GND, umhlaba, umhlaba ... Abhekisela entwenini kanye kanye loo magama? Ngaba zizithethantonye okanye kukho umahluko? Onke la mathandabuzo ayenzeka rhoqo xa ujongana nehlabathi le-elektroniki okokuqala kwaye kufuneka usebenzise zixhobo, kodwa banempendulo elula. Kweli nqaku uya kuba nako ukuqonda kakuhle ukuba zithetha ukuthini, zeziphi na kwisekethe, ukubaluleka kwazo, kwaye nokuba kukho umahluko phakathi kwamagama. Kutheni iitheminali kufuneka ziqhagamshelwe kwesi sidibanisi kwi-a ibhodi ye-arduino, Njl

## Umhlaba = umhlaba = GND?

Ayisiyiyo kuphela amagama aliqela okubhekisa kwinto enye, kodwa uya kubona neentlobo ezininzi zeesimboli ezilinganayo. Kakhulu GND, njengomhlaba, i-terminal engathathi hlangothi, njengomhlaba, zinokubhekisa kwizinto ezahluke kancinane, nangona abantu abaninzi bezisebenzisa ngokufanayo:

### Yintoni i-GND okanye umhlaba kwisekethe ye-elektroniki?

I-GND imfutshane kwi-Ground, kwiisekethe ze-elektroniki kunye nombane, ibhekisela kwindlela yokubuyisela eqhelekileyo yangoku kumthombo wombane, kwaye ngoko uvumele isiphaluka ukuba sizalise. Ungayifumana zombini kwiinkqubo zangoku ezitshintshanayo, kunye nesigaba sayo, ukungathathi hlangothi kunye nomhlaba, kunye nakwiisekethe ezithe ngqo zangoku, apho kukho izibonda ezilungileyo, ezimbi kunye nomhlaba.

Inokujongwa njengendawo yesalathiso kwisekethe yokulinganisa i-voltages, kuba yindawo engenamandla, kwaye uxhulumaniso oluthe ngqo lomzimba kumhlaba. Ukongeza, inokuba yindlela yokhuseleko, ukuze ukuba kukho uhlobo oluthile lokuvuza kwangoku kwisekethe, okanye ukukhutshwa kwemvelaphi ye-atmospheric (umbane), amandla okonakalisa anokuqukuqela emhlabeni kwaye aguqulwe ukuze angonakalisi. izixhobo.

### Yintoni ubunzima kwisixhobo?

Kuya kufuneka ulumke, kuba nangona ihlala ithathwa njengesithethantonye, ubunzima kwisixhobo sombane idla ngokuba yinto eyahlukileyo kule ibithethwa ngasentla. Kwaye kukuba kwizixhobo ezininzi ezinezindlu zentsimbi okanye isakhiwo, intambo idla ngokudityaniswa nesakhiwo esixeliweyo, ukuze ekugqibeleni idibanise nayo kunxibelelwano lomhlaba.

Ngamanye amazwi, ngu-a indlela ephantsi ye-impedance ukwenzela ukuba xa kukho ingxaki yokugquma, i-current iqukuqela kule ndlela kwaye isebenze ukhuseleko oluyimfuneko (i-fuses, i-thermals, ...), ngaloo ndlela ugweme ukubangela umonakalo kwizixhobo okanye ukuba izixhobo ziyakwazi ukucima abasebenzisi xa bezibamba.

## Iintlobo zomhlaba okanye i-GND

Zininzi iintlobo GND okanye uqhagamshelo lomhlaba xa uthetha ngeesekethe zombane:

• Umhlaba obonakalayo: ibhekisa kwisakhono somphezulu womhlaba, apho intonga yobhedu oluqhagamshelwe kuyo ucingo lomhlaba luqhutywa ukuthwala ezo volthi ziyingozi apho. Ingqikelelo enento yokwenza nokhuseleko lwabantu, kuba abasebenzisi bakwisakhono esifanayo nomhlaba xa benyathela emhlabeni. Ukuba izixhobo zinamandla afanayo, akuyi kubakho ukutshintshiselana okunokwenzeka, oko kukuthi, akuyi kubakho ukukhutshwa kombane.
• Umhlaba we-analog: yinkcazelo yakudala yomhlaba, kuMgangatho wesiNgesi nalapho isishunqulelo esithi GND sivela khona. Kule meko, iyindawo yokubhekisela kwisekethe ye-elektroniki kwi-0 volts.

Ewe, kusenokwenzeka ukuba usamile ukudideka ngakumbi… Kodwa ilula kakhulu. Gcina ukhumbule ukuba kwisekethe ye-elektroniki, zombini i-GND okanye i-classical ground, kunye nomhlaba (i-chassis okanye i-casing), kufuneka idibaniswe phantsi. Nangona kunjalo, kukho iimeko apho umhlaba kunye nomhlaba zingenawo amandla ombane afanayo kwisekethe, kwaye i-waveform inokuguquguquka, njengakwi-Buck converters.

## Kuthekani ngezixhobo ze-elektroniki?

Njengoko usenokuba ubonile, izinto ezininzi ze-elektroniki zineetheminali enye okanye ezingaphezulu eziphawulwe njenge GND. Ezi terminals kufuneka ziqhagamshelwe kumhlaba kwisekethe eziya kubekwa kuyo, kungenjalo aziyi kusebenza okanye zingonakaliswe. Yiyo loo nto kubalulekile ukufunda i-database yomenzi ukwazi i-pinout kwaye wenze unxibelelwano oluchanekileyo. Ngokomzekelo, kwimeko yalo mfanekiso womfanekiso, ngokomgaqo izikhonkwane ezivelisayo zeprojekthi ziya kuba yi-DQ kunye ne-Vdd, oko kukuthi, lowo uya kubonelela ngedatha efundwa yinzwa kunye nokunikezelwa kwenzwa. Nangona kunjalo, kufuneka uqhagamshele i-GND, okanye ayizukusebenza ...

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