ukugeza kumshini wokuwasha izitsha noma ukumelana namazinga okushisa aphakeme, lahla inayiloni, i-PLA ne-PET, njengoba evame ukonakala emazingeni okushisa aphakathi kuka-60-70ºC.

Izinto eziphilayo

i-bioprinted vascular system

Umthombo: BloodBusiness.com

Kepha I-3D bioprinting, ungathola futhi inhlobonhlobo yemikhiqizo nezinto zokwakha:

  • ama-polymers okwenziwa.
  • I-Poly-L-lactic acid.
  • Ama-biomolecules, njenge-DNA.
  • Ama-bioinks e-viscosity aphansi anamaseli amisiwe (amaseli athile noma ama-stem cells). Nge-hyaluronic acid, i-collagen, njll.
  • Izinsimbi ze-prosthetics.
  • Amaprotheni.
  • Izinhlanganisela.
  • I-Gelatin agarose.
  • izinto ezithinta izithombe.
  • Ama-acrylic kanye nama-epoxy resins.
  • I-Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT)
  • I-Polyglycolic Acid (PGA)
  • I-Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK)
  • I-polyurethane
  • I-Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)
  • I-Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)
  • I-Chitosan
  • Amanye ama-paste, ama-hydrogel noketshezi.

Inhlanganisela nama-hybrids

carbon fibre, izinhlanganisela

Bakhona nabanye ama-hybrid compounds kumaphrinta e-3D, nakuba evame ukuhluka kakhulu futhi ahluke kakhulu:

  • I-PLA-based (70% PLA + 30% enye impahla), njengokhuni, uqalo, uvolo, imicu kakhokho, njll.
  • Izinhlanganisela (i-carbon fibre, i-fiberglass, i-kevlar, njll.).
  • I-Alumina (ingxube yama-polymers nama-aluminium powders).
  • I-Ceramics. Ezinye izibonelo ziyi-porcelain, i-terracotta, njll.
    • Ama-oxide ensimbi: i-alumina, i-zircon, i-quartz, njll.
    • I-non-oxide esekelwe: i-silicon carbides, i-aluminium nitride, njll.
    • I-Bioceramics: njenge-hydroxyapatite (HA), i-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), njll.
  • Izinhlanganisela ezisekelwe kusimende, njengezinhlobo ezahlukene zodaka nokhonkolo.
  • Ama-Nanomaterials nezinto ezihlakaniphile.
  • Kanye nezinye izinto eziningi ezintsha ezizayo.

Ngokusebenzisa

Okokugcina, izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamaphrinta e-3D nazo zingafakwa kukhathalogi ngokusetshenziswa yini ezonikezwa:

Amaphrinta we-Industrial 3D

Iphrinta ye-3d yezimboni

I-Las izimboni 3D amaphrinta Ziwuhlobo oluthile kakhulu lwephrinta. Ngokuvamile banobuchwepheshe obuthuthukile, ngaphezu kokuba bukhulu kakhulu ngosayizi, futhi banenani lezinkulungwane zama-euro. Zenzelwe ukusetshenziswa embonini, ukuze zenziwe ngokushesha, ngokunembile futhi ngobuningi. Futhi zingasetshenziswa emikhakheni efana ne-aeronautics, electronics kanye nama-semiconductors, imithi, izimoto, ukwakhiwa, i-aerospace, i-motorsport, njll.

I-Los izimboni 3d iphrinta amanani inganyakaza kusuka ku- € 4000 kuya ku- € 300.000 kwezinye izimo, kuye ngosayizi, uhlobo, imodeli, izinto zokwakha kanye nezici.

Amaphrinta amakhulu e-3D

Iphrinta ye-3d

Nakuba lolu hlobo lwe amaphrinta amakhulu we-3d ingafakwa phakathi kwezimboni, kuyiqiniso ukuthi kukhona amamodeli aklanyelwe ukusetshenziswa ngaphandle kwemboni, njengamaphrinta athile akwazi ukuphrinta izingxenye ezinkulu zalabo bakhi abayidingayo, izinkampani ezincane, njll. Ngiqondise kulawo mamodeli angemakhulu futhi angabizi njengezezimboni, njenge-Anycubic Chiron, Snapmaker 3D, Tronxy X5SA, Tevo Tornado, Creality CR 10S, Dremer DigiLab 3D20, njll.

Amaphrinta e-3D ashibhile

iphrinta ye-3d eshibhile

Amakhithi amaningi okufaka Amaphrinta we-3D okusetshenziswa ekhaya, noma okunye amaphrojekthi womthombo ovulekile, njenge-Prusa, i-Lulzbot, i-Voron, i-SeeMeCNC, i-BigFDM, i-Creality Ender, i-Ultimaker, njll., kanye nezinye izinhlobo ezithengisa amaphrinta e-3D ahlangene, balethe ukuphrinta kwe-3D emakhaya amaningi futhi. Yini ngaphambili izinkampani ezimbalwa kuphela ebezingakwazi ukukukhokhela, manje ingafakwa intengo efana namaphrinta avamile.

Ngokuvamile, lawa maphrinta anjalo eyenzelwe ukusetshenziswa ngasese, njengabashisekeli be-DIY noma abenzi, noma abanye abazimele abadinga ukudala amamodeli athile ngezikhathi ezithile. Kodwa azenzelwe ukudala amamodeli amakhulu, noma amakhulu, noma ngokushesha. Futhi, ingxenye enkulu, zenziwe nge-resin noma i-plastic filament.

3d ipensela

3d ipensela

Ekugcineni, ukuze ngiqedele lesi sihloko, angizange ngifune ukuzishiya ngemuva 3D amapensela. Akuzona uhlobo lwamaphrinta e-3D njengalokhu, kodwa anomgomo ofanayo futhi angasebenza kakhulu ukudala amamodeli alula, ezingane, njll.

Unayo intengo eshibhile kakhulu, futhi ngokuyisisekelo amaphrinta e-3D aphathwa ngesandla amise okwepeni okwenza ngayo imidwebo ngevolumu. Ngokuvamile basebenzisa imicu yepulasitiki efana ne-PLA, i-ABS, njll., futhi ukusebenza kwabo kulula kakhulu. Ngokuyisisekelo zixhuma endaweni kagesi futhi zishise njengama-ayina ahlanganisiwe noma izibhamu ezishisayo zeglue. Yile ndlela abancibilikisa ngayo ipulasitiki ezogeleza ithiphu ukuze udale umdwebo.

Ulwazi oluningi


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

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