1n4148: duk game da diode na gaba ɗaya

diode 1n4148

Akwai nau'ikan diodes na semiconductor, tare da aikace -aikace iri -iri. Daga madaidaitan diodes, ta hanyar Zener, zuwa LEDs waɗanda ke fitar da haske. A cikin wannan labarin muna sha'awar bangaren lantarki kankare, the 1n4148 babban manufar diode. Zai zama wanda muke bincika dangane da halayensa kuma za mu nuna wasu aikace -aikacen da za su yiwu.

1n4148 shine a ƙaramin siliki da ke ɓoye manyan asirin da ya kamata ku sani. Bangaren da zai iya ba da gudummawa da yawa ga ayyukanku idan kuna son DIY na lantarki ko kuma ku masu yin ...

Menene semiconductor diode?

diode 1n4148

Un diode shine na'urar semiconductor wanda ke aiki azaman canjin yanayi mai ƙarfi da hanya ɗaya don halin yanzu. Kodayake akwai banbanci, kamar LED ko IR diode, wanda ke fitar da igiyar lantarki. A cikin akwati na farko, hasken da ake gani na wasu launi, ko hasken infrared. A gefe guda, a cikin wannan labarin, tunda zamuyi magana game da 1n4148, kawai muna sha'awar waɗanda ke aiki azaman masu kawo cikas a yanzu.

Kalmar diode ta fito ne daga Girkanci, kuma tana nufin "hanyoyi biyu". Duk da wannan, abin da yake yi ya kasance akasin haka, wato, yana toshe kwararar halin yanzu zuwa ɗayan shugabanci. Koyaya, idan an yaba halayyar sifar IV ta diode, ana iya ganin cewa ta ƙunshi yankuna biyu daban. A ƙasa da takamaiman bambance -bambancen zai yi kama da kewaye (ba a gudanar da shi), kuma a sama da shi kamar ɗan gajeren da'irar tare da ƙarancin juriya na lantarki.

Waɗannan diodes suna da ƙungiyar na iri biyu na semiconductor P da N. Kuma suma suna da tashoshin haɗi guda biyu, anode (m terminal) da cathode (negative terminal). Dangane da hanyar da ake amfani da halin yanzu, ana iya bambanta jeri biyu:

  • Polarization kai tsaye: lokacin da kwararar ruwa ta wuce. Kuskuren batirin ko ƙarfin wutan lantarki yana tunkude ronsan electrons na kyauta daga N crystal kuma ana tura electrons zuwa mahaɗin PN. Tabbataccen madaidaicin batir ko tushe yana jan hankalin electrons valence daga P crystal (yana tura ramuka zuwa mahadar PN). Lokacin yuwuwar bambancin da ke tsakanin tashoshin tashoshi ya fi yuwuwar yuwuwar canjin cajin sararin samaniya, electrons masu kyauta a cikin N crystal suna samun isasshen kuzari don tsalle cikin ramukan da ke cikin kristal P da gudanawar yanzu.
  • Juyawar polarization: lokacin da yake aiki azaman insulator kuma baya bada izinin kwarara ruwa. A wannan yanayin, polarization zai zama akasin haka, wato, tushen zai samar da kishiyar, yana haifar da isasshen wutar lantarki ya shiga ta yankin P kuma ya tura electrons cikin ƙwai. Tabbataccen madaidaicin batirin zai jawo hankalin electrons daga yankin N, kuma wannan zai haifar da tsiri wanda zai yi aiki azaman insulator tsakanin mahada.
A nan muna mai da hankali kan nau'in diodes ɗaya. Abun ya bambanta da photodiodes ko LEDs, da sauransu.

An halicci waɗannan sassan bisa ƙa'idar Gwajin Lee De Forest. Na farko da ya fara bayyana sune manyan bawuloli ko kuma bututu. Ampoules na gilashin Thermionic tare da jerin wayoyin lantarki waɗanda ke aiki azaman waɗannan na'urori, amma suna fitar da zafi mai yawa, cinyewa da yawa, babba, kuma suna iya lalacewa kamar fitilun wuta. Don haka an yanke shawarar maye gurbinsa da abubuwan haɗin gwiwa na jihar (semiconductors).

Aplicaciones

Diodes, kamar 1n4148, suna da taron na aikace-aikace. Su shahararrun na'urori ne a cikin da'irar lantarki na yanzu kai tsaye da kuma a wasu madaidaitan na yanzu. A zahiri, mun riga mun ga yadda ake shiga wutar lantarki sun cika wani aiki mai mahimmanci yayin tafiya daga AC zuwa DC. Wannan shine yanayin su a matsayin masu gyara, tunda suna canza siginar sinusoidal na yanzu don mai ci gaba ta hanyar bugun jini ta hanyar toshe halin yanzu a kishiyar hanya.

Suna kuma iya aiki azaman masu sauya wutar lantarki, azaman masu kare da'ira, azaman janareto, da dai sauransu.

Diode iri

Za'a iya rarrabe diode gwargwadon ƙarfin da suke jurewa, ƙarfin, kayan (misali: silicon), da sauran halaye. Wasu daga mafi mahimmanci iri Su ne:

  • Mai binciken diode: an san su da ƙaramin sigina ko lamba. An tsara su don amfani tare da maɗaukaki masu ƙarfi da ƙarancin ƙarfi. Kuna iya samun su duka daga germanium (ƙofar 0.2 zuwa 0.3 volts) da silicon (ƙofar 0.6 zuwa 0-7 volts). Dangane da doping na yankunan P da N za su sami juriya daban -daban da halayen lalata.
  • Rectifier diode: suna tuki ne kawai a cikin rarrabuwa kai tsaye, kamar yadda na yi bayani a baya. Ana amfani da su don canza voltages ko gyara sigina. Hakanan zaka iya samun nau'ikan daban -daban, tare da juriya daban -daban dangane da ƙarfin lantarki na yanzu da goyan baya.
  • Zener diode: wani nau'in shahararre ne. Suna ba da izinin kwararar ruwa a halin yanzu kuma galibi ana amfani da su azaman na'urorin sarrafawa. Idan sun nuna son kai kai tsaye za su iya nuna hali kamar diode na al'ada.
  • LED: diode mai ba da haske ya bambanta da na baya, tunda abin da yake yi yana canza wutar lantarki zuwa haske. Wannan saboda godiya ne ga tsarin lantarki wanda ramuka da electrons ke sake haɗawa don samar da wannan haske lokacin da aka watsa shi kai tsaye.
  • Schottky diodeAn san su da saurin murmurewa ko masu ɗaukar zafi. Galibi ana yin su da siliki kuma ana rarrabe su da ƙaramin ƙarfin lantarki (<0.25v kimanin). Wato, lokacin sauyawa zai yi ɗan gajere.
  • Schockley diode: Duk da kamanceceniya da sunan, ya bambanta da na baya. Yana da haɗin PNPN kuma yana da jahohi biyu masu tsayayyiyar yanayi (toshewa ko babban rashin ƙarfi da gudanarwa ko rashin ƙarancin ƙarfi).
  • Diode farfadowa na Mataki (SRD): Hakanan an san shi da ajiyar caji, kuma yana da ikon adana cajin bugun jini mai kyau da amfani da mummunan bugun siginar sinusoidal.
  • Ramin diode: Hakanan ana kiranta da Esaki, ana amfani da su azaman masu saurin sauyawa mai ƙarfi kamar yadda zasu iya aiki a nanoseconds. Wancan saboda wani yanki ne mai raguwa mai ƙyalƙyali da lanƙwasa inda yankin juriya mara kyau ke raguwa yayin da ƙarfin lantarki ke ƙaruwa.
  • Varactor diode: ba a san shi da na baya ba, amma kuma ana amfani da shi a wasu ayyukan. Ana amfani da varicap azaman mai sarrafa wutar lantarki mai sarrafa wutar lantarki. Yana aiki ba daidai ba.
  • Laser da IR photodiode: Diodes ne masu kama da LEDs, amma maimakon fitar da haske, suna fitar da takamaiman zanen lantarki. Kamar yadda zai iya zama hasken monochromatic (laser) ko infrared (IR).
  • Diode danne danne danne (TVS)- An ƙera shi don ƙetare ko karkatar da ƙwanƙwasa ƙarfin lantarki da kare da'irori daga wannan matsalar. Hakanan suna iya karewa daga fitowar electrostatic (ESD).
  • Diodes na zinariya: su diodes ne waɗanda ake doped ta amfani da atom na zinare. Wannan yana ba su fa'ida, kuma shine cewa suna da amsa da sauri.
  • Peltier diode: wannan nau'in sel yana ba da damar ƙungiya mai iya samar da zafi da sanyaya dangane da wane gefen. Karin bayani.
  • Dutsen dusar ƙanƙara: Suna kama da Zener, amma suna aiki a ƙarƙashin wani sabon abu da aka sani da tasirin ambaliyar ruwa.
  • wasu: akwai wasu kamar GUNN, bambance -bambancen na baya kamar OLEDs don allo, da sauransu.

1n4148 babban manufar diode

alama da alamar diode 1n4148

El Bayani na 1N4148 Yana da wani nau'i na daidaitaccen siliki mai canza diode. Yana daya daga cikin shahararrun da ake amfani da su a duniyar kayan lantarki. Hakanan yana da ɗorewa sosai, saboda yana da ƙayyadaddun bayanai masu kyau duk da ƙarancin farashi.

Sunan yana biye da Sunan JEDEC, kuma yana da matukar amfani don sauya aikace -aikacen kusan mitoci 100 Mhz tare da lokacin dawo da baya wanda yawanci baya wuce 4ns.

Historia

Texas Instruments wanda aka kirkira a cikin 1960 1n914 diode. Bayan rijistar ta shekara guda bayan haka, masana'antun sama da dozin sun sami haƙƙin mallakarsa don kera ta. A cikin 1968 1N4148 zai isa wurin rajista na JEDEC, an fara amfani da shi a aikace -aikace na soja da masana'antu a lokacin. A halin yanzu akwai da yawa waɗanda ke kera da siyar da waɗannan na’urorin duka ƙarƙashin sunan 1N4148 da ƙarƙashin 1N914. Bambance -bambancen da ke tsakanin su biyun a zahiri sunan ne kuma ƙaramin abu ne. Suna bambanta ne kawai a cikin ƙayyadaddun halin su na yanzu.

Pinout da marufi na 1n4148

1n4148 diode yawanci yana zuwa kunshe a ƙarƙashin DO-35, tare da ambulan gilashin axial. Hakanan zaka iya samun sa a wasu tsarukan kamar SOD don hawa saman, da dai sauransu.

Amma ga kuraje, kawai yana da fil biyu ko tashoshi. Idan kuka kalli raunin baƙar fata akan wannan diode, ƙarshen mafi kusa da wannan baƙar fata shine cathode, yayin da ɗayan ƙarshen zai zama anode.

Informationarin bayani - takardar bayanai

Bayani

Amma ga bayani dalla-dalla daga 1n4148, galibi sune:

  • Matsakaicin gaba ƙarfin lantarki: 1v zuwa 10mA
  • Ƙananan ƙarfin wutar lantarki da juyawa na yanzu: 75v a 5 μA; 100V a 100 μA
  • Matsakaicin lokacin dawo da bayaKu: 4ns
  • Ƙarfin wutar lantarki mafi girmaSaukewa: 500MW

Inda za a sayi 1n4148

Idan kana so saya diode 1n4148 Ya kamata ku sani cewa na’ura ce mai arha, kuma kuna iya samun ta a shagunan lantarki na musamman ko akan intanet a saman abubuwa kamar Amazon. Misali, ga wasu shawarwari:


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