Microchip Atmega328P: duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da wannan MCU

Microchip ATmega 328P

Wani daga cikin Kayan lantarki ya kamata ka sani shine microcontroller, ko MCU (MicroController Unit), ATmega 328P. Ofaya daga cikin shahararrun kwakwalwan kwamfuta waɗanda zaku iya shirya don yawan aikace-aikace na kowane nau'i, duka ayyukan DIY, har ma da sauran ayyukan masana'antu, da dai sauransu.

Tabbas sunansa ya kasance sananne ne a gare ku, kuma yana ɗayan microchips da faranti ke amfani da su Arduino da sauransu allon ci gaba Mai kama. A zahiri, a cikin babban ɓangare, ya kasance wannan dandamali ne na buɗe kayan aiki wanda kuma ya ba da gudummawa ga shahararsa ta hauhawa.

Daga Atmel zuwa Microchip

tambarin microchip

Kamfanin Kamfanoni Kamfani ne da aka kafa a shekarar 1984. Alamar kamfanin da George Perlegos ya kafa ita ce tafe ga Babbar Fasaha don Memory da Logic.

A cikin tarihin su, sun haɓaka na'urorin RF, WiMAX, ASICs, SoCs, EEPROM da ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya, da dai sauransu. Amma, musamman, sun kuma mai da hankali kan masu sarrafawa. Daga cikin su, sun hada da wasu abubuwan kere-kere na Intel 8051, wadanda suka danganci AVR da AVR32 (duka gine-ginen da Atmel suka kirkira) kuma suma sun dogara ne da ARM.

Nasa productos Sun yi aiki duka biyu don masu amfani da lantarki, kamar kamfanonin sadarwa, masana'antar lantarki, kayan aikin likitanci, ababen hawa, sashin sararin samaniya, katunan tsaro, da kuma sojoji.

Game da Fasaha ta Microchip, Shima wani babban kamfanin keɓaɓɓen masana'antar keɓaɓɓen ma'amala ne a Arizona. An sadaukar da shi ga masu sarrafawa, abubuwan tunani (EEPROM da EPROM), RF, da sauran na'urorin analog, gami da kayan aikin software don shirye-shirye da ci gaba. Masu kula da abubuwan sarrafa su suna fice musamman, tare da dangin da suka haɓaka da kansu kamar PICs.

Menene microcontroller ko MCU?

Un mai sarrafawa, µC, UC ko MCU (Microcontroller Unit), duk abin da kuke so ku kira shi, shi ne IC mai tsarawa wanda zai iya aiwatar da umarni da aka ɗora a ƙwaƙwalwar sa. Sabili da haka, microcontroller kusan kammalallen komputa ne a kan guntu. Yana da dukkan kayan haɗin haɗi, kamar su CPU, RAM, ROM da kuma kayan haɗin I / O (GPIO, masu ƙidayar lokaci ko ƙidaya, Masu sauya A / D, SPI, I2C, USB, Ethernet, masu kamantawa, PWM, da dai sauransu).

A bayyane yake, yi waɗannan kwamfutocin a guntu ba su kai na PC ɗin yanzu ba, suna da irin aikin da suke yi da kayan aikin shekarun da suka gabata. Koyaya, suna da inganci kuma yawanci suna da kyau sosai don ɗawainiya daban-daban inda ba'a buƙatar babban aiki ba, kamar sarrafa injunan masana'antu, sarrafa wasu ayyuka a cikin ababen hawa, allon ci gaba, kayan aikin gida, da dai sauransu.

Menene ATmega328P?

Atmel ATmega 328p

El ATmega 328P Yana da microcontroller wanda Atmel ya ƙirƙira, na jerin megaAVR. A halin yanzu na Microchip ne. Game da sigogin sa da mafi kyawun halayen fasaha, sune:

  • 8-bit AVR gine
  • 32 KB walƙiya
  • 1 KB EEPROM
  • 2 KB SRAM
  • Layin gama gari na I / O 23
  • 32 babban dalilin yin rijista
  • 3 masu ƙidayar lokaci / ƙidaya tare da yanayin kwatantawa
  • Cutar ta ciki / ta waje (24)
  • UART yanayin shirye-shirye
  • Serial dubawa
  • SPI
  • Tashoshi 8 na 10-bit A / D mai sauyawa
  • 6 Tashoshin PWM
  • Shirye-shiryen tsaro tare da oscillator na ciki
  • 5 software zaɓaɓɓun hanyoyin ceton iko
  • 1.8v zuwa 5.5v wutan lantarki.
  • Yana samun nasara 1 MIPS na aiki, ma'ana, umarnin miliyan daya ana aiwatar dasu kowane dakika.
  • 20 Mhz yawan agogo
  • Kunshi, zai iya zama DIP ko PLCC. Tare da fil 28

Amma nasa kayan aiki da takaddar bayanai, iya zazzage su daga nan.

Menene AVR?

Idan kayi mamaki menene AVR, shine tsarin RISC 8-bit wanda kamfanin Ateml ya kirkira don layinsa na microcontrollers. Da farko ɗalibai biyu ne suka ɗauki cikinsa daga Cibiyar Fasaha ta Norwegian, sannan daga baya Atmel Norway ta haɓaka kuma suka haɓaka. Yanzu layin ATmega, ATxmega, ATtiny, da layin AT90 suna amfani dashi.

Akwai gine-ginen da ake kira AVR32, wanda shine RISC 32-bit tare da tallafi ga DSP da SIMD. An yi amfani dashi don ingantattun na'urori waɗanda ke buƙatar ƙarin aiki da aiki.

Bugu da kari, shi ya bi a Tsarin Harvard, yana da rajista 32 8-bit, kuma koyaushe an tsara shi tare da haɗa C aiwatarwa a cikin hanya mafi inganci.


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