I-RTOS: iyini isistimu yokusebenza yesikhathi sangempela

izifunda pcb ezishumekiwe

Ezinsukwini ezimbalwa ezedlule ngenze isingeniso mayelana nama-STR, isistimu yokusebenza yamarobhothi, nakuba ingeyona i-OS ncamashi njengoba iqondwa kukhompyutha, kodwa kunalokho kuwuhlaka lwe abathuthukisi be-robotics. Manje sekuyithuba lika I-RTOS, okungelona uhlelo lokusebenza noma, kodwa uhlobo oluthile kakhulu lwesistimu yokusebenza.

Lezi zinhlelo zokusebenza zibaluleke kakhulu amadivaysi ashumekiwe noma ashumekiwe amandla amancane, njengoba ngokuvamile aphethwe yibona. Ngaphezu kwalokho, nazo zibalulekile ekusetshenzisweni kwezimboni, zokulawula izinqubo eziningi.

Iyini i-RTOS?

Un I-RTOS (Isistimu Yokusebenza Yesikhathi Sangempela) Kuyinto, njengoba negama layo liphakamisa, isistimu yokusebenza yesikhathi sangempela. Lokhu kuyahluka kumasistimu okusebenza okwabelana ngesikhathi ngoba usebenza endaweni lapho imiphumela yokuphumayo yaziwa khona ngokusekelwe kokokufaka kwesistimu, futhi kwenzeka ngesikhathi esaziwayo. Ngakho-ke, zibikezeleka kakhulu futhi zizinzile ukuze zilawule imisebenzi ethile, futhi izinqubo zivame ukuhlala unomphela enkumbulweni (ezinqubweni zokwabelana kwesikhathi, umhleli uyalayisha futhi akhiphe kumemori enkulu njengoba kudingeka).

Por ejemplo, cabanga nge-RTOS esetshenziselwa umshini wezimboni emgqeni womhlangano. Kungaba ophethe ukusebenzisa isoftware ukubhola izingxenye ngezikhathi ezithile. Uma umhleli wesistimu yokusebenza engasebenzi ngesikhathi sangempela, kungenzeka ukuthi uzosebenza ngezikhathi ezingavamile, okungabangela ukuthi ukubhoboza kungenziwa ngesikhathi ... Njengoba isikhathi sangempela, i-RTOS ingaqeda ukuqaliswa kohlelo. ngesikhathi esingu-X bese uphinda ukukhishwa kwayo ukuze wenze konke ukubhola ngesikhathi.

Vele, njengoba iwuhlelo olusebenzayo, iphinde yabelane ngezisekelo zanoma iyiphi enye i-OS, okungukuthi, iwuhlelo olukwazi ukwenza phatha ihadiwe futhi unikeze uchungechunge lwezinsizakalo ezinhlelweni zokusebenza.

Izinhlobo ze-RTOS

Kuneziningana izinhlobo amasistimu wokusebenza wesikhathi sangempela noma i-RTOS:

  • Isikhathi Sangempela Esinzima: Kuwuhlelo oluqinile lwesikhathi sangempela, lapho izinqubo zalo kufanele zenziwe ngesikhathi esithile.
  • Isikhathi Sangempela Esithambile: isikhathi sangempela esiguquguqukayo, lapho lapho kwenziwa izinqubo cishe izikhathi ezinganakwa zingalahleka ngezinye izikhathi, okungukuthi, aziqinile njengangaphambili. Ngaphezu kwalokho, zenzelwe ukuthi lezi zifundo zesikhathi ziya ngokuya zibe zincane.
  • Isikhathi Sangempela Esiqinile: Ama-SSOO esikhathi sangempela angolunye uhlobo lapho kungalahleka khona isikhathi, kodwa izimpendulo zamuva ngeke zivumeleke.

Izicelo ze-RTOS

I-RTOS iwuhlelo olulula, olungasindi olusetshenziselwa amasistimu alinganiselwe noma alula, njengamadivayisi ashumekiwe. Lokhu kubenza baphelele izinhlelo zokusebenza like:

  • ukulawula izimboni.
  • Ukushintsha ifoni.
  • Ukulawula indiza.
  • Ukulingisa ngesikhathi sangempela.
  • izicelo zempi.
  • Imishini yasekhaya.
  • Imishini kagesi yabathengi eyisisekelo.
  • Amarobhothi.
  • Njll

Izimpawu ze-RTOS

I-RTOS inenombolo ye izici okuyizinto ezibanika lezo zinzuzo ngaphezu kokunye kuleyo misebenzi yokuphatha elula. Ukuze uziqonde kangcono, kuyadingeka ukwazi uchungechunge lwemiqondo eyisisekelo:

  • inqubo noma umsebenzi: iwuhlelo oluncane olusebenza ngokufana ne-RTOS. Le nqubo ingenza imisebenzi eminingi, kusukela ekulawuleni i-peripheral kuya ekwenzeni ezinye izenzo.
  • Sebenzisa: Leli igama elinikezwe isikhathi esithathwayo ukwenza inqubo.
  • Umhleli: Isihleli se-RTOS sikuvumela ukuthi uphathe izinto ezibalulekile nezikhathi zezinqubo ezikhishiwe. Futhi kunezinhlobo ezimbili eziyinhloko:
    • Ukubambisana: ibiza izinqubo ezibaluleke kakhulu kuqala futhi lapho inqubo iphela ibiza enye noma, uma inqubo ithatha isikhathi eside kunokulindelekile, iyibulale futhi ibize elandelayo.
    • okudliwayo: Ngezikhathi ezithile ibiza inqubo ngokuzenzakalelayo, kodwa lokhu kungaholela emaphutheni ngenxa yokungaqambi kahle okuhle kwezinqubo noma ukuncika. Ukuze ugweme lezi zinkinga, umqondo we-semaphores wethulwa.
  • Amalambu ezimoto: asebenza ngendlela efanayo naleyo yethrafikhi, elawula lapho inqubo iqhutshwa futhi akhubaze ukungena kwezinye izinqubo futhi, lapho ishiya izinsiza zikhululekile, inikeza "ukukhanya okuluhlaza" kokulandelayo ngena. Amanye ama-RTOS anama-semaphores amaningi, ngayinye iqondene nensiza okwabelwana ngayo.
  • Colas: zisetshenziselwa ukuxhumana phakathi kwezinqubo, njengesilondolozi, isibonelo ukugcinwa kwedatha yesikhashana noma uma kunezici ezimbalwa ezibuyisela idatha kumamukeli oyedwa.
  • Iziphazamiso: zisebenza njengalezo zezinhlelo zokusebenza zokwabelana ngesikhathi, kodwa ku-RTOS kukhona okukhethekile. Lezi zinhlobo zokuphazamiseka zisetshenziselwa ukuphathwa kwesikhathi yisilawuli.

Izibonelo ze-RTOS

Uma uzibuza ukuthi yini Izinhlelo zokusebenza ze-RTOS zikhona, iqiniso liwukuthi kunenombolo enkulu, kokubili umthombo wobunikazi novulekile:

  • Ingalo OS: isistimu yokusebenza eyenzelwe i-Cortex-M, Cortex-R, Cortex-A, futhi inelayisensi ngaphansi kwelayisensi ye-Apache 2.0.
  • eCos: ngaphansi kwelayisensi ye-GNU GPL elungisiwe, ingenye isistimu yokusebenza yomthombo ovulekile ye-ARM-XScale-Cortex-M, CalmRISC, 680×0-ColdFire, fr30, FR-V, H8, IA-32, MIPS, MN10300, OpenRISC, PowerPC , SPARC, SuperH, kanye ne-V8xx.
  • emboss: kuwuhlelo lwe-RTOS lokuphathelene, lwe-IoT nezinhlelo zokusebenza ezishumekiwe ezine-ARM7/9/11, ARM Cortex-A/R/M, AVR, AVR32, C16x, CR16C, ColdFire, H8, HCS12, M16C, M32C, MSP430, NIsOS2 achitecture , PIC18/24/32, R32C, R8C, RISC-V, RL78, RH850, RX100/200/600/700, RZ, SH2A, STM8, ST7, V850, 78K0, kanye ne-8051.
  • MahhalaRTOS: ngaphansi kwelayisensi yomthombo ovulekile we-MIT, ihloselwe ukushumekwa ne-ARM, AVR, AVR32, ColdFire, ESP32, HCS12, IA-32, Cortex-M3-M4-M7, Infineon XMC4000, MicroBlaze, MSP430, PIC, PIC32, Renesas izakhiwo ze-H8/S, RISC-V, RX100-200-600-700, 8052, STM32, TriCore, kanye ne-EFM32.
  • Fuchsia: Iwuhlelo lomthombo ovulekile oludumile olwakhiwe i-Google futhi elakhelwe ukusebenza kukho kokubili i-x86-64 ne-ARM64.
  • I-KolibriOS: uhlelo lwe-RTOS lwe-x86 ngaphansi kwelayisense yamahhala ye-GNU GPL.
  • i-lynxOS: enye i-RTOS, kodwa lena yokuphathelene, kanye nezakhiwo ezihlukene njenge-Motorola 68010, x86/IA-32, ARM, Freescale PowerPC, PowerPC 970, kanye ne-LEON. Ngaphezu kwalokho, iqinisekisiwe i-POSIX.
  • I-Neutrino: isistimu yesikhathi sangempela yokuphathelene ye-ARM, i-MIPS, i-PPC, i-SH, i-x86, ne-XScale.
  • I-Phoenix-RTOS: ngaphansi kwelayisensi ye-BSD evumelekile, ngosekelo lwe-ARMv7 Cortex-M, ARMv7 Cortex-A, IA-32, kanye nezakhiwo ze-RISC-V.
  • I-QNX: umnikazi, futhi ithandwa kakhulu. Iklanyelwe ukusekela i-x86-64, ARM32, ARM64, kanye ne-MIPS yangaphambili, PowerPC, SH-4, StrongARM, XScale.
  • Linux: Nakuba ngokuvamile isetshenziswa kumodi yokwabelana kwesikhathi, i-kernel ingaphinda isebenze njengesilinganiso se-RTOS ukuze ishumekiwe.
  • I-Windows CE y I-Windows 10 IoT: I-Microsoft inalezi zinguqulo zesikhathi sangempela zesistimu yayo yokusebenza yobunikazi.
  • I-Zephyr: ngaphansi kwelayisensi ye-Apache 2.0 kukhona nalo omunye umthombo ovulekile we-RTOS we-ARM (Cortex-M, Cortex-R kanye ne-Cortex-A Series), x86, x86-64, ARC, RISC-V, Nios II, Xtensa, ne-SPARC .

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

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