Kuchinjanisa ikozvino vs yakananga ikozvino: mutsauko uye zvakafanana

ikozvino, yemagetsi shongwe

Unofanira kusiyanisa pakati pekushandura ikozvino uye yakananga ikozvino. Ose ari maviri akakosha, uye anoshandiswa ese ari maviri maindasitiri uye padanho repamba kupa masimba akawanda. Kubva pamaindasitiri michina, kumidziyo yemumba, kuburikidza nharembozha, nevamwe zvemagetsi zvinhu.

Uye zvakare, iwe unozodzidzawo zvakafanana, sezvo zviripo pakati DC uye AC, pamwe nenyaya inonakidza nekutambudzika pakati pevagadziri vaviri vane mukurumbira izvo zvakatotungamira kune hutsinye kuvasimudzira ...

Chii chinonzi rukova?

Kugara kwaFaraday

Una zvazvino kuyerera kwechimwe chinhu, kungave kuri kuyerera kwemvura, kana magetsi. Panyaya yemagetsi emagetsi, zvinonyatsoitika ndezvekuti pane kuyerera kwemaelectron achifamba nemukati me conductor, kunyangwe isinga oneke.

Uyu magetsi Inogona kuve yemhando mbiri zvakanyanya ...

Chii chakananga chazvino?

Thomas Alba Edison

Sezvo iwe uchatoziva kare kana iwe ukaverenga iyi blog kazhinji, iyo DC, zvakare akapfupikiswa seCC (kana DC muchiRungu), iriko parizvino nedivi rimwe. Ndokunge, kuyerera kwemaerekitironi kunenge kuri mune yakasarudzika nzira kuburikidza nekondakita pakati pemapoinzi maviri eakasiyana mikana nechaji yemagetsi. Dai isu taizogadzira izvo zviripo pagrafu, zvaizoratidzika semutsara unoramba uripo.

Ino yakananga yazvino yakagadzirwa kwekutanga kekutanga muna1800, nekuda kwebhatiri rakagadzirwa nemutambi wefizikisi weItaly Alessandro Volta. Hunhu hwekuyerera kwazvino hakuna kunyatsonzwisiswa panguva iyoyo, asi chaive chiitiko chakakosha. Muna 1870 uye kutanga kwe1880, magetsi aya akatanga kugadzirwa mumagetsi emagetsi, ekuvhenekera kwemakambani nedzimba mushure mekugadzirwa kwegirobhu. Thomas Edison.

Kuti adzivirire urwu rwazvino, Edison akauya kuzogadzira madhisiki chaiwo, achiedza kuzvidza Nikola Tesla, achizviti iye iyezvino aive nenjodzi. Kuti aite izvi, Edison akauya kuzoita ruzhinji kuratidzira kubaya magetsi mhuka dzakasiyana. Mukutanga kwa1903, chiuru chevanhu vakaona marobhoti nekuuraya kwaakaita nzou ine magetsi mazana matanhatu nemazana matanhatu emagetsi. Nekudaro, iyo nzou yakanga yambopihwa kudya cyanide-ine muchetura karoti kuona kuti yafa. Zviitiko zvese izvi zvaidaidzwa kunzi Hondo yezvino.

Zvishandiso uye shanduko

Iyi yakananga yazvino yakatsiviwa zvishoma nezvishoma nekuchinjisa zvazvino, izvo zvaive nezvakanakira, sezvatichaona. Nekudaro, parizvino iri kushandiswa zvakanyanya mukushanda kwezvinhu zvemagetsi, senge audiovisual michina, makomputa, nezvimwe. Kune avo vese kuti vashande kubva kunetiweki yemagetsi iri kuchinjika, zvishandiso zvekugadzirisa zvinoshandiswa shanduko, senge adapta kana magetsi.

Polarity

Kunyangwe mukuchinjana ikozvino polarity Haisi yakakosha kwazvo, yakanangana nechazvino chimwe chinhu chakakosha chaizvo, uye inofanirwa kuremekedzwa kana dunhu richizoshanda nemazvo kwete kuputsa. Kuchinja iyo polarity muDC kunogona kureva kukuvara kusingachinjiki mune dzimwe nguva, saka unofanirwa kungwarira neizvi.

Ndokusaka zvakajairika kuona zviteshi kana tambo zvakamakwa nepfumo ravo rinoenderana, kana mavara kusiyanisa. Kazhinji, tsvuku inoshandiswa kune yakanaka pole (+), uye nhema kune isina kunaka (-). Dzimwe dzakaomesesa DC maseketi anogona kuwedzera mamwe mavara zvakare.

Chii chinonzi AC?

Nikola Tesla

La alternating current, yakapfupikiswa seCA (kana AC muChirungu), rudzi rwemagetsi emagetsi ane hukuru negwara rinosiyana-siyana zvichiteedzana, munguva. Ndokureva, kusiyana neCC, yaive tambo yakatwasuka inomiririrwa mugirafu, mune inochinjanisa inomiririrwa sesinusoidal oscillation. Huwandu hwekutenderera kwakakwana pasekondi kunoenderana neyakawandisa kutenderera. Semuenzaniso, kuEurope tine 50 Hz, kana makumi mashanu pasekondi, nepo kuUS inoshanda pa50 Hz.

Ino yazvino yaizoonekwa muna 1832, apo Pixii yaizogadzira iyo kutanga chinja, dynamoelectric jenareta, yakavakirwa pamisimboti yeFaraday. Gare gare, Pixii yaizowedzerawo switch kuti ibudise yakananga zvazvino, iyo yainyanya kushandiswa munguva dzekare. Muna 1855 zvakatemwa kuti AC yaive yepamusoro kuna DC uye yakaguma ichitsiva.

Yakashandura tekinoroji yazvino yaive yakagadzirwa muEurope, nekuda kwebasa raGuillaume Duchenne muma1850. Muna 1876, injinjini yeRussia yaizogadzirawo mwenje wekubatidza wakafanana newaEdison, asi iine voltage yakakwira AC. Iyo Ganz Inoshanda kambani muBudapest yaizotanga kugadzira michina yemwenje zvichibva pamisimboti iyi, pamusoro peimwe michina zvichibva pane ino yazvino.

Serbian mainjiniya uye muvambi Nikola Tesla, aive mumwe wevadziviriri vepamusoro pazvino kupokana nekuenderera kwaEdison. Akagadzira uye akavaka yekutanga yekuchinjisa yazvino induction mota, iyo inogona kushandura simba remagetsi kuita rotational mechanics. Uye zvakare, hunyanzvi uhu hungabatsirawo kugadzirisa masystem ekuparadzira magetsi pasina kuita shanduko kumutsara.

Pamusoro pezvo, Tesla akaferefeta chishandiso chakagadzirwa neinjiniya vekuEurope chinonzi Shanduri. Nekuda kwayo, inogona kushandurwa kuve nemhepo yepasi, uye nekudaro ichiita kuti ive yakachengeteka kudzimba, pasina chikonzero chekuti isvike muhuwandu hwayo yawakagadzirwa, nekuti chimwe chekutya kukuru kwaive kuve nenjodzi kwayo. Uku kuferefeta kungave kutanga kwekufona Hondo yezvino.

Mvumo dzese dzine chekuita neNikola Tesla's CA dzakapihwa kukambani Westinghouse Magetsi, kukwidza capital uye kuenderera nemaprojekiti anoenderana nemaitiro aya. Mushure meizvi, kutapurirana kwekutanga kweCA kwakange kusingatore nguva refu, kuchiitika muna 1891. Izvi zvaizoitika muTelluride (Colorado), mwedzi mishoma gare gare zvakare muEurope, kubva kuLauffen kuenda kuFrankfurt (Germany).

Sezvo AC yakakunda uye ichipararira pasirese, Thomas Edison akaramba achitsigira iye zvino, chimwe chinhu chingamutorera chinzvimbo chake kukambani. Edison magetsi (yava kunzi General Electric), iyo yaakange atangisa ...

Applications

Kuchinjanisa ikozvino kunoshandiswa indasitiri uye imba, ndiye uyo anofamba nepamagetsi tambo kuunza magetsi kumatunhu ese epasi. Inogona kumhanyisa midziyo yemumba, mota, michina yeindasitiri, mafirita masisitimu, uye zvimwe zvakawanda.

Polarity

Sezvandambotaura, paunobatanidza a plug, haumbochenjerere kuti unoisa sei sezvo ichizoshanda chero zvodii. Izvi zvinokonzerwa neiyo waveform yeiyo inochinjika yazvino, sezvo ichizochinja. Nekudaro, kune zvakajairwa kumisikidzwa, kune dzimwe nzira dzekusiyanisa wiring, nezvimwe. Kazhinji iwe une yero / girini tambo iyo ivhu, yebhuruu kana chena waya ichave isina kwazvakarerekera, uye shava kana dema ichave iri chikamu.

DC vs AC: zvakanakira nekuipira

cc vs

Hova mbiri idzi dzichiri kushandiswa zvakanyanya nhasi, sezvavakaita zvayakanakira nezvayakaipira. Semuenzaniso:

  • Kuchinjanisa zvazvino kuri nyore kwazvo kushandura, chimwe chinhu chisingaitike nechazvino chazvino.
  • Kuti uchinje voltage, mukuchinjisa zvazvino iwe unofanirwa kushandisa shanduko, nepo mune yakananga ikozvino unofanirwa kubatanidza dynamos kana majenareta akateedzana, izvo zvisingaite.
  • Mimwe misiyano yazvino inogona kugoverwa pamusoro penzvimbo refu nehurefu hwesimba razvino, kurasikirwa zvishoma kwazvo muchimiro chekupisa nekuda kweiyo Joule mhedzisiro uye mimwe mhedzisiro senge eddy currents kana hysteresis. Ipo iyo DC iine kurasikirwa kukuru, uye zvingave zvakakodzera kuve nenhamba huru yemagetsi magetsi padyo nenzvimbo dzekuda.

AC / DC kutendeuka

ATX sosi

(ona magetsi)


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