NE555: zonse za chipangizo ichi chamitundu yambiri

Ne555

Dera lophatikizika la 555 ndi chimodzi mwazinthu zodziwika bwino zomwe mungapeze pakati pa Zida zamagetsi. Zitha kubwera m'njira zosiyanasiyana, monga NE555, NE555C, LMC555, TLC555, A555, MC1455, LM555, etc. Chifukwa chomwe ndi chimodzi mwazodziwika kwambiri ndi kusinthasintha kwake, komanso kuchuluka kwa mapulogalamu omwe angagwiritsidwe ntchito, monga mukuwonera apa.

Mu bukhuli muphunzira chilichonse chomwe mungafune pa chip ichi, komanso momwe mungagwiritsire ntchito ntchito zanu zamtsogolo, malingaliro ogula mtengo wotsika mtengo, ndi zina zotero.

Kodi NE555 ndi chiyani?

555

NE555, kapena kungoti 555, ndi IC yogwiritsidwa ntchito kupanga ma pulses, oscillations kapena ngati chowerengera. Chifukwa chake, itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati oscillator, kupanga kuchedwa, etc. Mutha kuzipeza m'maphukusi osiyanasiyana, ngakhale zodziwika bwino ndi 8-pin DIP (pali mitundu 14 ya pini), ngakhale itha kukhalanso mu phukusi lachitsulo lozungulira komanso mu SMD yokwera pamwamba.

Ndizothekanso kupeza mitundu ya NE555 yokhala ndi mowa wotsika, komanso ngakhale Mabaibulo awiri. M'mitundu iwiriyi, mabwalo awiri ofanana amaphatikizidwa mkati, okhala ndi mapini kuwirikiza kawiri ndipo nthawi zambiri amadziwika kuti 2.

Pamlingo waukadaulo, derali liyenera kukhala loyendetsedwa mosalekeza ndi voliyumu ya Vcc, ndipo zotulutsa zake zimatha kukhala ndi mphamvu yapano kuti ikhale gawo lophatikizika. M'malo mwake, chip ichi chikhoza ngakhale molunjika pagalimoto amapatsirana ndi maulendo ena othamanga kwambiri popanda kufunikira kwa zigawo zina zowonjezera. Koma, pamafunika chiwerengero chochepa cha zigawo zakunja kuti zitheke kugwira ntchito (kulamulidwa).

Ambiri adzadabwa kuti ndi chiyani zomwe zili mkati mwa dera lophatikizika ili. Mkati mwa NE555, monga tikuwonera pachithunzi chapitachi, pali chithunzi cha block chokhala ndi ziwiri Amplifiers ogwira ntchito zokwezedwa ngati zofananira, mtundu wa RS bistable circuit womwe umagwiritsa ntchito zomwe sizinachitike, chotchingira chotulutsa chothandizira kuti chithandizire zomwe zikuchitika pano, ndi transistor yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito kutulutsa capacitor yakunja pakuwunika nthawi.

Kumbali inayi, palinso 3 zotsutsa zamkati zomwe zimakhala ndi udindo wokhazikitsa milingo yolozera za kulowetsa kwa inverter ya ntchito yoyamba, komanso yosasintha yachiwiri, pa 2/3 ndi 1/3 ya voteji Vcc motsatana. Ponena za mphamvu yamagetsi ya terminal 6, ikadutsa 2/3 yamagetsi operekera kapena Vcc, ndiye kuti zotulukazo zimafika pamlingo wapamwamba kwambiri (1) ndipo zimayikidwa pagawo la bistable R, kotero zotuluka zosagwirizana zimapita ku 1, kudzaza transistor ndikuyamba kutulutsa kwa capacitor yakunja. Nthawi yomweyo, kutulutsa kwa 555 kumatsika (0).

En ena op amp, ngati voteji yomwe ikugwiritsidwa ntchito ku inverting inverting igwera pansi pa 1/3 ya Vcc, kutulutsa kwa amplifier kumapita kumtunda wapamwamba (1), motero kudyetsa kulowetsa kwa bistable S, kupititsa patsogolo kutsika kwake (0), kuzimitsa transistor. ndikupangitsa kuti kutulutsa kwa NE555 kukwera kwambiri (1).

Pomaliza, palinso a kukonzanso kwa terminal pa pini 4, yolumikizidwa ndi kulowetsa kwa R1 kwa bistable flip flop. Pini iyi ikatsegulidwa kuti ikhale yotsika (0), imatha kubweza zotulutsa za NE555 kukhala zotsika (0) nthawi iliyonse ikafunika kukonzanso.

Zithunzi za NE555

ndi Zithunzi za NE555, ngakhale zingasiyane kutengera matembenuzidwe ake ndi wopanga, zodziwika bwino ndizomwe mumapeza:

  • Vcc kapena voliyumu yowonjezera: 4.5 mpaka 15V (pali Mabaibulo mpaka 2V). The 5V ndi n'zogwirizana ndi TTL logic banja.
  • Zolowetsa panopa (Vcc +5v): 3 ku 6m
  • Zolowetsa panopa (Vcc 5v): 10 ku 15m
  • Kutulutsa kochuluka: 500 mA
  • Mphamvu zambiri zidathetsedwa: 600 mA
  • Kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zochepa: 30mW@5V ndi 225mW@15V
  • Mtundu wa kutentha kwa ntchito: 0ºC mpaka 70ºC. Kukhazikika kwafupipafupi ndi 0,005% pa ºC.

Chithunzi cha NE555

NE555

NE555, mu phukusi lake lodziwika bwino, ili ndi 8 pin. pinout ndi:

  • GND(1): ndiye mzati woipa wamagetsi, omwe nthawi zambiri amapita pansi.
  • Kuwombera kapena kuyambitsa (2): Pini iyi imayika chiyambi cha nthawi yochedwa ngati itakonzedwa ngati monostable. Pini iyi ikangokhala ndi 1/3 yamagetsi operekera, choyambitsa chidzachitika.
  • Kutuluka kapena kutuluka (3): ndipamene zotsatira za timer zimapezedwa, kaya zili zokhazikika, zokhazikika, ndi zina zotero.
  • Yambitsaninso kapena yambitsaninso (4): Ngati ipita pansi pa 0.7 volts, imakokera pini yotsika. Ngati pini iyi sikugwiritsidwa ntchito, iyenera kulumikizidwa ndi mphamvu kuti chowerengera chisakhazikikenso.
  • Kuwongolera kapena kuwongolera magetsi (5): Pamene NE555 ali mumalowedwe voteji Mtsogoleri, voteji pa pini amasiyana Vcc pafupifupi 0V. Mwanjira imeneyi ndizotheka kusintha nthawi, kapena kukonzedwanso kuti mupange ma ramp pulses.
  • Mphepete mwa mtsinje kapena malo (6): ndi pini yolowera ya wofananira wamkati yemwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kukoka zotulutsa zotsika.
  • Tsitsani kapena kutulutsa (7): Amagwiritsidwa ntchito potulutsa capacitor yakunja yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito powerengera nthawi.
  • Vdc (8): ndi magetsi operekera, malo omwe chip chimadyetsedwa ndi ma voltages kuyambira 4.5v mpaka 16v.

Nthawi zonse kumbukirani werengani zidziwitso za wopanga, popeza pangakhale kusiyana pakati pa zinthu zosiyanasiyana za 555. Komanso, onetsetsani kuti mukugwiritsa ntchito chip molondola, pozindikira kuti notch yomwe ili kutsogolo ikuyang'ana kuti ifanane ndi pinout iyi.

Mbiri ya 555

Dera la 555 kapena NE555 linali yopangidwa ndi Hans R. Camenzind mu 1971. Panthawiyo ndinali ndikugwira ntchito ku Signetics (pano ndi NXP Semiconductors). Hans anali kale ndi luso muzochita zamtunduwu, zomwe zidapangidwa kale ndi amplifiers pulse wide modulation (PWM) pazida zomvera, analinso ndi chidwi ndi ma PLL, ndi zina zambiri.

Camenzind angapemphe kuti ma Signetics apange kuzungulira dziko kutengera ma PLL ndipo amafunsa oyang'anira kampani kuti adzipangire yekha, pogwiritsa ntchito zida zakampani kuti achepetse malipiro ake pakati. Woyang'anira malonda wa kampaniyo adavomereza pempholi, ngakhale kuti anzake a kampaniyo adanena kuti ntchito zamtsogolo za 555 zikhoza kusinthidwa ndi tchipisi zina zomwe zilipo.

Ntchitoyo idzatenga manambala 5xx operekedwa ku ma analogi IC. Ndipo potsiriza chiwerengero chidzasankhidwa 555. Chojambula choyamba chidzasinthidwa mu 1971 ndipo, ngakhale kuti panalibe zolakwika, chinali ndi mapini 9. Camenzind anali ndi lingaliro logwiritsa ntchito chopinga chachindunji m'malo mwa gwero lanthawi zonse ndikuchepetsa kufunikira kwa mapini mpaka 8 yapano.

Mapangidwe ogwira ntchito okhala ndi mapini 8 angawononge a yachiwiri kapangidwe ndemanga ndipo chitsanzocho chinayambitsidwa mu October 1971. Mmodzi mwa akatswiri a Signetics omwe analipo pakuwunika koyamba adatha kupeza kampani ina ndikupanga ma 9-pin version. Panthawiyi, Signetics anayamba kupanga ndi kugulitsa NE555 atangotha ​​kumene. Mu 1972 idapangidwa ndi makampani 12 ndipo idakhala imodzi mwamagawo ogulitsidwa kwambiri.

Zithunzi za NE555

Entre Zithunzi za NE555 pali zowerengera nthawi kapena nthawi yolondola. Ngakhale poyambilira idawonetsedwa ngati kuchedwa kozungulira, posakhalitsa idapeza ntchito zosawerengeka monga ngati oscillator wokhazikika, jenereta wa ramp, sequential timer, ndi zina zambiri. Umu ndi momwe idakhalira imodzi mwama chips omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri ngakhale lero.

555 zosintha

ndi Zithunzi za NE555 amapangidwa ndi mndandanda wa ma capacitors ndi resistors olumikizidwa ndi zikhomo zawo. Mwanjira imeneyi mutha kusintha nthawi kapena machitidwe a IC iyi. Nazi zina mwazokonda zodziwika bwino:

  • Monostable kasinthidwe: Pankhaniyi, zotsatira za NE555 poyamba zidzakhala 0 (otsika mlingo), ndipo transistor adzakhala odzaza kuteteza capacitor C1 kulipira. Ngati batani ikanikizidwa, voteji yotsika imayikidwa pa choyambitsacho ndipo imapangitsa kuti flip-flop isinthe ndipo zotulukazo zipite ku 1 (mkulu). Zikatero, transistor yamkati imasiya kuyendetsa ndipo capacitor C1 imayimbidwa kudzera pa resistor R1. Mphamvu ya capacitor ikadutsa 2/3 ya voliyumu yamagetsi (Vcc), bistable imasintha mawonekedwe ake ndipo zotuluka zimabwerera ku 0.

  • Wokhazikika: mu kasinthidwe ena, pamene agwirizanitsidwa ndi magetsi, capacitor imatulutsidwa, ndipo zotsatira za NE555 zimapita kumtunda wapamwamba (1) mpaka capacitor ifika 2/3 ya Vcc ndi katundu wake. Nthawi yomweyo, RS flip-flop imasintha mulingo ndipo kutulutsa kwa 555 kumakhala 0 kapena kutsika. Nthawi yomweyo, capacitor C1 (kapena C pachithunzichi) imayamba kutulutsa kudzera pa resistor R2 ndipo ikafika 1/3 yamagetsi operekera, imayambanso kulipiritsa ndi zina zotere pomwe zoperekazo zikusungidwa.

wokhazikika

Pogwiritsa ntchito capacitor yomwe imatenga nthawi yofanana kuti ipereke ndalama kuti itulutse, kusinthika kwa mafunde a astable symmetric kungapezeke.
  • Kusintha kwa kukonzanso: ngati mukufuna kukonzanso dera, mutha kulumikiza chosinthira chokhazikitsanso molunjika ku mtengo wabwino kapena kusunga mulingo wapamwamba pogwiritsa ntchito chopinga. batani lomwe likuwonetsedwa pachithunzi chotsatira litatsegulidwa, NE555 idzakhala ndi zotuluka pa 0 ikafunidwa. Zili ngati kuyambitsanso chowerengera kapena kuchiyika kuti chigone.

  • Pulse Width Modulation (PWM): chizindikiro chosinthika chingagwiritsidwe ntchito pazitsulo zowongolera za NE555, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti phokoso liwonjezeke m'lifupi pamene mlingo wamagetsi ukuwonjezeka. Kuthamanga kungathenso kupangidwa kuti ifike ndikuchedwa pang'ono pamene voteji yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito pazitsulo zowongolera ikuwonjezeka kapena kuchepa.

Chithunzi cha NE555PWM

 

Komwe mungagule NE555 yotsika mtengo

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