2N2222 transistor: duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani

2n2222 transistor

El 2N2222 ko PN2222 transistor Yana da ɗayan mafi yawan masu amfani da transistors tare da BC548. Saboda haka, idan kuna son DIY kuma kun kasance mai ƙira, tabbas a wani lokaci kun buƙaci ɗayan waɗannan na'urori. A wannan yanayin, PN2222 ƙananan transistor ne na siliki mai ƙarancin ƙarfi kuma an tsara shi don haɓaka layi da canza aikace-aikace.

Dalilin da ya sa haka ake buƙata shine yana da kyau a ƙara ƙaramin igiyoyin ruwa da ƙananan ko ƙananan matsakaita, ban da kasancewa iya aiki tare da matsakaiciyar mitoci. Wannan yana nufin yana da janar amfani kuma ya shahara sosai da yan koyon rediyo. Waɗanda suke za su san cewa ɗayan transistors din da aka yi amfani da su ne don ginin BITX transceiver, ko kuma hakan ya ba wa kulob din na Norcal ham rediyo a 1999 don ƙaddamar da ƙalubalen gina rediyo mai karɓar rediyo tare da transisters 22 kawai irin wannan ba tare da kowane nau'in ICarin IC.

Kamar BC548, ana kerarre dashi ta hanyar amfani da epitaxy. Hakanan yana da transistor bipolar da nau'in NPN. A halin yanzu yawanci yana da kunshe-kunshe da dama, kamar su filastik TO-92, wanda yawanci shine hanyar da aka fi gabatar dashi kuma wasu kamar TO-18, SOT-23, SOT-223, da dai sauransu.

Menene ainihin transistor?

Bardeen Brattain da Shockley tare da transistor ɗin tuntuɓar

Tunda rediyo ko transistor an sanya masa suna ne saboda wannan na’urar da muka yi magana a kanta, Ina so in yi takaitacciyar gabatarwa kan abin da transistor yake da kuma karamin tarihi. Transistors ba komai bane face na'urori kama da masu sauyawa kuma tare da ikon fadada siginar. Wato ma'ana, sune masu maye gurbin tsoffin bututun iska ko bawul dinda suka bada matsaloli da yawa.

Waɗannan bawul ɗin suna kama da kwararan fitila na gargajiya, don haka suna iya busawa kuma suna buƙatar sauyawa akai-akai. Suna kuma da girma kuma basu bada izinin ƙirƙirar ƙananan na'urori ba. Zafin da suka samar shima wata matsala ce. Tare da isowa na lantarki a jihar, wato, na semiconductors, ya ba da izinin ƙirƙirar wannan nau'ikan na'urorin da rahusa, ƙarami da abin dogara.

Sunan transistor ya fito ne daga ƙungiyar canja wuri da kuma resistor, wato, resistor mai sauyawa a Turanci. Ka tuna cewa resistor mai adawa ne. Bugu da kari, kamar yadda kuka sani, kirkirar kirkirar ta fito ne a Turai tare da takardun mallakar farko na masanin kimiyyar lissafi Lilienfeld (1925). Ya kasance da ɗan lokaci kafin lokacinsa, tunda basu sami aikace-aikace a aikace ba a cikin wannan shekarun ko na gaba, kuma ya kasance maƙasudin tasirin filin, mahimmancin ra'ayi har ma fiye da na bipolar.

Oskar Heil shi ma ya yi irin wannan na’urar a Jamus a shekarar 1934, daga baya kuma Robert Pohl da Rudolf Hilsch su ma za su yi gwaje-gwajen da suka shafi irin wannan na’urar a wata jami’ar ta Jamus. Kusan a cikin layi daya, a cikin Amurka a cikin AT&T Bell Labs Haka nan suna ta yin gwaje-gwajen da ba su yi nasara ba, har sai bayan yakin duniya na II ya canza musu kuma lokacin da suka dawo daga fagen daga na Turai sun zo da mafita ta hanyar samar da dabaru "masu wartsakewa".

John Bardeen, Wlater Brattain da William Shockley Sun karɓi yabo ta hanyar ba da izinin mallakar transistor na farko a tarihi da kuma lashe kyautar Nobel. A shekarar 1948 sun kirkiri transistor na sadarwa, wani katon abu, danye kuma mara aiki wanda yayi tsada a kera shi kuma wani lokacin ya kasa kuma dole a sake sanya shi a wasu yanayi. Daga wannan lokacin zasu canza zuwa transistors na yanzu.

Amma idan kuna son sani yadda yake aiki daidai wannan na'urar cewa canza wutar lantarki da duniyar fasaha, Anan ga wannan GIF tare da kamanceceniya game da transistor da tsarin hydraulic, wanda ina tsammanin bazaku sami mafi kyau daga wannan misalin don ɗaukar ra'ayin yadda transistor yake aiki ba:

GIF na aiki na transistor idan aka kwatanta da tsarin ruwa

Ana iya gani cewa lokacin da aka kawo wani abu mai tushe zuwa asalin transistor na NPN to yanzu mai wucewa ne daga mai tattarawa zuwa mai ɗaukar hoto. Amma yana ƙaruwa, tunda idan kuka kalli hoton, ana ƙara kwararar ruwa daga tushe da mai tarawa. Yana da wani misil mai sauqi qwarai, kodayake a tsarin lantarki ya kamata musanya ruwa da lantarki ...

Idan kanaso kaga wani hoto mai haske dan kadan daga mahangar aikin yankuna semiconductor, wato, na dako, anan kuna da wannan hoton:

Masu cajin caji a cikin NPN

A cikin hoton zaku iya ganin cewa idan aka yi amfani da mummunan ƙarfin lantarki ga mai ɗaukar wutar, sai ya tura dako masu cajin mara kyau (electrons) kuma a gindi masu ɗaukar caji mai kyau (ramuka) "sha" electrons don haka zasu iya tsalle zuwa ga mai tarawa...

Game da batun a PNP zai iya zama kama, amma canza rarrabuwar kai ko hanyoyin haɗa transistor.

2n2222 Fasali:

 

2N2222 ko PN2222 akai-akai Kamfanin Philips Semiconductor ne ya ƙera shi, kodayake zamu iya samun wasu masana'antun kamar su tarihi na Fairchild Semiconductor, da Jamusanci Siemens, COMSET Semiconductor, SEMICOA, da sauransu. Yana da bambance-bambancen mai suna 2N2222A.

2N2222A shine an saka shi a cikin nau'in karfe TO-18 kuma sun cancanci amfani a aikace-aikacen soja (MIL-STD) saboda ƙarfinsa, karɓaɓɓen yanayin zafinsa, da dai sauransu. Idan muka kalli takaddun bayanan da aka gabatar daga wadannan yadudduka, halayen da zamu samu a wannan transistor sune:

  • Mai tara wutar lantarki a cikin yankewaKu: 50v
  • Mai tarawa na yanzuSaukewa: 800MA
  • Baza ikonSaukewa: 500MW
  • Riba ta yanzu:> 100hFE, yawanci an kai 150.
  • Mitar aiki: 250-300 Mhz, wanda ke ba da damar yin amfani da shi a cikin rediyo mai ƙarfi
  • Tipo: Maganin NPN
  • An killace: TO-92 na filastik, TO-18 na ƙarfe, SOT-23 da SOT-223, na biyun na ƙarshen nau'in SMD.
  • Aryari (PNP)Saukewa: 2N2907
  • Daidaita: zaka iya amfani da BC548 da muka gani a rubutun da ya gabata, amma ka tuna juya shi 180º ta hanyar juyar da mai tarawa da mai ɗaukar hoto ... Hakanan zaka iya amfani da 2N3904 tare da halaye masu kamanceceniya, amma zai iya ɗaukar goma bisa ɗari na yanzu ana tallafawa cikin 2N2222. Idan kewaya kawai don kananan sigina ana iya maye gurbin ta da kyau. Hakanan 2N2219 yayi kama, amma don ƙarin ƙarfi. A wannan yanayin, samun tsari na TO-39 (har zuwa 3w) da tallafawa har zuwa 300 Mhz, ana iya amfani dashi a cikin masu watsawa da kara sauti don HF da VHF har ma da wasu lambobin UHF tare da ikon fitarwa na 1 zuwa 2 watts.
  • SMD daidai: don hawa hawa akwai 2n2222 SMD transistor tare da kunshin SOT-23.

Takardar bayanai:

2n2222A bayanan bayanai

Un datasheet takaddara ce, yawanci PDF, tare da cikakkun halaye na na'urar lantarki. An ƙirƙira su ne ta hanyar ƙirƙirar kanta da abubuwan da ke samfurinta, sabili da haka, zamu iya gano cewa babu irin waɗannan sifofi iri ɗaya a cikin takaddun bayanai guda biyu akan 2n2222 daga masana'antun daban. Anan zaku iya zazzage wasu daga cikinsu:

Ina fatan ya taimaka muku wannan jagorar akan 2N222 ko PN2222.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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  1.   Luis M. Paniagua m

    Kawai kyau!

  2.   Luis Javier m

    Na gode sosai a duk inda kuke, amsoshinku na kwarai suna taimaka min.

  3.   Jhonatan Osvaldo Aravena Retamal m

    kyakkyawan bayani, shine abin da nake nema don aikin bincike na, da fatan zan iya samun ƙarin transistors a nan.