I-Electronics Guide: Ungakhetha Kanjani I-Tin Soldering Iron Engcono Kakhulu

best tin soldering iron

Noma izintambo ze-jumper futhi i ibhodi lesinkwa Baye basiza kakhulu umsebenzi wabenzi nabathandi be-elekthronikhi be-DIY, okubavumela ukuba benze ama-circuits futhi bawahlakaze kalula ngaphandle kwesidingo sokuthengisa.Iqiniso liwukuthi lapho iphrojekthi idinga ukuqedwa ukuze isetshenziswe unomphela, i-soldering ihlale isetshenziswa. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kuyadingeka ukushintsha izingxenye ze eya pcb, ukulungisa, njll. Lapha ungabona umhlahlandlela ophelele ukuze ukwazi ukukhetha i-soldering iron engcono kakhulu kanye nesiteshi se-soldering Kusuka emakethe.

Inkomba

Izinsimbi ezihamba phambili ze-soldering kanye neziteshi zokunamathisela

Uma ufuna i-soldering station enhle noma enye insimbi enhle, lapho-ke kufanele ulandele lezi zincomo ukuze wenze ukuthenga ngendlela efanele:

Ikhithi yensimbi ye-Ocked Ed Soldering

Ibriefcase egcwele enkulu ikhithi yokuqalisa i-electronics. Kufaka phakathi insimbi yokudambisa amandla angu-60W, enobuchwepheshe bokumelana ne-ceramic, isivinini sokushisa esiphezulu, inkinobho yokuvula/ukuvala, usekelo lwensimbi yokunamathisela, amathiphu ahlukene, insimbi encibilikayo, kanye neroli ye-solder ifakiwe.

I-WaxRhyed Soldering Kit

Enye indlela eyangaphambili. Iza nekesi eliphelele (16 ku-1), elinensimbi yokunamathisela engu-60W kanye ne izinga lokushisa elilungisekayo phakathi kuka-200ºC no-450ºC. Ifaka i-soldering iron, ama-tweezers, iphampu encibilikayo, amathiphu angu-5 ahlukene, nekesi lokugcina.

80W professional soldering iron

Un i-tin soldering iron ukuze isetshenziswe ngochwepheshel, ngokulungiswa kwezinga lokushisa phakathi kuka-250ºC no-480ºC. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kuhlanganisa isikrini se-LCD esinezinga lokushisa ngaso sonke isikhathi. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, iphinde ibe nomsebenzi wokumisa, umsebenzi wokukhumbula izinga lokushisa, namandla angu-80W okushisa okusheshayo.

Isibhamu sochwepheshe se-Salki SEK 200W

Nakuba lesi sibhamu esisebenzayo se-soldering senzelwe ukusetshenziswa okuningi, njengamaphrojekthi wobucwebe, singasetshenziselwa futhi i-electronic soldering. Ine-a 200W amandla amakhulu, amathiphu ashintshekayo nezinto ezisebenzisekayo ezifakwe ecaleni.

I-Weller WE1010

Thengisa Weller WE 1010...
Weller WE 1010...
Azikho izibuyekezo

Le iron soldering iron ingenye yezinsiza ezingcono kakhulu ze-workshop yakho yobungcweti. Isistimu yokushisela amandla angu-70W, enezinga lokushisa ilungiseka phakathi kuka-100ºC no-450ºC, futhi ngosekelo olufakiwe ngakho-ke ungayishiya iphumule ngenkathi wenza ezinye izinto, ngaphandle kwengozi yokusha noma izingozi.

Isiteshi sokuthengisa saseNahkzny

Uma ufuna i-soldering station, ungaphinda uthenge lesi esingu-60W, esinezinga lokushisa elilungisekayo phakathi kuka-200ºC no-480ºC, ozinzile njalo ukunikeza izinga lokushisa elifanayo, ukushisisa ngokushesha, amathiphu angu-5 okunamathisela, okokuhlanza ithiphu, isitendi, insimbi encibilikisayo, nesibambi se-tin roll.

Isiteshi se-Tauara soldering

Lesi esinye isiteshi sokudambisa sicishe sifane nesangaphambili, esinamandla angu-60W, izinga lokushisa elilungisekayo phakathi kuka-90ºC no-480ºC, isethi yamathiphu, isikrini se-LED, umsebenzi wokulinda, nokusekelwa. Kuphela futhi unezela okuthile okuwusizo, njengokuthi iziqeshana ezimbili zokubamba izingxenye futhi ushiye izandla zakho zikhululekile.

2-in-1 Z Zelus Soldering Station

Lesi esinye isiteshi se-soldering siphakathi kwe- ephelele futhi professional. Kuhlanganisa insimbi ehlanganisiwe enamandla angu-70W, isibhamu somoya oshisayo esingu-750W, ukusekela, isibonisi se-LED ukukhombisa izinga lokushisa, amathuba okulungiswa, ama-tweezers, amathiphu ahlukahlukene, nokuhlanza.

The best reballing iziteshi

Uma kwenzeka ucabanga okuthile okuthuthuke kakhulu, njenge-a reball station, bese ungakhetha lawa amanye amaqembu:

DIFU

Kuneziteshi ezimbili zokuphinda zikwazi ukukhanda amabhodi anamasekhethi ahlanganisiwe ashiselwe, njengalawo amadivaysi eselula, ama-motherboards ama-laptops nama-desktop PC, njll. Inokusekelwa kwe-IR6500, isikrini se-LCD, esihambisana nama-chips e-BGA, ekwazi ukusoda ngaphandle komthofu, ukugcina amajika okushisa ahlukahlukene, enembobo ye-USB eyakhelwe ngaphakathi yokulawula i-PC, njll.

best desoldering irons

Kunjalo, nawe unamanye amathuluzi ancomekayo ukwenza inqubo ephambene, i-desoldering lezo zingxenye ze-elekthronikhi okudingeka uzishintshe, njengalezi:

I-FixPoint Solder Cleaner

Isicoci esilula kodwa esisebenzayo. Iyakwazi ukuhlanza amashisela ofuna ukuwasusa, futhi idalwe ngezinto ezisezingeni eliphezulu ukuyenza iqine, njenge-aluminium. Ithiphu layo le-teflon lingu-3.2mm.

I-YIHUA 929D-V Solder Cleaner

Lesi esinye isicoci se-solder siphakathi kwezinhle kakhulu. Sebenzisa inkomishi yokumunca noma isistimu yokumunca i-vacuum ukuze ususe i-solder ongasayidingi. Ihlangene futhi ivumela ukufinyelela ezindaweni ezincane, ngisho nangemigodi.

ukuhamba

Enye insimbi elula futhi eshibhile ye-antistatic desoldering. Vacuum i-solder eshisayo ukuze uyisuse ezintweni zikagesi nezikagesi. Ihlanza kalula futhi isezingeni eliphezulu.

I-Mugung 1600w

Amanye ama-chips, izakhi, noma ama-heatsink anamathiselwe kahle kakhulu. Futhi ukuze uwasuse, kufanele usebenzise eyodwa yalezi zifutha zomoya oshisayo. Yiqiniso, baphinde basebenze njengensimbi yokunamathisela, njengoba umoya ukwazi ukuncibilikisa insimbi ye-solder ukuze uhlanganise izingxenye. Kufaka phakathi imilomo kanye nekesi lokuthwala. Ngenxa yamandla ayo angu-1600W ingafinyelela izinga lokushisa elingu-600ºC.

I-Duokon 8858 Welder/Blower

Ikhwalithi enhle kakhulu, ihlanganisa ukusekela kanye ne-adaptha yamandla, imibhobho engu-3 eshintshwayo, kulula kakhulu ukuyisebenzisa, futhi ingafinyelela amazinga okushisa aphakathi kuka-100 no-480ºC emoyeni oshisayo ewukhiphayo.

I-Toolour Isiteshi Sokuthungela Umoya Oshisayo

Lesi siteshi sokushisa esishisayo singasuka ku-100ºC siye ku-500ºC, sishise ngokushesha okukhulu. Kubandakanya ukusekelwa, ukulungiswa kwezinga lokushisa, ama-tweezers, insimbi encibilikayo, imibhobho ehlukahlukene, futhi ingasetshenziselwa ukusebenza ngezingxenye ze-SMD, njenge-SOIC, QFP, PLCC, BGA, njll.

Okusetshenziswayo

Futhi abakwazanga ukuphuthelwa okunye izincomo ngentengo enhle yezinto ezisetshenziswayo imisebenzi yokunamathisela, efana namathiphu e-soldering iron, izinto zokuhlanza, i-flux, i-soldering iron, nokuningi:

Azikho izibuyekezo
Azikho izibuyekezo
Azikho izibuyekezo
Azikho izibuyekezo

Ama-tin spools aholayo mahhala

ZSHX

Intambo ye-solder engenawo umthofu yekhwalithi, enokwakheka kwethini elingu-99%, isiliva elingu-0.3%, nethusi elingu-0.7%, ukuthuthukisa ukusebenza kwayo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ine-resin core yokushisela futhi ungayithola ngokuqina okuhlukene: 0.6 mm, 0.8 mm no-1 mm.

Isipho

Intambo esezingeni eliphezulu enothayela ongu-97.3%, i-rosin engu-2%, ithusi engu-073%, nesiliva engu-0.3%. Zonke zine-diameter yentambo engu-1 mm. Ukwakheka kwayo kuthuthukisiwe ukuze kwandiswe ukusebenza futhi kuncishiswe ukukhiqizwa kwentuthu ngesikhathi sokushisela.

Azikho izibuyekezo
Azikho izibuyekezo
Azikho izibuyekezo
Azikho izibuyekezo

ama-desoldering reels

Intambo yethusi ephothiweyo ye-EDI-TRONIC

Intambo yethusi ephothiweyo ukuze ikwazi ukukhipha ithini kuma-solder futhi iyenze inamathele kuyo. Inokumunca okuphezulu futhi ithengiswa ngamareli angamamitha angu-1.5 ubude nogqinsi luka-0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 kanye no-3 mm.

umluko wethusi wokudiliza

Amayunithi ama-3 angamamitha ayi-1.5 lilinye, anomluko wethusi wokudiliza. Itholakala ngobubanzi obungu-2.5 mm, ayinawo umoya-mpilo, nangokunemba okukhulu nokumuncwa okuphezulu. Iphinde ibe ne-antistatic futhi imelana nokushisa.

ageleze

I-Flux TasoVision

Este ukuhambaI-TasoVision, noma i-solder paste, ingenye ehamba phambili ongayithola, iyathengeka, futhi ithengiswa ngebhodlela elingu-50ml. Ingasetshenziselwa zonke izinhlobo zamaphrojekthi kagesi. Ngisho ne-SMD, nakuba iminyene kancane ukuze iphinde idlale.

I-Flux JBC

Thengisa I-JBC - 0046565 Flux Fl-15...

Omunye umkhiqizo, kulokhu ku-container engu-15 ml, enebhulashi ukuze usebenzise kalula. I-flux ekhethekile yamasekhethi, esekelwe emanzini, kanye nenombolo ye-asidi engu-35 mg/ml.

I-Flux TasoVision

Enye i-flux engenamthofu, ene-5cc, isirinji ukuze isetshenziswe kalula, kanye namathiphu amabili ashintshashintshayo okusebenza izindawo ezinkulu noma ezincane.

amathiphu e-soldering

walfart

10 x 900M-TI amathiphu ensimbi e-copper ahlanzekile angenamthofu. Isu elihle kakhulu eliphinde ligcwaliswe ukuze lingene ezindaweni ezincane kakhulu, futhi lihambisana neziteshi zokudambisa ezifana ne-936, 937, 938, 969, 8586, 852D, njll.

QLOUNI

Iqoqo lezinhlobo ezingu-10 ezihlukene zamathiphu, i-900M, insimbi engazweli, futhi ekhethekile yensimbi yokunamathisela ephathwayo. Ayiqukethe umthofu, futhi ihlanganisa umkhono we-solder ukuze uzivumelanise nawo.

Azikho izibuyekezo
Azikho izibuyekezo
Azikho izibuyekezo
Azikho izibuyekezo

Ukuhlanza

I-DroneAcc Cleaner enesipontshi sensimbi nesisekelo

I-Ysister 50 Pads (isipontshi, sivuvukala lapho simanzi) ukuhlanza amathiphu ensimbi yokunamathisela

Thengisa 50 Izingcezu Isipontshi...
50 Izingcezu Isipontshi...
Azikho izibuyekezo

I-Silverline 10 amaphedi okuhlanza amanzi

Azikho izibuyekezo
Azikho izibuyekezo
Azikho izibuyekezo
Azikho izibuyekezo

Ama-loupes okukhulisayo wokuhlanganisa izingxenye ezincane

I-Fixpoint Magnifying Glass eneziqeshana, i-Adjustable Stand kanye nokukhanya kwe-LED

Ingilazi ye-Newacalos magnifying enezinsimbi ezine, isitendi esilungisekayo, nesibani se-LED

Siza ukusoda...
Siza ukusoda...
Azikho izibuyekezo

I-Silverline Luca eneziqeshana ezimbili ezilungisekayo, futhi ime (ngaphandle kokukhanya)

Izifanekiso noma izifanekiso ze-BGA nokuningi

Ikhithi yeDelaman yezingcezu eziyi-130 zomhlaba wonke zokwenziwa ngama-BGA ahlukene

Isethi yamapuleti angu-33 e-BGA jikelele okuphinda adlale ibhola

Isethi yokwesekwa, izifanekiso namabhola okuphinda ibhola

Ukusekelwa kokulungisa okuzenzakalelayo kwama-stencil we-HT-90X we-Hilita kanye nokubhola kabusha komkhiqizo

Izikhwama zeSalutuya ze-BGA ezinosayizi abahlukene 0.3 kuya ku-0.76 mm (okujwayelekile)

Thengisa Ibhola le-solder le-BGA...
Ibhola le-solder le-BGA...
Azikho izibuyekezo

Ungawakhetha kanjani lawa mathuluzi kagesi

i-soldering iron, i-soldering iron

Ngesikhathi sika ukukhetha okuhle kwe-solder iron, kufanele ucabangele uchungechunge lwezici ezizonquma ukuthi ukuthenga okuhle noma cha:

  • Potencia: Ukuyisebenzisa njengendlela yokuzilibazisa ungathenga amandla aphansi, njenge-30W. Kodwa-ke, ukusetshenziswa kochwepheshe akufanele kube ngaphansi kuka-60W. Lokhu kuzophinde kuthinte izinga lokushisa eliphezulu ezofinyelela kulo kanye nesivinini ezoshisa ngaso.
  • ukulungiselelwa kwezinga lokushisa: Eziningi ezishibhile noma ezisetshenziswa okungezona ezobungcweti azinawo. Kodwa ezithuthuke kakhulu ziyakuvumela. Lokhu kuhle, ukuguqula izinga lokushisa futhi ulivumelanise nomsebenzi owenzayo.
  • Amathiphu angashintshaniswa: Kuyindlela engcono kakhulu, ngoba lapho zonakalisiwe, zingashintshwa kalula kwabanye. Noma, okungcono nakakhulu, lapho olunye uhlobo lwethiphu ludingeka, lungashintshwa ngokushesha.
  • ukuqiniswa: isibambo kufanele sibe ne-ergonomic, sibambe kahle, futhi sigqume kahle ekushiseni ukuze sigweme ukusha. Izibambo ngokuvamile zenziwe nge-silicone noma i-TPU eqoshiwe ukuze kuthuthukiswe ukubamba.
  • Isikhwama noma ikesi: Uma uhlela ukuthwala i-ayina yokudambisa kathayela usuka kwenye indawo uye kwenye, kufanele ucabange ngokubheka eminyene futhi ongayiphatha kalula ebhokisini layo.
  • uhlelo lokuqothula: Ezinye zihlanganisa amasistimu wokulahla ukuze zisize ukupholisa ithiphu ukuze igcinwe ngokushesha okukhulu.
  • Okungenantambo noma okunezintambo: ezingenazintambo zisebenza kakhulu, zinikeza inkululeko yokuhamba, ngaphandle kwezibopho. Kodwa-ke, lezo ezihlinzeka ngokusebenza okuhle kakhulu namandla ngamakhebula. Amakhebula nawo ngokuvamile ahlala isikhathi eside futhi anokwethenjelwa.
  • Extras: ezinye zihlanganisa nepompo yokushisa yokuchithwa kwe-desoldering, ukusekela ukuyishiya lapho kushisa, isesekeli sokuhlanza ithiphu, isikrini se-LCD ukuze ubone izinga lokushisa, njll. Konke lokhu kungaba amaphuzu engeziwe, nakuba kungeyona ebaluleke kakhulu.

Indlela yokukhetha i-tin to solder

Kepha khetha ithini elingcono kakhulu Ukuze uthole i-soldering, into yokuqala okufanele uyazi ukuthi izinketho zamanje azikho umthofu, ngoba ziyinsimbi enobuthi. Manje basebenzisa amanye ama-alloys, futhi ngokuvamile anengqikithi ye-Colofina (i-resin), esiza ngesikhathi sokushisela ukungena kahle kuwo wonke amakhona lapho ishisa futhi igeleza, ithuthukisa ukunamathela, i-fluidity ye-tin ngokwayo, futhi ithuthukisa ukushisela.

  • Umkhiqizi: Kukhona amabhrendi aphawulekayo, anekhwalithi engcono, njenge-JBC ne-Fixpoint.
  • ifomethi: unayo kumakhoyili, okuyiyona evame kakhulu, kanye nezinketho ezisekelweni, ezibiza kakhulu kodwa ezisebenzayo ukuzisebenzisa.
  • Ukubukeka: Bheka ukubukeka kocingo lukathayela, kufanele lubukeke lugqamile futhi lucacile.
  • i-flux cored: i-resin, i-flux noma i-rosin, ingena ngaphakathi kocingo. Intambo engenalutho, ene-flux ngaphakathi kuyo ukuthuthukisa imiphumela.
  • Ububanzi: kukhona ukusuka kokuhle kakhulu kuye kokukhulu, okufana no-1.5mm. Ngayinye ivumeleke kuhlelo lokusebenza olulodwa. Isibonelo, elincanyana lizosebenzela izinto ezincane, kanti ezinkulu zingase zisebenzele izintambo zokuhlanganisa nezinye izinto ezinkulu.
  • Okungafakwanga umthofu: Akumele ibe nomthofu. Ngaphambili babevame ukuba ngu-60% Sn kanye no-38% Pb.
  • Ukwakheka: ungazithola zihlanganiswe nezilinganiso ezihlukahlukene, ezivame ukwakhiwa nge-Sn namanani amancane e-Cu kanye/noma i-Ag.

Indlela yokugcoba i-tin ngendlela efanele

umshini wokushisela

I-Board Tin Electronics Soldering Station

Ukuchaza izinyathelo zokuqinisa kahle kulula, nokho kuthatha ukuzijwayeza. Kufanele uqale nge-PCB ephukile bese uzama ukufaka izingxenye ze-solder ukuze uthole ulwazi oludingekayo, nokuthi ama-solders aphuma kangcono futhi engcono. Hamba nge-soldering izingxenye ezincane neziyinkimbinkimbi, futhi ekugcineni uzoyithola. Phakathi izinyathelo okufanele uzithathe okwe-soldering kukhona:

  1. Lungiselela zonke izingcezu ozidingayo, kanye namathuluzi, izakhi zokuvikela, njll.
  2. Zonke izindawo ezingaphezulu kufanele zihlanzeke kakhulu, okuhlanganisa nethiphu yensimbi yokunamathisela.
  3. Shisisa i-solder iron kuze kube izinga lokushisa elifanele.
  4. Esinye iseluleko siwukuba uthayela izingcezu noma izingxenye ezizodayiswa ngokuhlukana (isihloko se-soldering iron kumele futhi sifakwe ngothayela). Okusho ukuthi, sebenzisa i-soldering iron ukushisa iziphetho bese ubeka ithini. Lokhu kuzoholela ekuhlanganyeleni okulinganayo.
  5. Bese, hlanganisa zombili izingxenye, uqinisekise ukuthi zigcinwe kahle endaweni efanele. Gwema ukuthi zithintana nezinye izakhi ezingaphazamisa, njll.
  6. Manje shisa futhi uhlanganise ilunga, usondeze ucingo lukathayela endaweni ehlangene. Khumbula ukuthi ucingo lukathayela alukwazi ukuthinta ichopho ngokuqondile, kodwa kunalokho ithiphu kufanele ithinte indawo ezodayiswa ukuze ifudumale bese ithinta leyo ndawo ngothayela ukuze uyithayiphe.

Kubonakala kulula, kodwa akunjalo ekusebenzeni, kusukela i-solder kufanele ibe:

  • Ngokukhazimulayo: Uma inokungcola noma umbala ofiphele, kuzobe ikhombisa ukuthi ingeyezinga eliphansi, nokuthi yenziwa ezingeni lokushisa eliphansi kakhulu.
  • Usayizi olungile nje: kufanele kube okwanele ukuhlanganisa izingxenye ndawonye, ​​kodwa akufanele kube nama-globs noma ukweqisa, ngisho noma zingafinyeleli enye ingxenye yesifunda.
  • Ukumelana: Kumelwe ibe namandla, ngaphandle kokukwazi ukuphuka kalula ngenxa yokudlidliza noma izingcindezi ezishisayo.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, kufanele usebenzise amathiphu epheya lepliers noma into efanayo ukuze ubambe isiphetho sengxenye ezothengiswa (uma kungenzeka), phakathi kwendawo ye-solder kanye nengxenye, ukuze uzame qeda ukushisa okuthile nokuthi izinga lokushisa eliphezulu alilimazi ingxenye.

Izinkinga ezivamile namaphutha lapho welding

phakathi amaphutha avame kakhulu okuvame ukwenziwa ngesikhathi sokufakwa kwe-tin kuhlanganisa:

  • Ukungalungisi kahle izakhi futhi kubangele ukuthi zinyakaze, kuvimbele ukuthi ungashiseli kahle.
  • Isihloko se-soldering iron sithinta ithini.
  • Ungafaki amathini ngaphambi kokuwusebenzisa.
  • Ukungasebenzisi ithiphu efanele.
  • Misa ithiphu lensimbi yokunamathisela lime lime kakhulu. (Kufanele ibe evundlile ukuze ukhulise indawo exhumene nayo)
  • Ungalindi imizuzwana embalwa ukuze ithini liqine kahle.
  • Hhayi ukuhlanza indawo yokusebenza ezoshiselwa. (kungasetshenziswa utshwala nokotini ongena-lint futhi uma okusele kuyizinsalela ze-soldering yangaphambilini, sebenzisa i-iron desoldering)
  • Ukusebenzisa i-sandpaper ukuhlanza ithiphu lensimbi yokunamathisela, ukulimaza indawo engaphezulu futhi kuyenze ingasebenziseki.

ukulungiswa kwe-welder

ukugcinwa

Kubalulekile gcina i-welder isesimweni esihle. Ngale ndlela iyohlale ikhona ukwenza umsebenzi omuhle, futhi sizokwelula impilo yayo ewusizo. Ukuyigcina isesimweni esihle, kulula njengokuthi:

  • Gcina insimbi yokunamathisela endaweni efanele, uhlale ulindele ukuthi iphole ngokuphelele.
  • Gwema ukusonga ikhebula noma ukuyidonsa.
  • Hlanza ichopho lensimbi yokunamathisela noma i-soldering iron ngendlela efanele:
    1. Sebenzisa izipontshi noma izinto zokuhlanza okukhulunywe ngazo ngenhla (isipontshi esimanzi, noma umluko wethusi) ukuze ugcobe ithiphu elishisayo phezu kwazo futhi ususe noma iyiphi imfucumfucu noma ukungcola okungenzeka inakho.
    2. Uma ingakahlanzeki ngokwanele, ungasebenzisa uketshezi lokuhlanza olufana ne-flux. Ithiphu kufanele lishise, liyacwilisa futhi linyakaze. Ngale ndlela ukugqwala kuyasuswa.
    3. Uma isabukeka kabi, sekuyisikhathi sokushintsha ithiphu.

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

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