CAD: duk game da software mai ƙirar kwamfuta

CAD

Tun lokacin da aka fara amfani da kwamfutoci a masana'antu, ɗayan abubuwan farko da aka fara amfani dasu shine a cikin CAD zane na kayan aiki. Tare da kwamfutoci, za a iya yin zane mai amfani fiye da amfani da hanyoyin yau da kullun, ban da ba da damar canza ƙirar da sauri, a sauƙaƙe yin kwafin ƙirar, da dai sauransu.

A halin yanzu, kayan aikin CAD sun samo asali da yawa. A halin yanzu kayan aikin da ke akwai sun fi cikakke kuma suna ba da damar yin abubuwa fiye da shirye-shiryen CAD na farko. Kuma tare da zuwa na 3D bugu, waɗannan shirye-shiryen sun zama mafi amfani a cikin masana'antu da gine-gine.

Menene CAD?

Excavator ya tsara software na CAD

CAD shine ainahin kalmomin da ake Kira Kwamfuta da Taimaka, wato, na’urar da ake amfani da ita a kwamfuta. Nau'in software don iya tsara yawancin ayyuka kuma ana amfani dashi a sassa daban-daban na masana'antu, daga ƙirar marufi, zuwa gine-gine, ta hanyar ƙirar kayan aikin injiniya, injina, sifofin kowane irin, motoci, da'irori, da sauransu. .

Hakanan za'a iya amfani dashi don tsara haruffa da amfani dasu a rayarwar fim, kwaikwayo, da sauransu. Da software CAD na yau ya zo mai tsayi, yana barin aikace-aikace sun fi yawa. A zahiri, shirye-shirye sun fara bada izinin 2D, ƙirar 3D, aikace-aikace na laushi, kayan aiki, ƙididdigar tsari, haske, motsi, da dai sauransu.

Amma har zuwa wannan lokacin, abubuwa da yawa sun canza tun farkon. Kuma don ganin wannan asalin dole ne ku koma zuwa shekaru 50, lokacin da aka fara amfani da wasu shirye-shiryen zane a MIT don aiwatar da bayanan da aka samu ta hanyar tsarin radar na Airarfin Jirgin Sama na Arewacin Amurka. Wannan hanyar zata iya nuna abin da radar ta gano akan na'urar CRT.

A cikin waɗannan ɗakunan binciken, Labarin Lincoln, Tushen zane-zanen kwamfuta da muka sani a yau za a fara aza su. Wannan zai faru a cikin shekarun 60s, yana ba ku damar amfani da faifan maɓalli da zane don zana hotuna akan allon. A kusan wata hanya iri daya, an kirkiro wasu ayyuka makamantan hakan a kamfanoni irin su General Motors, kamar su aikin ITEK, komputar PDP-1 mai dauke da allon vector mai dauke da rumbun adana bayanai, tare da kwamfutar hannu da biron lantarki don shigar da bayanai .

Byananan kadan tsarin ya inganta, zuwa bds (Tsarin Bayanin Gine-gine na Charles Eastman, farfesa a Jami'ar Carnegie Mellon. Asali ma laburare ne ko kuma tushe tare da muhimman gine-ginen gine-ginen da za'a iya hada su don tsara hadaddun tsari.

Tsarin da ya dogara da ITEK ya fara zama kasuwanci a shekara ta 1965, kasancewar shine tsarin farko CAD na Kasuwanci Kudinsa yakai dalar Amurka 500.000 a lokacin. Bayan fewan shekaru kaɗan, sararin samaniya da kamfanonin kera motoci kamar su General Motors, Chrysler, Ford, da sauransu, sun fara amfani da tsarin CAD na farko don tsara samfuran su.

Jim kadan bayan tsarin farko zai zo CAD / CAM (Manufacturing-a-Manufacturing Manufacturing), ma'ana, tsarin CAD haɗe tare da tsarin masana'antu don samar da sassan da aka tsara a CAD. Kamfanin Lockheed ne zai yi amfani da shi ta hanyar farko a cikin kamfanin jiragen sama.

Tsarin CAD daga ƙarshen 70s sun faɗi cikin farashi zuwa $ 130.000, amma har yanzu suna da tsada. Ba zai zama ba har sai 80s lokacin da aka fara aiwatar da software ta CAD mai rahusa, daidai da kafa ta AutoCAD (Autodesk) a cikin 1982. Kamfanin John Walker ke mulkin masana'antar tun daga lokacin, yana ba da software a ƙasa da $ 1000 kuma ana sa shi amfani da shi sosai.

A cikin 90s, tsarin CAD ya fara cin nasarar wasu dandamali (sama da wuraren aiki na Sun Microsystems, Kayan aikin Dijital, da sauransu) na kwamfutocin da basu da tsada, kai Microsoft Windows da PC. Tun daga wannan lokacin, wannan nau'in software yana ci gaba da haɓaka da rage farashinsa, koda tare da ɗimbin ayyukan kyauta da kyauta waɗanda ke bayyana ...

Mafi kyawun shirye-shiryen CAD

Idan kayi mamaki game da CAD software na ƙira cewa zaku iya amfani dasu a yau, ga kyakkyawan zaɓi daga cikinsu. Kuma kodayake akwai wasu mahimman mahimmanci kuma ana amfani dasu sosai a cikin masana'antar kamar Autodesk AutoCAD, saboda shi blog ɗin kayan aiki ne na kyauta, zamu kuma mai da hankali kan software kyauta:

FreeCAD

FreeCAD

Yana ɗayan mafi kyawun madadin zuwa AutoCAD, ban da kasancewa software kyauta da kyauta, yana ɗayan manyan shirye-shiryen ƙwararru waɗanda ke wanzu a halin yanzu. FreeCAD yana ba da babban ƙwarewar mai amfani, tare da ɗimbin kayan aikin da ake samu da ƙwararrun ƙwararrun sakamako, duka a cikin 2D da 3D.

Hakanan yana tallafawa MCAD, CAx, CAE, da kuma samfurin samfurin PLM. Buɗewar buɗewa, ma'ana, kwayar halitta mai karfin gaske wanda aka kirkira a Python. Bugu da kari, dandamali ne, yana aiki duka akan Windows, macOS da GNU / Linux.

FreeCAD

LibreCAD

LibreCAD

LibreCAD Yana da mafi kyawun zaɓi don AutoCAD wanda yake wanzu. Hakanan yana buɗe tushen kuma kyauta, kamar wanda ya gabata. Tana da manyan al'ummomin ci gaba masu aiki sosai, kuma yana aiki da tsarin Windows, GNU / Linux da macOS.

Yana tsakiyar kan Tsarin 2D (a cikin tsarin DXF da CXF), kuma yana tasowa azaman aikin da aka samo (fork) daga wani shirin kyauta wanda ake kira QCAD. An sanya ayyuka da yawa a ciki don sanya shi haske da aiki a kan tsofaffin kwamfutoci ko tare da iyakantattun albarkatu, kuma yana ba da damar saurin daidaitawa idan kuka zo daga AutoCAD, tunda tsarinta yana kama.

LibreCAD

DraftSight

Tsakar Gida

DraftSight kayan aiki ne na ƙwararru wanda ya taso don maye gurbin AutoCAD a cikin ƙirar 2D, tare da sigar da aka biya don amfanin ƙwararru tare da wasu ƙarin fasalulluka akan sigar kyauta. Kari akan haka, dandamali ne na GNU / Linux, Windows da macOS.

Sigar kyauta tana baka damar ƙirƙiri, buɗewa, shiryawa da adana fayiloli a cikin asalin Autocad DXF da DWG, tare da aika ayyukan zuwa wasu tsari kamar su WMF, JPEG, PDF, PNG, SLD, SVG, TIF, da STL. Sabili da haka, yana da babban daidaito idan kun riƙe fayiloli daga wasu shirye-shiryen ...

DraftSight

3D bugu software

3D printer

Yanzu, idan kuna mamakin wanne daga cikin waɗannan shirye-shiryen ana amfani dasu don tsara abubuwa sannan kuma buga su a firintar 3D, to yakamata ku sami wasu shirye-shiryen da zaku iya amfani dasu don hakan. Na riga na ambata ɗayansu a cikin sashin da ya gabata, tunda FreeCAD ne. Bayan wannan, ku ma kuna da sauran zaɓuɓɓukan kyauta ko na buɗe kamar:

  • Tsara Injin Haske- CAD ce ta kyauta wacce RS Components da SpaceClaim Corporation suka kirkira. An tsara wannan aikin ta musamman don amfani da ƙwararru kuma don ƙirar 3D. Bugu da ƙari, yana da sauƙin amfani, tare da keɓaɓɓiyar zane mai zane wanda ya dace da masu amfani da ƙananan matsakaici.  download.
  • Zana sama- Yana da tsari mai sauƙin kyauta wanda ke samun shahararren saboda yana ba da damar zane mai sauri kuma yana da kyawawan aikace-aikace a tsarin zane-zane. Haɗin sa yana tushen yanar gizo, don haka ana iya amfani dashi daga tsarin daban-daban, yana ba da izinin fitarwa zuwa STL don ɗab'in 3D. Samun dama.
  • TinkerCAD: Hakanan yana da aikace-aikacen gidan yanar gizo kyauta don zana ƙananan abubuwa masu sauki cikin 3D. An yi amfani dashi ko'ina cikin ilimi saboda halayensa, ana iya amfani dashi tare da abubuwan farko, kamar su cubes, spheres, cylinders, da sauransu, don samun damar haɗawa, juyawa da sanya su don ƙirƙirar fasali mai rikitarwa. Tabbas zaku iya fitarwa samfurin zuwa STL don buga 3D. Samun dama.

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