I-Flux: uyini lo mkhiqizo osetshenziselwa ukuwelda?

ukuhamba

Uma ufunda ukwenza i-micro-weld Izingxenye ze-elekthronikhi, noma ngokushaya kabusha, ngokuqinisekile ukuqinisekisile ukuthi uyakudinga unama obizwa ngokuthi yi-flux. Lo mkhiqizo uyisihambi ngokuphelele kwabaningi, ngoba ukwenza okokufaka okokufaka okwejwayelekile ngethini le nto akuvamisile ukusetshenziswa, ngakolunye uhlangothi, kulabo abanye abathengisi kuyasiza kakhulu.

Kulokhu ukukuqondisa ungafunda konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana nalokhu kunamathisela, njengokuqanjwa kwayo, inhloso, ukuthi ungakusebenzisa kanjani, izinhlobo, njll.

Kuyini ukugeleza?

Igama lesiNgisi flux ingahunyushwa njengokugeleza, futhi livela esiLatin «fluxus» okusho ukuthi «flow». Ayisetshenziswanga kuphela ekuguqulweni kwe-elekthronikhi, isetshenziswa futhi nakwezinye izinhlobo eziningi ze-soldering njenge-flow agent noma i-agent yokuhlanza, kanye nasekukhiqizeni izinsimbi embonini ye-metallurgic, okusho ukuthi, bavame ukuba nomsebenzi ongaphezu kowodwa.

Okokuqala ukugeleza zenziwe nge-lime, potash, sodium carbonate, borax, lead sulfate, coke, njll. Zonke zisetshenziswe kuma-Foundries ukuhlanza izinsimbi. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, njenge-ejenti yokuhlanza noma ukwenza lula ukugeleza kwe-solder, okwenza i-solder esezingeni eliphakeme nokuqeda i-oxidation, kuzoqala ukusetshenziswa kamuva.

Ukugxila ku- umshiseli, okuyisihloko esisithandayo lapha, ngokuyinhloko kuyisici (unama, uketshezi noma impuphu) esingavimbela ukugqwala kwamalunga, sisebenze njengesivikelo ekuxhumaneni nomoya ngenkathi kuhlangana. Ngalokhu, izingxube zamakhemikhali ezinjenge-fluorides, i-borates, i-borax noma i-boric acid zisetshenziswa.

Ngaphezu kwalomphumela wokuvikela, kuma-solders kathayela, kusebenza futhi ukwenza i- inqubo elula, ukuthola insimbi nokwenza ukuthi ilawuleke ngokwengeziwe, ngenkathi yenza izingxenye zinamathele kahle. Futhi-ke, ithuthukisa ikhwalithi ye-welding, igwema ukungcola kanye nemfucumfucu ekhiqizwa ngesikhathi senqubo.

Omunye umphumela walokhu kugeleza ukuthanda i ama-welds aphansi okushisa. Lokhu kunciphisa amathuba okulimala kwezingxenye ezifakwe ngethempelesha eyenziwe ngesikhathi senqubo.

Izicelo ze-Flux

Kepha isicelo flux, ivame ukusetshenziswa kakhulu ekuguqulweni kwemishini kagesi njenge:

  • Ukulungiswa kwama-weld-micro, lapho kunzima kakhulu ukuqhubeka ngenxa yobukhulu obuncane bezinto.
  • Ukufakwa kwe-SMD kuma-PCB.
  • Iphindisela i-BGA.
  • Ukuhlanzwa kwezinsalela noma izinsalela zokugqwala.

Izinhlobo zokugeleza

Kuneziningana izinhlobo zokugeleza emakethe yezinsimbi, ngayinye inamanani ahlukile nezimpawu ezihlukile.

  • I-ammonium bromide engenazinsimbi ezisindayo: kuyisixazululo samanzi sama-organic ammonium bromide ane-hydrobromic acid yamahhala. Azivamisile ukushiya umkhondo wezinsalela ku-weld, futhi uma kunjalo, akubangeli ukwakheka kwemigodi (pitting).
  • I-zinc chloride: esinye isixazululo samanzi se-ammonium chloride ne-zinc chloride exutshwe ne-hydrochloric acid yamahhala. Kugqama kalula ngokusetshenziswa kwayo nokusebenza kwayo, yize ukukhipha izinsalela kusho ukukuhlanza ukugwema ukwakheka kwemigodi (pitting).
  • I-zinc bromide: olunye uhlobo lwesisombululo samanzi se-zinc bromide ne-ammonium bromide ene-hydrochloric acid yamahhala. Njengokwedlule, kulula kakhulu ukuyisebenzisa, kepha futhi kulula ukususa izinsalela ngokuzigeza ngamanzi. Noma izinsalela zihlala ku-solder, ngeke zenze izimbobo.
  • UCasero: Noma kunganconyiwe, abanye abenzi bayo bazama ukudala okokuzenzela okuzenzela. Ukwenza lokhu, basebenzisa iphimbo elincane abalicoboshayo futhi balihlanganise notshwala. Kodwa-ke, lolu hlobo lokugeleza ngeke luzuze imiphumela efanayo nemikhiqizo yezentengiso.

Umehluko phakathi kokunamathisela kwe-flux ne-solder

Okunye ukungabaza okujwayelekile ukuthi ngabe kungukuguquguquka okufanayo nokunamathisela kwe-solder noma uma kukhona umehluko othile. Iqiniso ukuthi liyinkimbinkimbi, futhi kaningi imikhiqizo uqobo iyadida encazelweni yayo, isebenzisa womabili amagama njengamagama afanayo. Abanye benza umehluko, futhi bathi kukhona kuphela umehluko omncane:

  • ageleze: ikhemikhali isetshenziswa ezintweni ezisansimbi ukuze zishise ngokufanayo futhi zithuthukise ikhwalithi ye-weld, noma neyokushiselwa phansi.
  • Solder unama: isetshenziselwa ukushisela ukusiza ukunamathela kwezingxenye zensimbi ezinzima kakhulu.

Kepha, njengoba ngiphawula, ngezinhloso ezisebenzayo, ungakuthatha njengo ngokufana. Eqinisweni, kwezinye izindawo kusetshenziswa igama elilodwa bese kwezinye kusetshenziswa elinye. Vele uqiniseke lapho uthenga umkhiqizo ukuthi akusiwona ukugeleza noma ukunamathisela kwamapayipi noma ezinye izinhlelo zokusebenza, nokuthi ucaciselwe i-elekthronikhi ...

Ungayisebenzisa kanjani i-flux

Sebenzisa ukugeleza, noma ukugeleza, kulula uma ulandela uchungechunge lwezinyathelo. Ngokwenza lokhu, ungathola okuhle kulo mkhiqizo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kufanele usebenzise uchungechunge lwezinyathelo zokuzivikela, njengokuzisebenzisa egumbini elinomoya njengoba kuyikhemikhali elikwazi ukukhiqiza umhwamuko, ukugqoka izibuko nesifihla-buso, kanye namagilavu.

I-Las imiyalo ukusebenzisa ukugeleza kokushisela yile:

  1. Hlanza noma yikuphi ukungcola okungenzeka kusendaweni yokushisela, uma kukhona.
  2. Faka ungqimba oluncane lokugeleza endaweni noma kuzo zombili. Akunandaba ukuthi izingxenye zigcwaliswa kuphi noma lapho kuzoba khona ukushisela. Futhi, uma indawo ishisa ngandlela thile, kungcono.
  3. Ngemuva kwalokho i-welding yenziwa njengoba bekuvame ukwenziwa, kuya ngokuthi iwelding ye-SMD, i-reballing, njll.
  4. Okokugcina, hlanza noma yikuphi ukugeleza okusele.

Mayelana naleli phuzu lokugcina, kukhona ifayela le- impikiswano yokuthi kufanele kuhlanzwe noma cha. Eqinisweni, akungabazeki kuphela kuma-hobbyists (noma i-welding ngesandla), futhi kuyangabazeka embonini (i-automated welding). Abakhiqizi abaningi bayayishalazela ingxenye engemuva kokukhiqizwa ngokungabi namathuluzi azenzakalelayo ayo nangokuthembela ekusebenzeni kahle kwemishini esetshenziselwa ukukhiqiza amalunga ngenhlanzeko eyenele.

Esikhundleni salokho, lo muzwa ongamanga wokuphepha ungaholela ekunganakwa kwefayela le- ukungcoliswa kwama-electrochemical kukhiqizwe ezingxenyeni ezithile futhi lokho kubonakala kungakhi imiphumela emibi, yize kuzoqeda ukwehluleka kwesikhathi eside.

Lapho isetshenziswa ocucuzayo core solder wire noma ukugeleza, lokhu kugeleza kuvame ukuba yi-resin eqinile enephuzu lokuncibilika eliphakeme kunensimbi eyizungezile. Kulezi zinhlobo zensimbi, lapho ichopho lensimbi lithinta ucingo, ukugeleza kuba uketshezi bese kusakazeka phezu komsebenzi. Ngale ndlela, insimbi encibilikile ilandela ukushisa nokuhamba, yakha isibopho. Njengoba kungenziwa, ngoba kudinga ukushisa kuncibilike, ubungozi bokungcola buphansi kakhulu ...

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, lokhu akunjalo kwezinye izinqubo ze-soldering lapho kusetshenziswa khona ukucucuza okuningi ngenxa yezici ze-solder, njenge-SMD. Noma kunjalo, kukhona imikhiqizo Iziphuzo "Azikho ezihlanzekile" ezingadingi ukuhlanzwa, kepha zidinga ukuvezwa ekushiseni ukuze zingene.

Kunemikhiqizo ehlukahlukene yokuhlanza noma yokuhlanza, njengama-solvents anjenge-isopropyl alcohol (IPA), kanye nama-wipe, swabs, njll. Kufanele ufunde ngokucophelela izinkomba zomkhiqizi we-flux zokusetshenziswa nezincomo ukuthola indlela efanele.

Isibonelo, lapho wenza i-wave soldering ephelele, lokho kuqinisekisiwe, kepha hhayi kwamanye amasu lapho kusetshenziswa khona i-point-to-point soldering noma i-reballing. Kulezo zimo, ukushisa okwenziwe kwasendaweni kungenzeka kunganeli hlukana nezimbangela zamakhemikhali bese uzenza zingangeni. Futhi leyo yinkinga yokusala ngaphandle kwendawo ye-weld noma ukusabalala ngaphansi noma ngaphezulu kwezinto.

Ungayigcina kanjani i-flux

Lapho usuqedile ukusebenzisa ukugeleza, ukuze igcinwe kahle kumele:

  • Shiya umqubuko ebhodleleni lawo lokuqala bese ulivale kahle.
  • Isitsha kufanele sihlale sime mpo, sigweme ukusigcina sibheke phansi.
  • Gcina endaweni epholile, izinga lokushisa liphansi, kungcono. Ukuyishiya ezindaweni ezomile noma emazingeni okushisa aphezulu kufanele kugwenywe ngazo zonke izindlela.
  • Uma uyigcine endaweni ezinamazinga okushisa aphansi (5-6ºC) njengoba abanye abakhiqizi beluleka, ngaphambi kokuyisebenzisa futhi kufanele uyishiye ekamelweni lokushisa cishe amahora ayisithupha ukuze ifinyelele izinga lokushisa elifanele ukusetshenziswa.

Okubi nokuqapha ukusetshenziswa kwe-flux

Ama-flux noma i-flux akhululekile izinkinga, noma ngabe inzuzo yabo ibenza bakufanele ukusebenzisa. Isibonelo, amanye amakhemikhali avame ukuba nolaka futhi abangele ukugqwala ezakhiweni. Abanye bangenza ukuphazamiseka okuthile ngezinto ezithile, kuvikeleke ngandlela thile.

Kungaba njalo futhi ukungcola izingxenye ezizwelayo, njengezinto ezithile zokubuka, ama-laser diode facets, izindlela ze-MEMS, amaswishi, njll. Enye inkinga ukuthi amakhemikhali athile asezincibilikisini ezincibilika emanzini, njenge-polyethylene glycol, abangela ukuwohloka kwezici zedielectric zezingqimba zezifunda eziphrintiwe.

Kumasekethe amvamisa aphezulu, izinsalela ze-flux nazo zingadala izinkinga ezithile. Kutholakale nokuthi kwezinye izimo kungadala ukufuduka kokuxhuma nokwakheka kwe- intshebe ngezinsalela ze-ionic, umswakama ongaphezulu abawenzayo namandla we-bias.

Ngaphambi kokuthi ngiphinde ngixwayise ngokuvikelwa ngaphambi kokusebenzisa la makhemikhali, futhi lokho kungukuthi izinhlanganisela eziguquguqukayo zemvelo nazo zingaba nazo imiphumela emibi yezempilo. Ama-solvents adingekayo ekuhlanzeni nawo ayingozi, nawo anomthelela kwezemvelo.

Ngiyaphinda ngiyasho ukuthi kubalulekile gqoka izibuko, imaski namagilavu yokuphatha. Ukwehluleka ukwenza lokho kungaholela ezinkingeni zezempilo kusuka ekuchayekeni isikhathi eside, ngokwesibonelo, umusi we-rosin. Lokho kungadala i-asthma kubantu ababucayi.

En los amehlo noma isikhumba kungadala nezinkinga. Eqinisweni, lokhu kucucuza kunamathela esikhunjeni futhi kungadlulisa ukushisa kangcono, kubangele ukusha.

Ukuthenga kuphi ukugeleza?

Ekugcineni, uma ufuna ukuthenga i-flux, ungayithola ngentengo enhle ezitolo eziningana ezikhethekile ze-elekthronikhi. Lezi izi izincomo ezithile:


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

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